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Terms of Use

Use of this API is subject to the NatureServe Explorer Terms of Use. If you are using or displaying any data obtained through this API, you must cite NatureServe Explorer as a data source.

Get Taxon

Path

/api/data/taxon/{ouSeqUid}

Parameter Description

ouSeqUid

The taxon’s Element Global UID

HTTP request

GET /api/data/taxon/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154701 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
  "circumscripConfidence" : null,
  "classificationLevel" : {
    "id" : 17,
    "classificationLevelNameEn" : "Species",
    "classificationLevelNameEs" : null,
    "classificationLevelNameFr" : null
  },
  "classificationStatus" : {
    "id" : 1,
    "classificationStatusDescEn" : "Standard",
    "classificationStatusDescEs" : null,
    "classificationStatusDescFr" : null
  },
  "iucn" : {
    "id" : 5,
    "iucnDescEn" : "Vulnerable",
    "iucnDescEs" : null,
    "iucnDescFr" : null,
    "iucnCode" : "VU"
  },
  "nameCategory" : {
    "id" : 4,
    "nameCategoryDescEn" : "Vascular Plant",
    "nameCategoryDescEs" : null,
    "nameCategoryDescFr" : null,
    "nameTypeCd" : "P",
    "nameTypeDesc" : "Botanical"
  },
  "rankMethodUsed" : {
    "id" : 1,
    "rankMethodUsedDescEn" : "Rank calculator v.3.1x - 2011-2015 rank factors",
    "rankMethodUsedDescEs" : null,
    "rankMethodUsedDescFr" : null,
    "rankMethodUsedExternalDescEn" : null,
    "rankMethodUsedExternalDescEs" : null,
    "rankMethodUsedExternalDescFr" : null
  },
  "formattedScientificName" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>",
  "scientificName" : "Hydrastis canadensis",
  "scientificNameAuthor" : "L.",
  "primaryCommonName" : "Goldenseal",
  "relatedItisNames" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> L. (TSN 18781)",
  "uniqueId" : "ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154701",
  "elcode" : "PDRAN0F010",
  "conceptRefFullCitation" : "Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.",
  "conceptName" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>",
  "taxonomicComments" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> occurs in eastern North America and is a monotypic genus. In the most current taxonomic revision <i>Hydrastis </i>is placed in Hydrastidaceae, with one other monotypic genus, <i>Glaucidium,</i> which is restricted to Japan (Tobe 2003).",
  "roundedGRank" : "G3",
  "conservationStatusFactorsEditionDate" : "2013-04-29",
  "conservationStatusFactorsEditionAuthors" : "Oliver, L.",
  "primaryCommonNameLanguage" : "EN",
  "recordType" : "SPECIES",
  "elementNationals" : [ {
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      "nameEs" : null,
      "nameFr" : null,
      "isoCode" : "CA",
      "region" : "Canada"
    },
    "roundedNRank" : "N2",
    "elementSubnationals" : [ {
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        "subnationCode" : "ON",
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      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S2",
      "srank" : "S2",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 288768,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    } ],
    "nrank" : "N2",
    "nrankReviewYear" : 2017,
    "speciesNational" : {
      "elementNationalId" : 241912,
      "exotic" : false,
      "native" : true
    }
  }, {
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    "classifConfidence" : null,
    "nation" : {
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      "nameEn" : "United States",
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      "isoCode" : "US",
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    },
    "roundedNRank" : "N3",
    "elementSubnationals" : [ {
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      "roundedSRank" : "P1",
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    }, {
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    "nrank" : "N3N4",
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  } ],
  "lastModified" : null,
  "lastPublished" : null,
  "nsxUrl" : "/Taxon/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154701/Hydrastis_canadensis",
  "grank" : "G3G4",
  "grankReviewDate" : "2012-11-30",
  "grankChangeDate" : "2012-11-30",
  "grankReasons" : "Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis, </i>an herbaceous understory species of the eastern deciduous forest, with the core of its range in Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  It extends north into Ontario, Canada and as far south in the United States to Alabama, east to North Carolina and north to Vermont.<br /><br />Goldenseal may be best known for its use as an herbal supplement for a variety of health purposes, including as an immune booster and anti-inflammatory agent.  Its earliest known use was by indigenous people in the eastern North America and by the 1700s it was used as a digestion aid and treatment for skin imflammation (Barton 1798).   Its use is well documented from the 1800s to the present, with increasing demand through time as markets expanded beyond local usage.  The species has been primarily wild-harvested, and over-collection of the plant is a predominate threat.<br /><br />Concern due to over-collection is expressed at the national levels both in the United States and Canada. Since 1997, goldenseal has been listed in Appendix II of the Convention for International Trade on Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), to regulate international trade to ensure there is no detriment to the survival of the species in the wild.  The CITES Appendix II listing requires that exporters obtain CITES permits or certificates for international export of whole, parts and powdered roots and rhizomes of goldenseal. In Canada, goldenseal is listed as Threatened on Schedule I of the federal Species at Risk Act. <br /><br />Long-term decline since the beginning of its harvest history is evident, and short term trends are more localized, from declining to stable.  State conservation statuses range from vulnerable to critically imperiled in the periphery of the range, to uncommon and secure in the core of its range.  As of 2013, the species is state-listed as endangered, vulnerable or threatened in at least ten states.  Seven of the states within goldenseal's range do not have State plant endangered species lists or protection laws.  <br /><br />Goldenseal, from a rangewide perspective and in a classical perspective of distribution and abundance is currently uncommon to secure, however, from a more holistic conservation perspective the extent of threats, long-term trends and short-term trends demand continuous and close monitoring in both the United States and Canada.",
  "rankInfo" : {
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      "enviromentalSpecificityDescEn" : "Moderate.  Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.",
      "enviromentalSpecificityDescEs" : null,
      "enviromentalSpecificityDescFr" : null
    },
    "intrinsicVulnerability" : {
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      "intrinsicVulnerabilityDescEn" : "Moderately vulnerable",
      "intrinsicVulnerabilityDescEs" : null,
      "intrinsicVulnerabilityDescFr" : null
    },
    "longTermTrend" : {
      "id" : 32,
      "longTermTrendDescEn" : "Decline of 10-50%",
      "longTermTrendDescEs" : null,
      "longTermTrendDescFr" : null
    },
    "numberEos" : {
      "id" : 15,
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    },
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      "numberGoodEosDescEn" : "Unknown",
      "numberGoodEosDescEs" : null,
      "numberGoodEosDescFr" : null
    },
    "numberProtEos" : {
      "id" : 7,
      "numberProtEosDescEn" : "Few to several (1-12) occurrences appropriately protected and managed",
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    },
    "popSize" : {
      "id" : 33,
      "popSizeDescEn" : "10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals",
      "popSizeDescEs" : null,
      "popSizeDescFr" : null
    },
    "rangeExtent" : {
      "id" : 33,
      "rangeExtentDescEn" : "200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)",
      "rangeExtentDescEs" : null,
      "rangeExtentDescFr" : null
    },
    "shortTermTrend" : {
      "id" : 37,
      "shortTermTrendDescEn" : "Decline of <30% to relatively stable",
      "shortTermTrendDescEs" : null,
      "shortTermTrendDescFr" : null
    },
    "threatImpactAssigned" : {
      "id" : 2,
      "threatImpactAssignedDescEn" : "Very high - high",
      "threatImpactAssignedDescEs" : null,
      "threatImpactAssignedDescFr" : null
    },
    "rangeExtentComments" : "Range extent was calculated based on a map in Sinclair and Catling (2000a). Range extent is closer to 1,250,000 sq km. <br /><br />Eastern United States, northward into Ontario: southern Vermont to Ontario, west to Minnesota and south to Georgia, Alabama, and Arkansas. Common in Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, and West Virginia; uncommon around the range perimeter. The central portion of its range is and was where goldenseal was the most abundant, including Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia (Sinclair and Catling 2000a). Christensen and Gorchov (2010) describe the core part of the historical range as the Ohio River Valley.",
    "areaOfOccupancy" : null,
    "areaOfOccupancyComments" : "A lower end for area of occupancy was estimated based on the number of occurrences in NatureServe's database. As of 2012, there were approximately 700 occurrences in the United States and Canada documented in NatureServe's data, and an upper limit of 12,500 4-km grid cells.",
    "numberEosComments" : "USA: 1000+ extant occurrences globally. Alabama: 14; Arkansas: 100s; Connecticut: 6, Delaware: 26;Georgia: 15; Kansas (no occurrences delineated), Kentucky: &gt;100; Illinois: 100s; Indiana: 59; Iowa: 21; Massachusetts: 4, Maryland: 19; Michigan: 91; Minnesota: 14; Mississippi: 5; Missouri: 100s; New York: 22; North Carolina: 31; New Jersey: 2; Ohio: many; Pennsylvania: 17; Vermont: 5; Tennessee: 154; West Virginia: many; Wisconsin: &gt;100 CANADA: Ontario (22) (NatureServe Element Occurrence data 2012). Element occurrence data not available for Virginia. Since many states do not actively track this species, and because it is clonal, population numbers are not well known. Arkansas, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Ohio, and West Virginia likely have the highest number of plants.",
    "popSizeComments" : "Populations are typically between several stems to several hundred ramets (i.e. vegetative stems emerging from one parental plant) (Sanders and McGraw 2005, Sinclair and Catling 2000, Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).  In Ohio, it is estimated that 62% of populations contain fewer than 200 ramets, 10% had between 200 and 1,000 ramets and 28% had more than 1,000 ramets (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).  The majority of populations in Ohio are small.  <br />Research in West Virginia, one of the core range states, on larger-scale habitat requirements, or mesotopographic distribution patterns, found patches of goldenseal to be very diffuse across the landscape (McGraw et al. 2005).",
    "viabilityComments" : null,
    "threatImpactComments" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis, </i>Goldenseal, a medicinal herb, is threatened primarily by removal of habitat, decline in habitat quality, wild-collection and deer browsing.<br /><br />Habitat destruction is a primary threat throughout its range, as reported by Sinclair and Catling (2000a) only 5% of forested habitat that supports goldenseal in Canada remains, in many personal communications with Natural Heritage Botanists in 2012 and throughout New England (Tait 2006). It is surmised that local extinctions in Ohio were the result of urban sprawl (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004). The interaction and compounding intensification of over-collection and habitat loss, should not be overlooked. Albrecht and McCarthy (2006) suggest that observations by botanists of population disappearance in the early 19th century documented this co-occurrence of threats. It is also suggested that the combination of these two threats may reduce or reverse positive efforts of stewardship, or 'managed' populations (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006). It should also be recognized that the combined interaction of these threats may be increasing the rate of decline in areas of its range where these two threats are actively occurring.<br /><br /><br />Goldenseal has been cultivated for 100+ years throughout its range and historically most of the trade domestically and internationally comes from wild harvested plants (Christensen and Gorchov 2010). In recent years there has been an apparent shift. The CITES Trade Database (200-2013) indicates that much of the material in international trade, and all in 2003, which is legal is from cultivated plants. The market for goldenseal is expected to grow at a rate of 5% to 10% annually, and the market for high quality cultivated material is expected to grow 10 to 15% annually (Greenfield and David 2012).<br /><br />Cultivated goldenseal makes p a large portion of domestic trade according to the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA), however, the amount of wild-harvested rhizome that is collected and traded in the United States is unknown. In Indiana, collection pressure has intensified dramatically over the last 10 years, based on the number of inquiries by herbal diggers in the state (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources). Along with the increased demand for goldenseal in Indiana, according to State officials, it is evident that herbal diggers that are harvesting wild goldenseal in July and August are also harvesting American ginseng (<i>Panax quinquefolius)</i> outside the legal harvest season that has not yet had a chance to reproduce (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources). Law enforcement officials in Indiana are concerned for the species due to the amount being shipped from the state, and while there are no quantitative data on population declines in Indiana (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources), declines seem likely. Collection pressure in parts of the species' range where unemployment is high is incentivized by prices paid for wild-collected roots/rhizomes in the herbal market (McGraw et al. 2003). Studies suggest that if as little as 10% of the plants from a population are removed by collected annually, that the population will go extinct over time (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).<br /><br />Invasive species is also a threat, including pressure from both non-native plants. White-tailed deer browse is also a threat in Ohio (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004) and in other parts of the range.<br /><br />Further threats as noted by state Natural Heritage Botanists:<br />Alabama: Incompatible forestry practices appear to be the foremost concern, with invasive species of secondary importance (Al Schotz, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Arkansas: Unknown (Theo Witsell, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Connecticut: Invasive species and canopy closure. Severity of the threats is unknown (Nelson DeBarros &amp; Nancy Murray, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Delaware: Invasive species and deer browse (William A. McAvoy, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Indiana: Not known, but collecting and habitat destruction likely (Michael Homoya, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Kansas: Unknown (Craig C. Freeman, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Kentucky: The current threats are land conversion/development, collection, and high deer populations (Deborah White, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Massachusetts: This plant has never been common in Massachusetts, populations are very small and threatened by herbivory (Bryan Connolly, pers. comm., 2012)<br />Michigan: Collecting and habitat destruction (M.R. Penskar et al. 2001).<br />Minnesota: Invasive species (such as garlic mustard and buckthorn) continue to be discovered in the greater area of goldenseal's range in Minnesota. This will likely be a rising threat to populations in the long-term (Derek Anderson, Welby Smith, &amp; Nancy Sather, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Missouri: Current threats are over harvesting, particularly on public land. (Malissa Underwood, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Mississippi: In the Loess Bluff Physiographic Province, rapid subdivision development is encroaching into the habitat of goldenseal. One population has already probably been extirpated by a \"Loess Bluff Restoration Project\" associated with a housing development. In the Pontotoc Ridge Physiographic Province, the private land owner is considering developing the land as a new subdivision(Heather Sullivan, pers. comm., 2012).<br />New York: It is collected for medicinal purposes but so far there is no evidence that it is being over-collected in New York. There is a moderate threat from habitat destruction, especially in the Lower Hudson area. Exotic species like garlic mustard and bush honeysuckle threaten its understory habitat (Steve Young, pers. comm., 2012).<br />North Carolina: Poaching and effects of climate change (drought, increased temperatures, wind damage, invasive species) (Laura Gadd, pers. comm., 2012).<br />New York: It is collected for medicinal purposes but so far there is no evidence that it is being over-collected in New York. There is a moderate threat from habitat destruction, especially in the Lower Hudson area. Exotic species like garlic mustard and bush honeysuckle threaten its understory habitat (Steve Young, pers. comm. 2012).<br />Ohio: Some threats include development, recreation, roads and associated maintenance, resource extraction and processing (timber, oil, renewable energy), agriculture, and non-native species (Rick Gardner, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Ontario: Possibly lack of disturbance at some sites (Sinclair &amp; Catling 1998) (Michael J. Oldham, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Pennsylvania: Invasive species, succession (more coming in later report), and gas development (Chris Firestone, pers. comm., 2012.)<br />Tennessee: Timber operations and ATV trails are the main threats (Todd Crabtree, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Virginia: Mostly unknown, but harvest and development are likely threats (John Townsend, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Vermont: Invasives, development, and climate change. (Bob Popp &amp; Aaron Marcus, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Wisconsin: Forest conversion is likely the largest historical threat. Forest fragmentation and development is likely the largest current threat with invasive plants and earthworm likely causing significant impacts, especially for spread by seed. Leaf herbivory is unknown, but deer populations are high in the known region. Fruit herbivory and seed destruction is also unknown, but turkeys and rodents may be causing destruction of seed or placement in inappropriate habitat. Possible threats by logging, although the level of logging in the southern part of the state where it is found is relatively low, especially in the southeast. Impacts of harvest are unknown. We do not receive any harvest data and reports of sales to ginseng dealers is erratic. It would be fairly simple to survey ginseng dealers and ask them about amounts and trends in goldenseal harvest. Dealers may also have a sense if it is generally being harvested sustainably. (Kevin Doyle, Assistant Botanist &amp; Ryan O'Connor, Assistant Ecologist, Kelly Kearns, pers. comm., 2012).<br /><br />West Virginia: Wild harvest (P.J. Harmon, pers. comm., 2012).",
    "shortTermTrendComments" : "It is known that the rhizome of <i>Hydrastis canadensis </i>is wild-collected for medicinal uses.  Short term trend information is available from a few sources. There is decline in some populations due to wild-collection and habitat loss. Wild-collection in Canada is prohibited.  Overall population decline is evidenced through fewer populations present, fewer patches per population, and fewer ramets per patch (Sanders and McGraw 2005). Rangewide, or state-by-state, abundance information for goldenseal is unknown, which is typical of most wild-harvested plant species (McGraw et al. 2003).  Abundance and short-term trends in the core range states, in terms of both population size (numbers) and patches, is not available because it is not state-protected, and hence not monitored closely.  There are studies and observations for a few jurisdictions.<br /><br />Canada:<br />Population studies in Ontario, Canada detected no declines between 1991 and 1998.  Some patches may have been increasing while others were decreasing (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  The rate of expansion over several decades in Ontario is considered slight and slow, and possibly because of lack of disturbance given that populations in areas with some disturbance (greater light and nutrient resources) had highly variable growth rates (Sinclair and Catling 2002).<br /><br />United States:<br />In West Virginia, evidence of poaching was documented near Morgantown, West Virginia (Sanders and McGraw 2005), however, it is widely known that the rhizome is collected for trade in the medicinal market.  <br /><br />In Ohio, a core range state, recent short-term declines of approximately 30% were detected in goldenseal (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004, pers. comm. Gorchov 2012). Of 42 sites documented in Ohio from 1977-1998, 14 of these were extirpated as of 2002, if the rate of decline is constant, approximately 1.6% of populations are expected to be extirpated each year, and approximately a 30% decline over 20 years (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004, pers. comm. Gorchov 2012). <br /><br />In New York, recent studies have shown on-going extirpations as the distribution was reduced from 14 counties to 12 counties, due to habitat loss (Tait 2006).<br /><br />In Indiana, another core-range state, a dramatic increase in the amount of goldenseal harvested over the past 10 years has occurred, and law enforcement officials have expressed concern for the species due to the tonnage being shipped from the state (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources).  Even though quantitative information about trends in Indiana do not exist, sharp increases in collection over 10 years suggest that a decline is very likely in this slow growing perennial.  A study described the growth rate of goldenseal as 'slight' (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).<br /><br />Some information about short-term trends is available from state Natural Heritage botanists.  Alabama (pers. comm. A. Schotz 2012) and Ohio (pers. comm. R. Gardner 2012) have had short term declines and West Virginia (pers. comm. P. Harmon) may also have short term declines. Botanists from the following states; AR, DE, KY, MO, MS, NC, NY, PA, TN, and VT say that the species is stable to slightly declining in their state.",
    "longTermTrendComments" : "Since the mid 1800s, populations throughout goldenseal's range have dramatically declined due to collection for medicinal uses and habitat destruction (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).  There is anecdotal evidence that during the 19th century as botanists noticed the decline and loss of goldenseal populations because of market demand and loss of habitat, greater pressure on managed or previously unharvested populations intensified (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006).  Once-abundant populations were decimated, and the distribution of this widespread species was reduced to isolated, scattered patches (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004, CITES 1991, Lloyd and Lloyd 1884-1885 in Foster 1991, Henkel and Klugh 1904).<br /><br />Loss of habitat is another primary threat both in United States (Tait 2006) and Canada (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  There are only remnants of the woodlands remaining where this species occurs in Canada: less than 5% of these forests remain from presettlement times (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  Similarly, in New England during the 1800s, forest conversion, from forested lands to agriculture and settlement, reached its height and approximately 80% of the originally forested land was lost (Tait 2006).  In addition, many Ohio populations have gone extinct (Christensen and Gorchov 2010).  A study by Mulligan and Gorchov (2004) assessed the status of 71 historical locations of goldenseal in Ohio and concluded that nearly half of the populations had been extirpated (13% of the extinctions were due to habitat destruction).  They note that this number may be somewhat mitigated by the rate of colonization, however, that is unknown.<br /><br />Finally, according to the proposal to list goldenseal in Appendix II of CITES (1997),  \"the decline to rarity of this species has been reiterated by numerous authors including Millspaugh 1887, Henkel and Klugh 1904, Lloyd and Lloyd 1908, Grieve 1931, Deam 1940, Fernald 1950, Hill 1952, Gleason 1968, Schery 1972, Wofford 1989, Catling and Small 1994, Elliott 1995, Foster 1991, and Foster 1995.\"",
    "inventoryNeeds" : "Need further population data from states, especially those with 'uncommon' and 'secure' SRANKs (state conservation ranks). All states need to monitor population trends to determine effects that legal and illegal collection, as well as threats from habitat loss, are having on the populations. States that actively track this species should search areas of potential habitat. Populations should be monitored for the presence of the leaf blight which is threatening the population in the Great Smoky Mountains.",
    "numberProtEosComments" : "Many sites throughout the range are on federal, state, local, or private organizations (including some populations within Nature Conservancy preserves). Plants on public and protected lands need greater protection from illegal collecting and existing regulations protecting plants on public and protected lands need greater enforcement. <br /><br />Removal from state protected list occurred in North Carolina, in December 2010. The North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Plant Conservation Board removed goldenseal from the protected plant list (Greenfield and Davis 2012).  There are no state restrictions on harvesting or cultivating in the state.  Within the state, however, permits to collect the plants on federal forests will not be granted (Greenfield and Davis 2012).",
    "protectionNeeds" : "Plants on public and protected lands need greater protection from legal and illegal collecting, and existing regulations protecting plants on public and protected lands need greater enforcement.  Also, it is common practice for some harvesters to collect in late-summer and fall as the plant is going dormant. This may maximize harvesting returns and minimize collection and threats to the plant because a) rhizomes are bigger inthe fall than in the early part of the growing season and b) more rhizomes moisture content is lower in the fall so fewer rhizomes need to be collected to equal the fresh:dry weight ration of rhizomes collected in the spring (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006).  These observations could be used to guide permitting by state governments.",
    "otherConsiderations" : "Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, using samples from both wild and cultivated populations in North Carolina (cultivated), Ohio (cultivated), Pennsylvania (wild) and West Virginia (wild), showed that most genetic variation was found within groups and among samples within populations, but not between the wild and cultivated groups (Kelley 2009).  Moderate to high levels of genetic variation were found within both the wild and cultivated groups (F-statistic = 0.738, within populations) (Kelley 2009).  What is important to note, however, is that Kelley (2009) found that some populations had very low genetic diversity suggesting that these wild populations were not frequently reproducing sexually, and expanding vegetatively.  This is not surprising since it is widely known that it is clonal.  Another genetic study in 2012 examining genetic diversity of 6 population in western North Carolina found that most genetic variation was within populations, but that overall all genetic and allelic diversity was low among populations suggesting that outbreeding depression would be an unlikely effect from replanting declining populations in North Carolina (Torgerson 2012).",
    "intrinsicVulnerabilityComments" : "Primarily a clonal species with low seed to ramet production, but with some or few seedlings advancing to higher life stages allowing for at least infrequent infusion of genetic diversity into populations via sexual reproduction by seed.  It takes between four and five years for a plant to reach sexual maturity, i.e. the point at which it produces flowers.  Seedlings successfully moving forward to the next life-stages may be dependent on geographic location within its range, since in Ontario seedlings were rarely observed while in Ohio seedlings were still low in number but not rare (Sinclair and Catling 2000, Christensen and Gorchov 2010).<br /><br />Sexual reproduction contributes less to population growth due to low survival of seedlings: only 36% of seedlings made it to yr 2 and only 54% of these made it to yr 3, but new ramets had a 73% survival rate to the second year (Christensen and Gorchov 2010).  Further inbreeding is not expected in goldenseal since it produces ramets and flowers, and is self-compatible (Sinclair et al. 2000, Sanders and McGraw 2003, Christensen and Gorchov 2010, Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).<br /><br />In terms of population growth rate, Sinclair and Catling (2002) describe goldenseal's growth rate in non-harvested populations, at the northern limit of its range as slight and slow.  Studies in West Virginia examining its recovery from harvest, show an initial surge in growth (increased stem number), but that few plants progressed from one life history stage to the next in following years (Van der Voort et al. 2003).  This is exemplified by results in Sanders and McGraw (2005), who examined growth response to harvest.  Sanders and McGraw (2005) found that ramet leaf area recovered only 34% of the orginal pre-harvested leaf-area after 2 years [leaf area in the sampling plots from year 1 to year 2 was a measure of growth and recovery].",
    "enviromentalSpecificityComments" : null
  },
  "animalCharacteristics" : null,
  "occurrenceDelineations" : [ {
    "eoSpecsDetailId" : 123469,
    "locationUseClass" : {
      "id" : 1,
      "locationUseClassDescEn" : "Not applicable",
      "locationUseClassDescEs" : null,
      "locationUseClassDescFr" : null
    },
    "eoSpecGroupName" : null,
    "subtypes" : null,
    "inferredExtentDistance" : null,
    "inferredExtentNotes" : null,
    "minimumEoCriteria" : "Any naturally occurring discrete population defines an occurrence.",
    "mappingGuidance" : null,
    "separationBarriers" : null,
    "separationDistanceUnsuitableHabitatat" : 0.5,
    "separationDistanceSuitableHabitatat" : 1.5,
    "altSeparationProcedure" : null,
    "separationJustification" : "There are no data to suggest minimum distances between occurrences but we suggest at least 0.5 kilometers of unsuitable habitat or 1.5 kilometers of suitable but unoccupied habitat as separation distances between individual occurrences. Individual stems are generally found in clumps or clusters, with clumps ranging from a handful of stems to over a thousand stems. The typical clump range appears to be between 70 and 500 stems. Distinct clumps with continuous suitable habitat should be considered sub-populations of one large single occurrence, assuming there is no more than 1.5 kilometers between clumps.",
    "versionDate" : "2000-01-14",
    "versionAuthor" : "Weldy, T., and S. Young",
    "versionNotes" : "NYHP",
    "lastModified" : null
  } ],
  "plantCharacteristics" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "genusEconomicValue" : true,
    "economicComments" : "Goldenseal roots, plants, leaves, seeds, fruits and whole plants are sold in many forms: powdered, dried or fresh (Egert 2007). Two parts of the goldenseal plant are used for medicinal purposes: the rhizomes and leaves (or aerial parts).  Rhizomes seem to be the preferred target for harvest because goldenseal rhizomes have the highest concentration of medicinally-active alkaloids, berberine, hydrastine and canadine.  Leaves and stems  contain lower levels of these alkaloids (Douglas et al. 2010).<br /><br />Studies have found that goldenseal performs well as a yeast inhibitor, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, bile stimulant, and immune system stimulant (Bradley 1992, Benigni et al. 1962, Liu 1991, Kaneda 1991, Murray 1995, Sun 1988, Sack 1982). These properties help cure mouth and gum disorders, eye afflictions, infected wounds, bacterial or fungal infections, diarrhea, vaginitis, food poisoning, giardia, cholera, and dermatitis (e.g. Mills 1991, Murray 1995, Amalaradjou &amp; Venkitanarayanan 2011). In a survey of AIDS/HIV patients, goldenseal was one of the products most purchased, and most recommended by health-store employees (Medical Sciences Bulletin 1995).<br /><br />Studies in medical journals focused on the interaction of goldenseal with other drugs (Guo et al. 2011, Chatuphonprasert 2012, Shi &amp; Klotz 2012, Gurley et al. 2012,  Zadoyan &amp; Fuhr 2012, and Yamaura et al. 2012) and its chemical makeup (Le et al. 2012). There is evidence of the effectiveness of it treating mycoplasmosis (Arjoon 2012), H1N1 influenza A virus (Cecil et al. 2011), cancer (Karmakar et al. 2010 and Kim et al. 2010), and growth inhibition of MRSA (methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>)(Cech et al. 2012).<br /><br />The American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) is a trade association with over 200 herbal companies as members. AHPA surveys their members annually and goldenseal tonnage reports are based on these surveys (from up to 10 companies). Between 21 and 63 tons of dried rhizome and 0.1-10 tons of fresh wild rhizome were harvested each year from 2000-2010. In 1998, the AHPA recorded only 2% from cultivated sources, and this percentage increased to17-41% between 2000 - 2010.  AHPA members increased procurement of cultivated goldenseal by 2-17% from 1998-2010 (Dentali &amp; Zimmerman 2012).  AHPA (2012) reported in that timeframe that 21,500 kg of the total 255,000 kg harvested were exported internationally. Since, 2003 all US exports (including roots, powder, and derivatives) are from cultivated sources according to the CITES trade database (2013).<br /><br />As with other medicinal plants, the \"problem\" with cultivating goldenseal is that you have to wait several years to get a product.  There are two methods for cultivating goldenseal: woods-cultivated and wild-simulated.  Woods/forest cultivated methods require less investment, but profit earnings are unpredictable.  Burkhart and Jacobson (2009) indicated that cultivating goldenseal in a forest was not profitable at a historics price of $20/pound because of the annual production cost over the multiple years required before harvest. However, if has been suggested that organic certification may be a viable option to increase profitability of cultivated goldenseal (Burkhart and Jacobson 2009).<br /><br />The price for rhizomes increased from the $5/lb in the 1970s to $40/lb in the late 1990s and early 2000s, with a downturn in 2005 when growers and wild harvesters earned about $15/lb. The price per pound for leaves consistently averages half that of the rhizomes (PA DCNR 2012). In 2010, organic goldenseal farmers were earning $40/lb for rhizomes (Baker 2010). Recent information indicates that cultivated goldenseal may be garnering a higher price than wild goldenseal, with cultivated root selling for $30-35/dried pound and wild material selling for $20-25/pound (David and Greenfield 2012).",
    "plantProductionMethods" : [ {
      "plantCagProdMethodId" : 100090,
      "productionMethod" : {
        "id" : 1,
        "productionMethodDescEn" : "Wild-harvested",
        "productionMethodDescEs" : null,
        "productionMethodDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagProdMethodId" : 100091,
      "productionMethod" : {
        "id" : 2,
        "productionMethodDescEn" : "Cultivated",
        "productionMethodDescEs" : null,
        "productionMethodDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "plantDurations" : [ {
      "plantCagDurationId" : 101910,
      "duration" : {
        "id" : 3,
        "durationDescEn" : "PERENNIAL",
        "durationDescEs" : null,
        "durationDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagDurationId" : 101911,
      "duration" : {
        "id" : 5,
        "durationDescEn" : "Long-lived",
        "durationDescEs" : null,
        "durationDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "plantEconomicUses" : [ {
      "plantCagEconomicUseId" : 101289,
      "economicUse" : {
        "id" : 18,
        "economicUseDescEn" : "Folk medicine",
        "economicUseDescEs" : null,
        "economicUseDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagEconomicUseId" : 101288,
      "economicUse" : {
        "id" : 17,
        "economicUseDescEn" : "Pharmaceutical",
        "economicUseDescEs" : null,
        "economicUseDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagEconomicUseId" : 100513,
      "economicUse" : {
        "id" : 16,
        "economicUseDescEn" : "MEDICINE/DRUG",
        "economicUseDescEs" : null,
        "economicUseDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "plantCommercialImportances" : [ {
      "plantCagCommImportId" : 100078,
      "commercialImportance" : {
        "id" : 2,
        "commercialImportanceDescEn" : "Minor cash crop",
        "commercialImportanceDescEs" : null,
        "commercialImportanceDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagCommImportId" : 100079,
      "commercialImportance" : {
        "id" : 3,
        "commercialImportanceDescEn" : "Indigenous crop",
        "commercialImportanceDescEs" : null,
        "commercialImportanceDescFr" : null
      }
    } ]
  },
  "elementManagement" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "eoManagementGroupName" : null,
    "stewardshipOverview" : "Populations should be monitored for impacts related to harvest, and wild-collection is a primary threat to this species.  Most populations of goldenseal are made-up of 1000 and fewer stems, and while populations may be small protecting even the smallest should be considered.  Goldenseal maintains a mixed-breeding system and is able to self-pollinate to produce fruit, as well as produce sterile stems (non-flowering) that are genetically identical to other stems in the same patch (Christensen and Gorchov 2010, Sanders 2004).  Since goldenseal is capable of self-pollination to set fruit, even small populations can be long-lived, and can act as sources of genetic variability for other nearby populations (Sanders 2004).  Further, populations in small areas should be considered for conservation based on research that showed that goldenseal responds favorably to light and soil disturbance, and larger populations were associated with small habitat area (Sinclair and Catling 200b).  A genetic study in North Carolina showed that while higher levels of genetic diversity were measured within populations, that genetic and allelic diversity was low across populations suggesting that reintroductions into populations would not likely cause outbreeding depression (Torgerson 2012). <br><br>Studies show that the best measure of past collection is the number of fertile (Sinclair and Catling 2000, Christensen and Gorchov 2010) and large sterile plants (Christensen and Gorchov 2010) from year to year, as these two life classes are responsible for maintaining or proliferating population size.<br><br>Data collection on environmental conditions such as temperature, precipitation and soil nutrients should be maintained over the life of any monitoring program.  Buds for next year's stems are formed in summer or fall (Sinclair and Catling 2000) and spring growth is likely linked with the size of the flower bud and a determiner of whether plants will reproduce vegetatively or sexually in a given year (Christensen and Gorchov 2010). Growth is dependent on precipitation and temperature, and in one study high levels of soil nutrients (especially phosphorus) promoted growth of young stems (Sinclair and Catling 2000).<br><br>Other data related to the habitat should also be collected, such as percent canopy cover and soil displacement by animals and uprooted trees since goldenseal positively responds to mild disturbance, particularly light gaps and some soil disturbance (McGraw et al. 2003).  Management and monitoring of patches should be done based on changes in leaf-area from year to year, and not stem count.  Results from illicitly harvested patches in West Virginia show that leaf-area was immediately and negatively affected compared to pre-harvest leaf-area, and that stem-counts do not clearly relate to pre-harvest numbers (Sanders and McGraw 2005).  Finally, if populations are harvested, the time of year this takes place should be noted.  Albrecht and McCarthy (2006) found that fall-harvested populations may recover faster than those harvested in the mid-summer.<br><br>Success in monitoring and managing population dynamics is dependent on the knowledge of the data collectors and program managers, since understanding the reproductive life history of this plant is critical (i.e. it is known that large sterile (non-flowerig) plants transition back and forth from fertile plants) for accurate tracking of population health and viability.  Further, managers should know the local phenology pattern of the plant from emergence to senescence.  Detailed information about the life history of goldenseal is available in Christensen and Gorchov (2010), general biology and complexities associated with management are provided in Sinclair and Catling (2000), and diagram of the root (used in medicinal compounds) available in Van der Voort et al. (2003).",
    "impacts" : null,
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    "managementMethods" : null,
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    "biologicalResearchNeeds" : "Few studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of the species.  Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed that moderate to high genetic diversity was found in wild populations sampled in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, but that some populations had very low genetic diversity suggesting they are reproducing vegetatively (Kelley 2009). One other study examined 6 goldenseal locations in North Carolina and found that most genetic variation was found within populations, however, genetic diversity across populations was found to be low (Torgerson 2012).  Torgerson (2012) notes that because genetic and allelic diversity was low across all of the goldenseal populations researched in North Carolina, that reintroductions into declining populations should not cause genetic loss through oubreeding depression.  Similar studies in other states in the core range states would further help inform stewardship practices such as reintroductions in harvested populations.  Genetic studies are also needed to examine the consequences of climate change if low genetic levels are detected along the leading or trailing edges of its range.   Genetic diversity should also be considered when developing stewardship programs focused on responsible harvesting.<br /><br />Patterns of rhizome collection need to be documented to better understand the proportion of size classes that harvesters remove, and how goldenseal responds to these different patterns (pers. comm. Gorchov 2012).  In other words, the frequency, intensity and technique of harvesting patterns needs monitoring, in addition to its re-growth response (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006).<br /><br />Modeling is also a need.  Models that project the impact of harvesting based on the different proportions of life history classes collected and at different time intervals are needed (pers. comm. Gorchov 2012).  Models that use real-life harvesting practices could be intrumental in documenting and predicting the decline of goldenseal, and decline is a vital component to assessing extinction risk for this clonal species.<br /><br />The extent of impact of deer browse on patches throughout goldenseal's range is needed (pers. comm. Gorchov 2012).  Many states record that white-tailed deer herbivory is a threat, however, the extent of the threat is not well understood.<br /><br />Lastly, there are a number of questions relating to the economic trade that need research.  It is not clear what percentage of wild harvested goldenseal is used domestically.  It is not clear what the harvest or cultivation practices are of herbal companies that do not belong to AHPA (American Herbal Products Association). It is also not clear if this is offsetting collection pressure from wild populations of goldenseal, given that some states continue to report declines, and to what extent poaching is impacting wild populations.  More research is required to determine whether current goldenseal demands can be satisfied by increased cultivation and whether market prices might stabilize if there are potentially stable supplies of goldenseal.",
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    "id" : 719344,
    "citation" : "McGraw, J. B., S. M. Sanders, and M. Van der Voort. 2003. Distribution and abundance of <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> L. (Ranunculaceae) and <i>Panax quiquefolius</i> L. (Araliaceae) in the central Appalachian region. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 130(2): 62-69.",
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    "citation" : "McGuffin, M., on behalf of American Herbal Products Association (AHPA). 11 June 2012. Comments of the American Herbal Products Association on the request for comments and information on species proposals for consideration at the 16th Conference of the Parties to CITES. Available online: www.ahpa.org/portals/0/pdfs/12_0611_AHPA_Comments_reCoP16.pdf. Accessed December 2012.",
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    "citation" : "McGuffin, Michael. Personal communication. American Herbal Products Association, 8484 Georgia Ave., Suite 370, Silver Spring MD 20910. (301) 588-1171.",
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  }, {
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    "citation" : "Medical Sciences Bulletin. 1996 (Oct.). Treatment Options for HIV: The Health Food Store Connection. Online: PharmInfoNet Home Page.",
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    "citation" : "Mills, S.Y. 1991. Out of the Earth: The Essential Book of Herbal Medicine. Viking, London. Pp. 439-441. Millspaugh, C.F. 1887 [1974]. American Medicinal Plants. Dover Publications, New York, p. 9-2.",
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    "citation" : "Morse, Larry E., North American Botanist, NatureServe, Arlington, Va.  Formerly Chief Botanist, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Va.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Morse",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
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  }, {
    "id" : 719345,
    "citation" : "Mulligan, M. R. and G. L. Gorchov. 2004. Populations loss of goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> L. (Ranunculaceae), in Ohio. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 13(24): 305-310.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Mulligan and Gorchov",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2004,
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    "id" : 115767,
    "citation" : "Murray, M. 1995. The Healing Power of Herbs. Prima, Rocklin, Calif. Pp. 162-172.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Murray",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1995,
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  }, {
    "id" : 147749,
    "citation" : "Murray, Nancy. Personal communication. Coordinator, Connecticut Natural Diversity Database.",
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    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDMUR02HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719361,
    "citation" : "National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). 2012. Available online: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/goldenseal#science. Accessed 2012.",
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    "shortCitationYear" : 2012,
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    "citation" : "O'Connor, Ryan. Personal communication. Ecologist/Inventory Coordinator, Natural Heritage Inventory, Bureau of Endangered Resources, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "O'Conner",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
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  }, {
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    "citation" : "Oldham, Michael. Personal communication. Botanist, Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre.",
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  }, {
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    "citation" : "Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (PA DCNR). 2012. <i>About goldenseal</i>. Available online: www.dcnr.state.pa.us/forestry/wildplant/aboutgoldenseal.aspx. Accessed December 2012.",
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    "citation" : "Penskar, M.R, E.G. Choberka, and P.J. Higman 2001. Special Plant Abstract for <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> (goldenseal). Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Lansing, MI. 3 pp.",
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    "citation" : "Penskar, Mike. Personal communication. Botanist, Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Lansing, MI.",
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    "citation" : "Planet Herbs. 1999. Planet Herbs: Natural botanicals wholesale. Online. Available: http://www.planetherbs.net. Accessed 2000-Jan.",
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    "citation" : "Popp, Robert. Personal communication. Botanist, Vermont Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department, Barre, VT.",
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    "citation" : "Sack, R.B. and Froehlich, J.L. 1982. Berberine inhibits intestinal secretory response of Vibrio cholerae toxins and E. coli enterotoxins. Infect. Immun. 35: 471-475.",
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    "citation" : "Sanders, S. 2004. Does breeding system contribute to rarity of Goldenseal (<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>)? American Midland Naturalist 152: 37-42.",
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    "citation" : "Sanders, S. and J. B. McGraw. 2005. Harvest recovery of Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> L. The American Midland Naturalist 153(1): 87-94.",
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    "shortCitationYear" : 2005,
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  }, {
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    "citation" : "Sather, Nancy. Personal communication. Botanist/Ecologist. Minnesota Natural Heritage & Nongame Research.",
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    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDSAT01HQUS",
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    "citation" : "Schery, R.W. 1972. Plants for Man, 2nd edition. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 657 pp.",
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    "id" : 143752,
    "citation" : "Schotz, A. Personal Communication. Community Ecologist/Botanist, Alabama Natural Heritage Program.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Schotz",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDSCH02HQUS",
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  }, {
    "id" : 714730,
    "citation" : "Sinclair, A. and P. M. Catling. 2000a. Status of Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> (Ranunculaceae), in Canada. The Canadian Field Naturalist 114(1): 111-120.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sinclair and Catling",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2000,
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    "id" : 719350,
    "citation" : "Sinclair, A. and P. M. Catling. 2000b. Ontario Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>, populations in relation to habitat size, paths and woodland edges. Canadian Field-Naturalist 11(4): 652-655.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sinclair and Catling",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2000,
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    "citation" : "Sinclair, A. and P. M. Catling. 2002. Recent trends in stem number in Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>, populations at the northern limit of its range. Canadian Field-Naturalist 116(1): 112-115.",
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    "citation" : "Sinclair, A., P. M. Catling, and L. Dumouchel. 2000. Notes on the pollination and dispersal of Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis </i>L., in southwestern Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 114(3): 499-501.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sinclair et al.",
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    "citation" : "Smith, Tim. Personal communication. Botanist, Missouri Department of Conservation. Missouri Department of Conservation 2901 West Truman Blvd Jefferson City, MO, 65102-0180 573-751-4115",
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    "citation" : "Smith, W. R. Personal communication. Botanist, Minnesota Natural Heritage Program, Minnesota Dept. Natural Resources, St. Paul, MN. ",
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    "citation" : "Sullivan, Heather.  Personal communication.  Botanist, Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, MS.",
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    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDSUL01HQUS",
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    "id" : 134178,
    "citation" : "Sun, D. 1988. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1370-1374.",
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    "citation" : "Tait, C. R. 2006a. Spatial distribution and habitat preference of Goldenseal, (<i>Hydrastis canadensis) </i>in New York state. M.S. Thesis - State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, N.Y.",
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    "id" : 721586,
    "citation" : "Tobe, H. 2003a. Hydrastidaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. and C. Bayer. Flowering Plants Dicotyledons Vol. 5. Springer, Frankfurt, Germany. 438 pp.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Tobe",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2003,
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  }, {
    "id" : 721600,
    "citation" : "Torgerson, J. M. 2012a. Genetic variation in <i>Hydrastis canadensis </i>populations in western North Carolina. M.S. thesis, Western Carolina University. 61 pp.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Torgerson",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2012,
    "referenceCode" : "U12TOR01HQUS",
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  }, {
    "id" : 662071,
    "citation" : "Townsend, J. Personal communication. Staff Botanist. Virginia Division of Natural Heritage. Department of Conservation and Recreation. Richmond, VA.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Townsend",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDTOW01HQUS",
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    "id" : 715917,
    "citation" : "Underwood, Malissa. Personal communication. Botanist. Missouri Natural Heritage Program.",
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    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDUND01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719353,
    "citation" : "Van der Voort, M. E., B. Bailey, D. E. Samuel, and J. B. McGraw. 2003. Recovery of populations of Goldenseal (<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> L.) and American Ginseng (<i>Panax quinquefolius</i> L.) following harvest. The American Midland Naturalist 149(2): 282-292.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Van der Voort et al.",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2003,
    "referenceCode" : "A03VAN01HQUS",
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  }, {
    "id" : 106273,
    "citation" : "Veninga, L. and B. Zaricor. 1976. Goldenseal/Etc: A Pharmacognosy of Wild Herbs. Ruka Publications, Santa Cruz.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Veninga and Zaricor",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1976,
    "referenceCode" : "B76VEN01HQUS",
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  }, {
    "id" : 153011,
    "citation" : "White, Deborah. Personal communication. Botanist, Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "White",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDWHI01HQUS",
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  }, {
    "id" : 509330,
    "citation" : "Witsell, Theo. Personal communication. Botanist. Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. Little Rock, AR.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Witsell",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDWIT01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 152570,
    "citation" : "Wofford, B.E. 1989. Guide to vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. University of Georgia Press. Athens, Georgia.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Wofford",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1989,
    "referenceCode" : "B89WOF01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 149748,
    "citation" : "Young, Steve. Personal communication. Botanist, New York Natural Heritage Program.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Young",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDYOU01HQUS",
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  } ],
  "otherCommonNames" : [ {
    "id" : 127007,
    "name" : "goldenseal",
    "language" : "EN"
  }, {
    "id" : 138983,
    "name" : "Hydraste du Canada",
    "language" : "FR"
  }, {
    "id" : 197972,
    "name" : "Orangeroot",
    "language" : "EN"
  }, {
    "id" : 138984,
    "name" : "Sceau d'or",
    "language" : "FR"
  }, {
    "id" : 140573,
    "name" : "Yellow Root",
    "language" : "EN"
  }, {
    "id" : 140462,
    "name" : "Yellow-puccoon",
    "language" : "EN"
  } ],
  "speciesGlobal" : {
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    "cites" : {
      "id" : 2,
      "citesDescEn" : "Appendix II",
      "citesDescEs" : null,
      "citesDescFr" : null
    },
    "cosewic" : {
      "id" : 5,
      "cosewicDescEn" : "Special Concern",
      "cosewicDescEs" : null,
      "cosewicDescFr" : null,
      "cosewicCode" : "SC"
    },
    "fwsRegion" : null,
    "genusSize" : null,
    "jurisEndem" : {
      "id" : 5,
      "jurisEndemDescEn" : "occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations",
      "jurisEndemDescEs" : null,
      "jurisEndemDescFr" : null
    },
    "nomenclaturallyEst" : null,
    "usesa" : null,
    "informalTaxonomy" : {
      "informalTaxonomyId" : 108,
      "level1" : "Plants",
      "level2" : "Vascular Plants - Flowering Plants",
      "level3" : "Dicots",
      "level" : 3,
      "hasChildren" : false,
      "parentId" : 106,
      "distributionStatus" : "complete",
      "displayOrder" : 108
    },
    "parentSpecies" : null,
    "infraspecies" : false,
    "kingdom" : "Plantae",
    "phylum" : "Anthophyta",
    "taxclass" : "Dicotyledoneae",
    "taxorder" : "Ranunculales",
    "family" : "Ranunculaceae",
    "genus" : "Hydrastis",
    "americanFisheriesStatus" : null,
    "americanFisheriesStatusDate" : null,
    "saraStatus" : null,
    "saraStatusDate" : null,
    "cosewicDate" : "2019-05-01",
    "interpretedCosewic" : null,
    "cosewicComments" : "Reason for designation: Increased survey effort has resulted in the discovery of new subpopulations of this species since the last assessment. Although the number of mature individuals of this long-lived plant appears to be stable in recent decades, the remaining subpopulations remain subject to threats from deforestation, harvesting, and invasive species.<br /><br />Status history: Designated Threatened in April 1991. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000. Status re-examined and designated Special Concern in May 2019.",
    "usesaDate" : null,
    "interpretedUsesa" : null,
    "usesaComments" : null,
    "completeDistribution" : true,
    "synonyms" : [ ],
    "infraspeciesList" : [ ],
    "ebarId" : null,
    "ebarCanadianScope" : null,
    "ebarGlobalScope" : null
  },
  "speciesCharacteristics" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "reproductionComments" : "Goldenseal reproduces both clonally and sexually, with clonal division more frequent than asexual reproduction. It takes between 4 and 5 years for a plant to reach sexual maturity, i.e. the point at which it produces flowers. Plants in the first stage, when the seed erupts and cotyledons emerge, can remain in this state one or more years. The second vegetative stage occurs during years two and three (and sometimes longer) and is characterized by the development of a single leaf and absence of a well developed stem. Finally, the third stage is reproductive, at which point flowering and fruiting occurs. This last stage takes between 4 and 5 years to develop (Burkhart and Jacobson 2006).<br /><br />Flowers in April through May, and fruits from June through July (Eichenberger and Parker 1976, Sinclair et al. 2000). Fruit and seed set is not dependent on cross-pollination because Goldenseal has a mixed-mating system and flowers show similar fruit set whether or not pollinators were excluded (Sanders 2004, Christensen and Gorchov 2010).<br />In the northern reaches of goldenseal's range, in southwest Ontario, seedlings are rare (Sinclair and Catling 2000a). A study in the core portion of the range, in Ohio, found that while seedlings were far fewer than ramets, a 'substantial' number of the seedling-minority made it to the next life history stage, and ultimately represents an infusion of genetic diversity into the otherwise highly clonal population (Christensen and Gorchov 2010).<br />Christensen and Gorchov (2010) noted the following that seedling rarity is not due to: a) infrequent flowering, low fruit or seed set, and low seed viability.<br /><br />Christensen and Gorchov (2010) provide a good, clear diagram of the life-history of this plant, including diagrams of the possible transitions, places of regression to an earlier life stage, between life stages.",
    "ecologyComments" : null,
    "habitatComments" : "In the United States goldenseal is found in rich, densely shaded, deciduous forests with good air flow and water drainage (Greenfield and Davis 2012).  Light gaps and soil disturbance stimulate local proliferation (McGraw et al. 2003).<br /><br />Canada: In Southwest Ontario goldenseal is limited to deciduous woodlands near floodplains and periodic spring-flooded plateaus.  There only remnants of this woodland remains, less than 5%of these forests remain from pre-settlement times (Sinclair and Catling 2000).<br /><br />Goldenseal grows best in rich, mesic hardwood forest, especially those underlain by limestone or alkaline soils, butis also known from slightly acidic soils too. These forests are often second growth forests with the following associates (listed alphabetically by strata): <i>Acer rubrum</i>, <i>Acer saccharum</i>, <i>Betula lenta</i>, <i>Carpinus caroliniana</i>, <i>Carya </i>spp., <i>Fagus grandifolia</i>, <i>Fraxinus americana</i>,<i> Liriodendron tulipifera</i>, <i>Ostrya virginiana</i>, <i>Quercus</i> spp., <i>Thuja occidentalis</i>, <i>Tilia americana</i>, <i>Ulmus rubra</i>, <i>Cornus alternifolia</i>, <i>Corylus americana</i>, <i>Lindera benzoin</i>, <i>Lonicera </i>spp., <i>Parthenocissus quinquefolia</i>,<i> Toxicodendron radicans</i>, <i>Adiantum pedatum</i>, <i>Anemone quinquefolia</i>, <i>Aralia nudicaulis</i>, <i>Arisaema triphyllum</i>, <i>Asarum canadense</i>, <i>Asplenium platyneuron</i>, <i>Asplenium rhizophyllum</i>, <i>Carex platyphylla</i>, <i>Carex</i> spp., <i>Caulophyllum thalictroides</i>, <i>Cimicifuga racemosa</i>, <i>Dicentra</i> spp., <i>Dryopteris</i> spp., <i>Geranium maculatum</i>, <i>Hepatica</i> spp., <i>Hydrophyllum</i> spp., <i>Maianthemum </i>spp., <i>Mitella diphylla</i>, <i>Osmorhiza</i> spp., <i>Panax quinquefolius</i>, <i>Podophyllum peltatum</i>, <i>Polystichum acrostichoides</i>, <i>Sanguinaria canadensis</i>, <i>Trillium </i>spp., <i>Uvularia</i> spp., <i>Viola</i> spp. Species composition will vary considerable from region to region, but some of the above associates are likely to be found. Areas with <i>Hydrastis</i> also tend to have a nice collection of spring wildflowers and fern diversity is also likely higher than surrounding areas.<br />",
    "generalDescription" : "Goldenseal is a perennial plant that grows from stems one to two feet high.  Plants with single leaves produce no flowers and plants with two leaves produce flowers (Van der Voort et al. 2003).  The flowers are greenish-white, made up of three sepals and many stamens and carpels which emerge in April or May.  Fruits ripen between July and August.  Goldeneal produces a rhizome with many adventitious roots emerging from it.  The rhizome is yellowish, growing horizontally, is knotty and grows between 4-7cm long and between 0.5-2cm in width (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).",
    "diagnosticCharacteristics" : null,
    "speciesMarineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesTerrestrialHabitats" : [ {
      "cagTerrHabId" : 109257,
      "terrestrialHabitat" : {
        "id" : 1,
        "terrestrialHabitatDescEn" : "Forest - Hardwood",
        "terrestrialHabitatDescEs" : null,
        "terrestrialHabitatDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "speciesRiverineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesPalustrineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesLacustrineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesSubterraneanHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesEstuarineHabitats" : [ ]
  }
}

See Taxon Data Model for details on the response data.

Get Taxon By Alternate Key

Path

/api/data/taxonSearch

This service allows a taxon to be retrieved using an alternate key with a unique value. Three query string parameters are supported.

See Taxon Data Model for details on the response data.

Global UID Parameters

Parameter Description

ouSeqUid

The taxon’s Element Global UID

HTTP request

GET /api/data/taxonSearch?ouSeqUid=ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154701 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

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    "classificationLevelNameEn" : "Species",
    "classificationLevelNameEs" : null,
    "classificationLevelNameFr" : null
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  "classificationStatus" : {
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    "classificationStatusDescEn" : "Standard",
    "classificationStatusDescEs" : null,
    "classificationStatusDescFr" : null
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  "iucn" : {
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    "iucnDescEn" : "Vulnerable",
    "iucnDescEs" : null,
    "iucnDescFr" : null,
    "iucnCode" : "VU"
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  "nameCategory" : {
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    "nameCategoryDescEn" : "Vascular Plant",
    "nameCategoryDescEs" : null,
    "nameCategoryDescFr" : null,
    "nameTypeCd" : "P",
    "nameTypeDesc" : "Botanical"
  },
  "rankMethodUsed" : {
    "id" : 1,
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  "scientificNameAuthor" : "L.",
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  "conceptRefFullCitation" : "Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.",
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  "grankReasons" : "Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis, </i>an herbaceous understory species of the eastern deciduous forest, with the core of its range in Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  It extends north into Ontario, Canada and as far south in the United States to Alabama, east to North Carolina and north to Vermont.<br /><br />Goldenseal may be best known for its use as an herbal supplement for a variety of health purposes, including as an immune booster and anti-inflammatory agent.  Its earliest known use was by indigenous people in the eastern North America and by the 1700s it was used as a digestion aid and treatment for skin imflammation (Barton 1798).   Its use is well documented from the 1800s to the present, with increasing demand through time as markets expanded beyond local usage.  The species has been primarily wild-harvested, and over-collection of the plant is a predominate threat.<br /><br />Concern due to over-collection is expressed at the national levels both in the United States and Canada. Since 1997, goldenseal has been listed in Appendix II of the Convention for International Trade on Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), to regulate international trade to ensure there is no detriment to the survival of the species in the wild.  The CITES Appendix II listing requires that exporters obtain CITES permits or certificates for international export of whole, parts and powdered roots and rhizomes of goldenseal. In Canada, goldenseal is listed as Threatened on Schedule I of the federal Species at Risk Act. <br /><br />Long-term decline since the beginning of its harvest history is evident, and short term trends are more localized, from declining to stable.  State conservation statuses range from vulnerable to critically imperiled in the periphery of the range, to uncommon and secure in the core of its range.  As of 2013, the species is state-listed as endangered, vulnerable or threatened in at least ten states.  Seven of the states within goldenseal's range do not have State plant endangered species lists or protection laws.  <br /><br />Goldenseal, from a rangewide perspective and in a classical perspective of distribution and abundance is currently uncommon to secure, however, from a more holistic conservation perspective the extent of threats, long-term trends and short-term trends demand continuous and close monitoring in both the United States and Canada.",
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      "intrinsicVulnerabilityDescEs" : null,
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      "longTermTrendDescEs" : null,
      "longTermTrendDescFr" : null
    },
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    },
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      "rangeExtentDescEs" : null,
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    },
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    "rangeExtentComments" : "Range extent was calculated based on a map in Sinclair and Catling (2000a). Range extent is closer to 1,250,000 sq km. <br /><br />Eastern United States, northward into Ontario: southern Vermont to Ontario, west to Minnesota and south to Georgia, Alabama, and Arkansas. Common in Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, and West Virginia; uncommon around the range perimeter. The central portion of its range is and was where goldenseal was the most abundant, including Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia (Sinclair and Catling 2000a). Christensen and Gorchov (2010) describe the core part of the historical range as the Ohio River Valley.",
    "areaOfOccupancy" : null,
    "areaOfOccupancyComments" : "A lower end for area of occupancy was estimated based on the number of occurrences in NatureServe's database. As of 2012, there were approximately 700 occurrences in the United States and Canada documented in NatureServe's data, and an upper limit of 12,500 4-km grid cells.",
    "numberEosComments" : "USA: 1000+ extant occurrences globally. Alabama: 14; Arkansas: 100s; Connecticut: 6, Delaware: 26;Georgia: 15; Kansas (no occurrences delineated), Kentucky: &gt;100; Illinois: 100s; Indiana: 59; Iowa: 21; Massachusetts: 4, Maryland: 19; Michigan: 91; Minnesota: 14; Mississippi: 5; Missouri: 100s; New York: 22; North Carolina: 31; New Jersey: 2; Ohio: many; Pennsylvania: 17; Vermont: 5; Tennessee: 154; West Virginia: many; Wisconsin: &gt;100 CANADA: Ontario (22) (NatureServe Element Occurrence data 2012). Element occurrence data not available for Virginia. Since many states do not actively track this species, and because it is clonal, population numbers are not well known. Arkansas, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Ohio, and West Virginia likely have the highest number of plants.",
    "popSizeComments" : "Populations are typically between several stems to several hundred ramets (i.e. vegetative stems emerging from one parental plant) (Sanders and McGraw 2005, Sinclair and Catling 2000, Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).  In Ohio, it is estimated that 62% of populations contain fewer than 200 ramets, 10% had between 200 and 1,000 ramets and 28% had more than 1,000 ramets (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).  The majority of populations in Ohio are small.  <br />Research in West Virginia, one of the core range states, on larger-scale habitat requirements, or mesotopographic distribution patterns, found patches of goldenseal to be very diffuse across the landscape (McGraw et al. 2005).",
    "viabilityComments" : null,
    "threatImpactComments" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis, </i>Goldenseal, a medicinal herb, is threatened primarily by removal of habitat, decline in habitat quality, wild-collection and deer browsing.<br /><br />Habitat destruction is a primary threat throughout its range, as reported by Sinclair and Catling (2000a) only 5% of forested habitat that supports goldenseal in Canada remains, in many personal communications with Natural Heritage Botanists in 2012 and throughout New England (Tait 2006). It is surmised that local extinctions in Ohio were the result of urban sprawl (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004). The interaction and compounding intensification of over-collection and habitat loss, should not be overlooked. Albrecht and McCarthy (2006) suggest that observations by botanists of population disappearance in the early 19th century documented this co-occurrence of threats. It is also suggested that the combination of these two threats may reduce or reverse positive efforts of stewardship, or 'managed' populations (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006). It should also be recognized that the combined interaction of these threats may be increasing the rate of decline in areas of its range where these two threats are actively occurring.<br /><br /><br />Goldenseal has been cultivated for 100+ years throughout its range and historically most of the trade domestically and internationally comes from wild harvested plants (Christensen and Gorchov 2010). In recent years there has been an apparent shift. The CITES Trade Database (200-2013) indicates that much of the material in international trade, and all in 2003, which is legal is from cultivated plants. The market for goldenseal is expected to grow at a rate of 5% to 10% annually, and the market for high quality cultivated material is expected to grow 10 to 15% annually (Greenfield and David 2012).<br /><br />Cultivated goldenseal makes p a large portion of domestic trade according to the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA), however, the amount of wild-harvested rhizome that is collected and traded in the United States is unknown. In Indiana, collection pressure has intensified dramatically over the last 10 years, based on the number of inquiries by herbal diggers in the state (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources). Along with the increased demand for goldenseal in Indiana, according to State officials, it is evident that herbal diggers that are harvesting wild goldenseal in July and August are also harvesting American ginseng (<i>Panax quinquefolius)</i> outside the legal harvest season that has not yet had a chance to reproduce (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources). Law enforcement officials in Indiana are concerned for the species due to the amount being shipped from the state, and while there are no quantitative data on population declines in Indiana (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources), declines seem likely. Collection pressure in parts of the species' range where unemployment is high is incentivized by prices paid for wild-collected roots/rhizomes in the herbal market (McGraw et al. 2003). Studies suggest that if as little as 10% of the plants from a population are removed by collected annually, that the population will go extinct over time (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).<br /><br />Invasive species is also a threat, including pressure from both non-native plants. White-tailed deer browse is also a threat in Ohio (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004) and in other parts of the range.<br /><br />Further threats as noted by state Natural Heritage Botanists:<br />Alabama: Incompatible forestry practices appear to be the foremost concern, with invasive species of secondary importance (Al Schotz, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Arkansas: Unknown (Theo Witsell, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Connecticut: Invasive species and canopy closure. Severity of the threats is unknown (Nelson DeBarros &amp; Nancy Murray, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Delaware: Invasive species and deer browse (William A. McAvoy, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Indiana: Not known, but collecting and habitat destruction likely (Michael Homoya, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Kansas: Unknown (Craig C. Freeman, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Kentucky: The current threats are land conversion/development, collection, and high deer populations (Deborah White, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Massachusetts: This plant has never been common in Massachusetts, populations are very small and threatened by herbivory (Bryan Connolly, pers. comm., 2012)<br />Michigan: Collecting and habitat destruction (M.R. Penskar et al. 2001).<br />Minnesota: Invasive species (such as garlic mustard and buckthorn) continue to be discovered in the greater area of goldenseal's range in Minnesota. This will likely be a rising threat to populations in the long-term (Derek Anderson, Welby Smith, &amp; Nancy Sather, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Missouri: Current threats are over harvesting, particularly on public land. (Malissa Underwood, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Mississippi: In the Loess Bluff Physiographic Province, rapid subdivision development is encroaching into the habitat of goldenseal. One population has already probably been extirpated by a \"Loess Bluff Restoration Project\" associated with a housing development. In the Pontotoc Ridge Physiographic Province, the private land owner is considering developing the land as a new subdivision(Heather Sullivan, pers. comm., 2012).<br />New York: It is collected for medicinal purposes but so far there is no evidence that it is being over-collected in New York. There is a moderate threat from habitat destruction, especially in the Lower Hudson area. Exotic species like garlic mustard and bush honeysuckle threaten its understory habitat (Steve Young, pers. comm., 2012).<br />North Carolina: Poaching and effects of climate change (drought, increased temperatures, wind damage, invasive species) (Laura Gadd, pers. comm., 2012).<br />New York: It is collected for medicinal purposes but so far there is no evidence that it is being over-collected in New York. There is a moderate threat from habitat destruction, especially in the Lower Hudson area. Exotic species like garlic mustard and bush honeysuckle threaten its understory habitat (Steve Young, pers. comm. 2012).<br />Ohio: Some threats include development, recreation, roads and associated maintenance, resource extraction and processing (timber, oil, renewable energy), agriculture, and non-native species (Rick Gardner, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Ontario: Possibly lack of disturbance at some sites (Sinclair &amp; Catling 1998) (Michael J. Oldham, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Pennsylvania: Invasive species, succession (more coming in later report), and gas development (Chris Firestone, pers. comm., 2012.)<br />Tennessee: Timber operations and ATV trails are the main threats (Todd Crabtree, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Virginia: Mostly unknown, but harvest and development are likely threats (John Townsend, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Vermont: Invasives, development, and climate change. (Bob Popp &amp; Aaron Marcus, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Wisconsin: Forest conversion is likely the largest historical threat. Forest fragmentation and development is likely the largest current threat with invasive plants and earthworm likely causing significant impacts, especially for spread by seed. Leaf herbivory is unknown, but deer populations are high in the known region. Fruit herbivory and seed destruction is also unknown, but turkeys and rodents may be causing destruction of seed or placement in inappropriate habitat. Possible threats by logging, although the level of logging in the southern part of the state where it is found is relatively low, especially in the southeast. Impacts of harvest are unknown. We do not receive any harvest data and reports of sales to ginseng dealers is erratic. It would be fairly simple to survey ginseng dealers and ask them about amounts and trends in goldenseal harvest. Dealers may also have a sense if it is generally being harvested sustainably. (Kevin Doyle, Assistant Botanist &amp; Ryan O'Connor, Assistant Ecologist, Kelly Kearns, pers. comm., 2012).<br /><br />West Virginia: Wild harvest (P.J. Harmon, pers. comm., 2012).",
    "shortTermTrendComments" : "It is known that the rhizome of <i>Hydrastis canadensis </i>is wild-collected for medicinal uses.  Short term trend information is available from a few sources. There is decline in some populations due to wild-collection and habitat loss. Wild-collection in Canada is prohibited.  Overall population decline is evidenced through fewer populations present, fewer patches per population, and fewer ramets per patch (Sanders and McGraw 2005). Rangewide, or state-by-state, abundance information for goldenseal is unknown, which is typical of most wild-harvested plant species (McGraw et al. 2003).  Abundance and short-term trends in the core range states, in terms of both population size (numbers) and patches, is not available because it is not state-protected, and hence not monitored closely.  There are studies and observations for a few jurisdictions.<br /><br />Canada:<br />Population studies in Ontario, Canada detected no declines between 1991 and 1998.  Some patches may have been increasing while others were decreasing (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  The rate of expansion over several decades in Ontario is considered slight and slow, and possibly because of lack of disturbance given that populations in areas with some disturbance (greater light and nutrient resources) had highly variable growth rates (Sinclair and Catling 2002).<br /><br />United States:<br />In West Virginia, evidence of poaching was documented near Morgantown, West Virginia (Sanders and McGraw 2005), however, it is widely known that the rhizome is collected for trade in the medicinal market.  <br /><br />In Ohio, a core range state, recent short-term declines of approximately 30% were detected in goldenseal (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004, pers. comm. Gorchov 2012). Of 42 sites documented in Ohio from 1977-1998, 14 of these were extirpated as of 2002, if the rate of decline is constant, approximately 1.6% of populations are expected to be extirpated each year, and approximately a 30% decline over 20 years (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004, pers. comm. Gorchov 2012). <br /><br />In New York, recent studies have shown on-going extirpations as the distribution was reduced from 14 counties to 12 counties, due to habitat loss (Tait 2006).<br /><br />In Indiana, another core-range state, a dramatic increase in the amount of goldenseal harvested over the past 10 years has occurred, and law enforcement officials have expressed concern for the species due to the tonnage being shipped from the state (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources).  Even though quantitative information about trends in Indiana do not exist, sharp increases in collection over 10 years suggest that a decline is very likely in this slow growing perennial.  A study described the growth rate of goldenseal as 'slight' (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).<br /><br />Some information about short-term trends is available from state Natural Heritage botanists.  Alabama (pers. comm. A. Schotz 2012) and Ohio (pers. comm. R. Gardner 2012) have had short term declines and West Virginia (pers. comm. P. Harmon) may also have short term declines. Botanists from the following states; AR, DE, KY, MO, MS, NC, NY, PA, TN, and VT say that the species is stable to slightly declining in their state.",
    "longTermTrendComments" : "Since the mid 1800s, populations throughout goldenseal's range have dramatically declined due to collection for medicinal uses and habitat destruction (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).  There is anecdotal evidence that during the 19th century as botanists noticed the decline and loss of goldenseal populations because of market demand and loss of habitat, greater pressure on managed or previously unharvested populations intensified (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006).  Once-abundant populations were decimated, and the distribution of this widespread species was reduced to isolated, scattered patches (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004, CITES 1991, Lloyd and Lloyd 1884-1885 in Foster 1991, Henkel and Klugh 1904).<br /><br />Loss of habitat is another primary threat both in United States (Tait 2006) and Canada (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  There are only remnants of the woodlands remaining where this species occurs in Canada: less than 5% of these forests remain from presettlement times (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  Similarly, in New England during the 1800s, forest conversion, from forested lands to agriculture and settlement, reached its height and approximately 80% of the originally forested land was lost (Tait 2006).  In addition, many Ohio populations have gone extinct (Christensen and Gorchov 2010).  A study by Mulligan and Gorchov (2004) assessed the status of 71 historical locations of goldenseal in Ohio and concluded that nearly half of the populations had been extirpated (13% of the extinctions were due to habitat destruction).  They note that this number may be somewhat mitigated by the rate of colonization, however, that is unknown.<br /><br />Finally, according to the proposal to list goldenseal in Appendix II of CITES (1997),  \"the decline to rarity of this species has been reiterated by numerous authors including Millspaugh 1887, Henkel and Klugh 1904, Lloyd and Lloyd 1908, Grieve 1931, Deam 1940, Fernald 1950, Hill 1952, Gleason 1968, Schery 1972, Wofford 1989, Catling and Small 1994, Elliott 1995, Foster 1991, and Foster 1995.\"",
    "inventoryNeeds" : "Need further population data from states, especially those with 'uncommon' and 'secure' SRANKs (state conservation ranks). All states need to monitor population trends to determine effects that legal and illegal collection, as well as threats from habitat loss, are having on the populations. States that actively track this species should search areas of potential habitat. Populations should be monitored for the presence of the leaf blight which is threatening the population in the Great Smoky Mountains.",
    "numberProtEosComments" : "Many sites throughout the range are on federal, state, local, or private organizations (including some populations within Nature Conservancy preserves). Plants on public and protected lands need greater protection from illegal collecting and existing regulations protecting plants on public and protected lands need greater enforcement. <br /><br />Removal from state protected list occurred in North Carolina, in December 2010. The North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Plant Conservation Board removed goldenseal from the protected plant list (Greenfield and Davis 2012).  There are no state restrictions on harvesting or cultivating in the state.  Within the state, however, permits to collect the plants on federal forests will not be granted (Greenfield and Davis 2012).",
    "protectionNeeds" : "Plants on public and protected lands need greater protection from legal and illegal collecting, and existing regulations protecting plants on public and protected lands need greater enforcement.  Also, it is common practice for some harvesters to collect in late-summer and fall as the plant is going dormant. This may maximize harvesting returns and minimize collection and threats to the plant because a) rhizomes are bigger inthe fall than in the early part of the growing season and b) more rhizomes moisture content is lower in the fall so fewer rhizomes need to be collected to equal the fresh:dry weight ration of rhizomes collected in the spring (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006).  These observations could be used to guide permitting by state governments.",
    "otherConsiderations" : "Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, using samples from both wild and cultivated populations in North Carolina (cultivated), Ohio (cultivated), Pennsylvania (wild) and West Virginia (wild), showed that most genetic variation was found within groups and among samples within populations, but not between the wild and cultivated groups (Kelley 2009).  Moderate to high levels of genetic variation were found within both the wild and cultivated groups (F-statistic = 0.738, within populations) (Kelley 2009).  What is important to note, however, is that Kelley (2009) found that some populations had very low genetic diversity suggesting that these wild populations were not frequently reproducing sexually, and expanding vegetatively.  This is not surprising since it is widely known that it is clonal.  Another genetic study in 2012 examining genetic diversity of 6 population in western North Carolina found that most genetic variation was within populations, but that overall all genetic and allelic diversity was low among populations suggesting that outbreeding depression would be an unlikely effect from replanting declining populations in North Carolina (Torgerson 2012).",
    "intrinsicVulnerabilityComments" : "Primarily a clonal species with low seed to ramet production, but with some or few seedlings advancing to higher life stages allowing for at least infrequent infusion of genetic diversity into populations via sexual reproduction by seed.  It takes between four and five years for a plant to reach sexual maturity, i.e. the point at which it produces flowers.  Seedlings successfully moving forward to the next life-stages may be dependent on geographic location within its range, since in Ontario seedlings were rarely observed while in Ohio seedlings were still low in number but not rare (Sinclair and Catling 2000, Christensen and Gorchov 2010).<br /><br />Sexual reproduction contributes less to population growth due to low survival of seedlings: only 36% of seedlings made it to yr 2 and only 54% of these made it to yr 3, but new ramets had a 73% survival rate to the second year (Christensen and Gorchov 2010).  Further inbreeding is not expected in goldenseal since it produces ramets and flowers, and is self-compatible (Sinclair et al. 2000, Sanders and McGraw 2003, Christensen and Gorchov 2010, Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).<br /><br />In terms of population growth rate, Sinclair and Catling (2002) describe goldenseal's growth rate in non-harvested populations, at the northern limit of its range as slight and slow.  Studies in West Virginia examining its recovery from harvest, show an initial surge in growth (increased stem number), but that few plants progressed from one life history stage to the next in following years (Van der Voort et al. 2003).  This is exemplified by results in Sanders and McGraw (2005), who examined growth response to harvest.  Sanders and McGraw (2005) found that ramet leaf area recovered only 34% of the orginal pre-harvested leaf-area after 2 years [leaf area in the sampling plots from year 1 to year 2 was a measure of growth and recovery].",
    "enviromentalSpecificityComments" : null
  },
  "animalCharacteristics" : null,
  "occurrenceDelineations" : [ {
    "eoSpecsDetailId" : 123469,
    "locationUseClass" : {
      "id" : 1,
      "locationUseClassDescEn" : "Not applicable",
      "locationUseClassDescEs" : null,
      "locationUseClassDescFr" : null
    },
    "eoSpecGroupName" : null,
    "subtypes" : null,
    "inferredExtentDistance" : null,
    "inferredExtentNotes" : null,
    "minimumEoCriteria" : "Any naturally occurring discrete population defines an occurrence.",
    "mappingGuidance" : null,
    "separationBarriers" : null,
    "separationDistanceUnsuitableHabitatat" : 0.5,
    "separationDistanceSuitableHabitatat" : 1.5,
    "altSeparationProcedure" : null,
    "separationJustification" : "There are no data to suggest minimum distances between occurrences but we suggest at least 0.5 kilometers of unsuitable habitat or 1.5 kilometers of suitable but unoccupied habitat as separation distances between individual occurrences. Individual stems are generally found in clumps or clusters, with clumps ranging from a handful of stems to over a thousand stems. The typical clump range appears to be between 70 and 500 stems. Distinct clumps with continuous suitable habitat should be considered sub-populations of one large single occurrence, assuming there is no more than 1.5 kilometers between clumps.",
    "versionDate" : "2000-01-14",
    "versionAuthor" : "Weldy, T., and S. Young",
    "versionNotes" : "NYHP",
    "lastModified" : null
  } ],
  "plantCharacteristics" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "genusEconomicValue" : true,
    "economicComments" : "Goldenseal roots, plants, leaves, seeds, fruits and whole plants are sold in many forms: powdered, dried or fresh (Egert 2007). Two parts of the goldenseal plant are used for medicinal purposes: the rhizomes and leaves (or aerial parts).  Rhizomes seem to be the preferred target for harvest because goldenseal rhizomes have the highest concentration of medicinally-active alkaloids, berberine, hydrastine and canadine.  Leaves and stems  contain lower levels of these alkaloids (Douglas et al. 2010).<br /><br />Studies have found that goldenseal performs well as a yeast inhibitor, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, bile stimulant, and immune system stimulant (Bradley 1992, Benigni et al. 1962, Liu 1991, Kaneda 1991, Murray 1995, Sun 1988, Sack 1982). These properties help cure mouth and gum disorders, eye afflictions, infected wounds, bacterial or fungal infections, diarrhea, vaginitis, food poisoning, giardia, cholera, and dermatitis (e.g. Mills 1991, Murray 1995, Amalaradjou &amp; Venkitanarayanan 2011). In a survey of AIDS/HIV patients, goldenseal was one of the products most purchased, and most recommended by health-store employees (Medical Sciences Bulletin 1995).<br /><br />Studies in medical journals focused on the interaction of goldenseal with other drugs (Guo et al. 2011, Chatuphonprasert 2012, Shi &amp; Klotz 2012, Gurley et al. 2012,  Zadoyan &amp; Fuhr 2012, and Yamaura et al. 2012) and its chemical makeup (Le et al. 2012). There is evidence of the effectiveness of it treating mycoplasmosis (Arjoon 2012), H1N1 influenza A virus (Cecil et al. 2011), cancer (Karmakar et al. 2010 and Kim et al. 2010), and growth inhibition of MRSA (methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>)(Cech et al. 2012).<br /><br />The American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) is a trade association with over 200 herbal companies as members. AHPA surveys their members annually and goldenseal tonnage reports are based on these surveys (from up to 10 companies). Between 21 and 63 tons of dried rhizome and 0.1-10 tons of fresh wild rhizome were harvested each year from 2000-2010. In 1998, the AHPA recorded only 2% from cultivated sources, and this percentage increased to17-41% between 2000 - 2010.  AHPA members increased procurement of cultivated goldenseal by 2-17% from 1998-2010 (Dentali &amp; Zimmerman 2012).  AHPA (2012) reported in that timeframe that 21,500 kg of the total 255,000 kg harvested were exported internationally. Since, 2003 all US exports (including roots, powder, and derivatives) are from cultivated sources according to the CITES trade database (2013).<br /><br />As with other medicinal plants, the \"problem\" with cultivating goldenseal is that you have to wait several years to get a product.  There are two methods for cultivating goldenseal: woods-cultivated and wild-simulated.  Woods/forest cultivated methods require less investment, but profit earnings are unpredictable.  Burkhart and Jacobson (2009) indicated that cultivating goldenseal in a forest was not profitable at a historics price of $20/pound because of the annual production cost over the multiple years required before harvest. However, if has been suggested that organic certification may be a viable option to increase profitability of cultivated goldenseal (Burkhart and Jacobson 2009).<br /><br />The price for rhizomes increased from the $5/lb in the 1970s to $40/lb in the late 1990s and early 2000s, with a downturn in 2005 when growers and wild harvesters earned about $15/lb. The price per pound for leaves consistently averages half that of the rhizomes (PA DCNR 2012). In 2010, organic goldenseal farmers were earning $40/lb for rhizomes (Baker 2010). Recent information indicates that cultivated goldenseal may be garnering a higher price than wild goldenseal, with cultivated root selling for $30-35/dried pound and wild material selling for $20-25/pound (David and Greenfield 2012).",
    "plantProductionMethods" : [ {
      "plantCagProdMethodId" : 100091,
      "productionMethod" : {
        "id" : 2,
        "productionMethodDescEn" : "Cultivated",
        "productionMethodDescEs" : null,
        "productionMethodDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagProdMethodId" : 100090,
      "productionMethod" : {
        "id" : 1,
        "productionMethodDescEn" : "Wild-harvested",
        "productionMethodDescEs" : null,
        "productionMethodDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "plantDurations" : [ {
      "plantCagDurationId" : 101910,
      "duration" : {
        "id" : 3,
        "durationDescEn" : "PERENNIAL",
        "durationDescEs" : null,
        "durationDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagDurationId" : 101911,
      "duration" : {
        "id" : 5,
        "durationDescEn" : "Long-lived",
        "durationDescEs" : null,
        "durationDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "plantEconomicUses" : [ {
      "plantCagEconomicUseId" : 101288,
      "economicUse" : {
        "id" : 17,
        "economicUseDescEn" : "Pharmaceutical",
        "economicUseDescEs" : null,
        "economicUseDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagEconomicUseId" : 100513,
      "economicUse" : {
        "id" : 16,
        "economicUseDescEn" : "MEDICINE/DRUG",
        "economicUseDescEs" : null,
        "economicUseDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagEconomicUseId" : 101289,
      "economicUse" : {
        "id" : 18,
        "economicUseDescEn" : "Folk medicine",
        "economicUseDescEs" : null,
        "economicUseDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "plantCommercialImportances" : [ {
      "plantCagCommImportId" : 100078,
      "commercialImportance" : {
        "id" : 2,
        "commercialImportanceDescEn" : "Minor cash crop",
        "commercialImportanceDescEs" : null,
        "commercialImportanceDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
      "plantCagCommImportId" : 100079,
      "commercialImportance" : {
        "id" : 3,
        "commercialImportanceDescEn" : "Indigenous crop",
        "commercialImportanceDescEs" : null,
        "commercialImportanceDescFr" : null
      }
    } ]
  },
  "elementManagement" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "eoManagementGroupName" : null,
    "stewardshipOverview" : "Populations should be monitored for impacts related to harvest, and wild-collection is a primary threat to this species.  Most populations of goldenseal are made-up of 1000 and fewer stems, and while populations may be small protecting even the smallest should be considered.  Goldenseal maintains a mixed-breeding system and is able to self-pollinate to produce fruit, as well as produce sterile stems (non-flowering) that are genetically identical to other stems in the same patch (Christensen and Gorchov 2010, Sanders 2004).  Since goldenseal is capable of self-pollination to set fruit, even small populations can be long-lived, and can act as sources of genetic variability for other nearby populations (Sanders 2004).  Further, populations in small areas should be considered for conservation based on research that showed that goldenseal responds favorably to light and soil disturbance, and larger populations were associated with small habitat area (Sinclair and Catling 200b).  A genetic study in North Carolina showed that while higher levels of genetic diversity were measured within populations, that genetic and allelic diversity was low across populations suggesting that reintroductions into populations would not likely cause outbreeding depression (Torgerson 2012). <br><br>Studies show that the best measure of past collection is the number of fertile (Sinclair and Catling 2000, Christensen and Gorchov 2010) and large sterile plants (Christensen and Gorchov 2010) from year to year, as these two life classes are responsible for maintaining or proliferating population size.<br><br>Data collection on environmental conditions such as temperature, precipitation and soil nutrients should be maintained over the life of any monitoring program.  Buds for next year's stems are formed in summer or fall (Sinclair and Catling 2000) and spring growth is likely linked with the size of the flower bud and a determiner of whether plants will reproduce vegetatively or sexually in a given year (Christensen and Gorchov 2010). Growth is dependent on precipitation and temperature, and in one study high levels of soil nutrients (especially phosphorus) promoted growth of young stems (Sinclair and Catling 2000).<br><br>Other data related to the habitat should also be collected, such as percent canopy cover and soil displacement by animals and uprooted trees since goldenseal positively responds to mild disturbance, particularly light gaps and some soil disturbance (McGraw et al. 2003).  Management and monitoring of patches should be done based on changes in leaf-area from year to year, and not stem count.  Results from illicitly harvested patches in West Virginia show that leaf-area was immediately and negatively affected compared to pre-harvest leaf-area, and that stem-counts do not clearly relate to pre-harvest numbers (Sanders and McGraw 2005).  Finally, if populations are harvested, the time of year this takes place should be noted.  Albrecht and McCarthy (2006) found that fall-harvested populations may recover faster than those harvested in the mid-summer.<br><br>Success in monitoring and managing population dynamics is dependent on the knowledge of the data collectors and program managers, since understanding the reproductive life history of this plant is critical (i.e. it is known that large sterile (non-flowerig) plants transition back and forth from fertile plants) for accurate tracking of population health and viability.  Further, managers should know the local phenology pattern of the plant from emergence to senescence.  Detailed information about the life history of goldenseal is available in Christensen and Gorchov (2010), general biology and complexities associated with management are provided in Sinclair and Catling (2000), and diagram of the root (used in medicinal compounds) available in Van der Voort et al. (2003).",
    "impacts" : null,
    "restorationPotential" : null,
    "siteConservationPlansConsidered" : null,
    "managementMethods" : null,
    "monitoringMethods" : null,
    "managementProgramContacts" : null,
    "monitoringProgramContacts" : null,
    "managementResearchPrograms" : null,
    "managementResearchNeeds" : null,
    "biologicalResearchNeeds" : "Few studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of the species.  Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed that moderate to high genetic diversity was found in wild populations sampled in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, but that some populations had very low genetic diversity suggesting they are reproducing vegetatively (Kelley 2009). One other study examined 6 goldenseal locations in North Carolina and found that most genetic variation was found within populations, however, genetic diversity across populations was found to be low (Torgerson 2012).  Torgerson (2012) notes that because genetic and allelic diversity was low across all of the goldenseal populations researched in North Carolina, that reintroductions into declining populations should not cause genetic loss through oubreeding depression.  Similar studies in other states in the core range states would further help inform stewardship practices such as reintroductions in harvested populations.  Genetic studies are also needed to examine the consequences of climate change if low genetic levels are detected along the leading or trailing edges of its range.   Genetic diversity should also be considered when developing stewardship programs focused on responsible harvesting.<br /><br />Patterns of rhizome collection need to be documented to better understand the proportion of size classes that harvesters remove, and how goldenseal responds to these different patterns (pers. comm. Gorchov 2012).  In other words, the frequency, intensity and technique of harvesting patterns needs monitoring, in addition to its re-growth response (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006).<br /><br />Modeling is also a need.  Models that project the impact of harvesting based on the different proportions of life history classes collected and at different time intervals are needed (pers. comm. Gorchov 2012).  Models that use real-life harvesting practices could be intrumental in documenting and predicting the decline of goldenseal, and decline is a vital component to assessing extinction risk for this clonal species.<br /><br />The extent of impact of deer browse on patches throughout goldenseal's range is needed (pers. comm. Gorchov 2012).  Many states record that white-tailed deer herbivory is a threat, however, the extent of the threat is not well understood.<br /><br />Lastly, there are a number of questions relating to the economic trade that need research.  It is not clear what percentage of wild harvested goldenseal is used domestically.  It is not clear what the harvest or cultivation practices are of herbal companies that do not belong to AHPA (American Herbal Products Association). It is also not clear if this is offsetting collection pressure from wild populations of goldenseal, given that some states continue to report declines, and to what extent poaching is impacting wild populations.  More research is required to determine whether current goldenseal demands can be satisfied by increased cultivation and whether market prices might stabilize if there are potentially stable supplies of goldenseal.",
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Mulligan and Gorchov",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2004,
    "referenceCode" : "A04MUL01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 115767,
    "citation" : "Murray, M. 1995. The Healing Power of Herbs. Prima, Rocklin, Calif. Pp. 162-172.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Murray",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1995,
    "referenceCode" : "B95MUR01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 147749,
    "citation" : "Murray, Nancy. Personal communication. Coordinator, Connecticut Natural Diversity Database.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Murray",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDMUR02HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719361,
    "citation" : "National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). 2012. Available online: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/goldenseal#science. Accessed 2012.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "NCCAM",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2012,
    "referenceCode" : "W12NCC01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 715923,
    "citation" : "O'Connor, Ryan. Personal communication. Ecologist/Inventory Coordinator, Natural Heritage Inventory, Bureau of Endangered Resources, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "O'Conner",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDOCO01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 119031,
    "citation" : "Oldham, Michael. Personal communication. Botanist, Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Oldham",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDOLD01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719368,
    "citation" : "Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (PA DCNR). 2012. <i>About goldenseal</i>. Available online: www.dcnr.state.pa.us/forestry/wildplant/aboutgoldenseal.aspx. Accessed December 2012.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "PA DCNR",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2012,
    "referenceCode" : "W12PAD01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719346,
    "citation" : "Penskar, M.R, E.G. Choberka, and P.J. Higman 2001. Special Plant Abstract for <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> (goldenseal). Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Lansing, MI. 3 pp.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Penskar et al.",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2001,
    "referenceCode" : "N01PEN02HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 115330,
    "citation" : "Penskar, Mike. Personal communication. Botanist, Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Lansing, MI.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Penskar",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDPEN01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 119570,
    "citation" : "Planet Herbs. 1999. Planet Herbs: Natural botanicals wholesale. Online. Available: http://www.planetherbs.net. Accessed 2000-Jan.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Planet Herbs",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1999,
    "referenceCode" : "N99PLA01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 627730,
    "citation" : "Popp, Robert. Personal communication. Botanist, Vermont Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department, Barre, VT.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Popp",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDPOP02HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 125088,
    "citation" : "Sack, R.B. and Froehlich, J.L. 1982. Berberine inhibits intestinal secretory response of Vibrio cholerae toxins and E. coli enterotoxins. Infect. Immun. 35: 471-475.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sack and Froehlich",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1982,
    "referenceCode" : "A82SAC01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719347,
    "citation" : "Sanders, S. 2004. Does breeding system contribute to rarity of Goldenseal (<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>)? American Midland Naturalist 152: 37-42.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sanders",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2004,
    "referenceCode" : "A04SAN01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719348,
    "citation" : "Sanders, S. and J. B. McGraw. 2005. Harvest recovery of Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> L. The American Midland Naturalist 153(1): 87-94.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sanders and McGraw",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2005,
    "referenceCode" : "A05SAN02HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 715914,
    "citation" : "Sather, Nancy. Personal communication. Botanist/Ecologist. Minnesota Natural Heritage & Nongame Research.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sather",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDSAT01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 118648,
    "citation" : "Schery, R.W. 1972. Plants for Man, 2nd edition. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 657 pp.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Schery",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1972,
    "referenceCode" : "B72SCH01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 143752,
    "citation" : "Schotz, A. Personal Communication. Community Ecologist/Botanist, Alabama Natural Heritage Program.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Schotz",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDSCH02HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 714730,
    "citation" : "Sinclair, A. and P. M. Catling. 2000a. Status of Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> (Ranunculaceae), in Canada. The Canadian Field Naturalist 114(1): 111-120.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sinclair and Catling",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2000,
    "referenceCode" : "A00SIN01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719350,
    "citation" : "Sinclair, A. and P. M. Catling. 2000b. Ontario Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>, populations in relation to habitat size, paths and woodland edges. Canadian Field-Naturalist 11(4): 652-655.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sinclair and Catling",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2000,
    "referenceCode" : "A00SIN04HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719351,
    "citation" : "Sinclair, A. and P. M. Catling. 2002. Recent trends in stem number in Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>, populations at the northern limit of its range. Canadian Field-Naturalist 116(1): 112-115.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sinclair and Catling",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2002,
    "referenceCode" : "A02SIN01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 714731,
    "citation" : "Sinclair, A., P. M. Catling, and L. Dumouchel. 2000. Notes on the pollination and dispersal of Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis </i>L., in southwestern Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 114(3): 499-501.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sinclair et al.",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2000,
    "referenceCode" : "A00SIN02HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 114494,
    "citation" : "Smith, Tim. Personal communication. Botanist, Missouri Department of Conservation. Missouri Department of Conservation 2901 West Truman Blvd Jefferson City, MO, 65102-0180 573-751-4115",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Smith",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDSMI01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 121876,
    "citation" : "Smith, W. R. Personal communication. Botanist, Minnesota Natural Heritage Program, Minnesota Dept. Natural Resources, St. Paul, MN. ",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Smith",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDSMI03HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 620394,
    "citation" : "Sullivan, Heather.  Personal communication.  Botanist, Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, MS.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sullivan",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDSUL01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 134178,
    "citation" : "Sun, D. 1988. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells, fibronectin, and hexadecane. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1370-1374.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Sun",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1988,
    "referenceCode" : "A88SUN01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 721590,
    "citation" : "Tait, C. R. 2006a. Spatial distribution and habitat preference of Goldenseal, (<i>Hydrastis canadensis) </i>in New York state. M.S. Thesis - State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, N.Y.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Tait",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2006,
    "referenceCode" : "U06TAI01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 721586,
    "citation" : "Tobe, H. 2003a. Hydrastidaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. and C. Bayer. Flowering Plants Dicotyledons Vol. 5. Springer, Frankfurt, Germany. 438 pp.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Tobe",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2003,
    "referenceCode" : "B03TOB01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 721600,
    "citation" : "Torgerson, J. M. 2012a. Genetic variation in <i>Hydrastis canadensis </i>populations in western North Carolina. M.S. thesis, Western Carolina University. 61 pp.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Torgerson",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2012,
    "referenceCode" : "U12TOR01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 662071,
    "citation" : "Townsend, J. Personal communication. Staff Botanist. Virginia Division of Natural Heritage. Department of Conservation and Recreation. Richmond, VA.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Townsend",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDTOW01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 715917,
    "citation" : "Underwood, Malissa. Personal communication. Botanist. Missouri Natural Heritage Program.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Underwood",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDUND01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 719353,
    "citation" : "Van der Voort, M. E., B. Bailey, D. E. Samuel, and J. B. McGraw. 2003. Recovery of populations of Goldenseal (<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> L.) and American Ginseng (<i>Panax quinquefolius</i> L.) following harvest. The American Midland Naturalist 149(2): 282-292.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Van der Voort et al.",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2003,
    "referenceCode" : "A03VAN01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 106273,
    "citation" : "Veninga, L. and B. Zaricor. 1976. Goldenseal/Etc: A Pharmacognosy of Wild Herbs. Ruka Publications, Santa Cruz.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Veninga and Zaricor",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1976,
    "referenceCode" : "B76VEN01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 153011,
    "citation" : "White, Deborah. Personal communication. Botanist, Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "White",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDWHI01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 509330,
    "citation" : "Witsell, Theo. Personal communication. Botanist. Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. Little Rock, AR.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Witsell",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDWIT01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 152570,
    "citation" : "Wofford, B.E. 1989. Guide to vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. University of Georgia Press. Athens, Georgia.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Wofford",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1989,
    "referenceCode" : "B89WOF01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  }, {
    "id" : 149748,
    "citation" : "Young, Steve. Personal communication. Botanist, New York Natural Heritage Program.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Young",
    "shortCitationYear" : null,
    "referenceCode" : "PNDYOU01HQUS",
    "lastModified" : null
  } ],
  "otherCommonNames" : [ {
    "id" : 127007,
    "name" : "goldenseal",
    "language" : "EN"
  }, {
    "id" : 138983,
    "name" : "Hydraste du Canada",
    "language" : "FR"
  }, {
    "id" : 197972,
    "name" : "Orangeroot",
    "language" : "EN"
  }, {
    "id" : 138984,
    "name" : "Sceau d'or",
    "language" : "FR"
  }, {
    "id" : 140573,
    "name" : "Yellow Root",
    "language" : "EN"
  }, {
    "id" : 140462,
    "name" : "Yellow-puccoon",
    "language" : "EN"
  } ],
  "speciesGlobal" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "cites" : {
      "id" : 2,
      "citesDescEn" : "Appendix II",
      "citesDescEs" : null,
      "citesDescFr" : null
    },
    "cosewic" : {
      "id" : 5,
      "cosewicDescEn" : "Special Concern",
      "cosewicDescEs" : null,
      "cosewicDescFr" : null,
      "cosewicCode" : "SC"
    },
    "fwsRegion" : null,
    "genusSize" : null,
    "jurisEndem" : {
      "id" : 5,
      "jurisEndemDescEn" : "occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations",
      "jurisEndemDescEs" : null,
      "jurisEndemDescFr" : null
    },
    "nomenclaturallyEst" : null,
    "usesa" : null,
    "informalTaxonomy" : {
      "informalTaxonomyId" : 108,
      "level1" : "Plants",
      "level2" : "Vascular Plants - Flowering Plants",
      "level3" : "Dicots",
      "level" : 3,
      "hasChildren" : false,
      "parentId" : 106,
      "distributionStatus" : "complete",
      "displayOrder" : 108
    },
    "parentSpecies" : null,
    "infraspecies" : false,
    "kingdom" : "Plantae",
    "phylum" : "Anthophyta",
    "taxclass" : "Dicotyledoneae",
    "taxorder" : "Ranunculales",
    "family" : "Ranunculaceae",
    "genus" : "Hydrastis",
    "americanFisheriesStatus" : null,
    "americanFisheriesStatusDate" : null,
    "saraStatus" : null,
    "saraStatusDate" : null,
    "cosewicDate" : "2019-05-01",
    "interpretedCosewic" : null,
    "cosewicComments" : "Reason for designation: Increased survey effort has resulted in the discovery of new subpopulations of this species since the last assessment. Although the number of mature individuals of this long-lived plant appears to be stable in recent decades, the remaining subpopulations remain subject to threats from deforestation, harvesting, and invasive species.<br /><br />Status history: Designated Threatened in April 1991. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000. Status re-examined and designated Special Concern in May 2019.",
    "usesaDate" : null,
    "interpretedUsesa" : null,
    "usesaComments" : null,
    "completeDistribution" : true,
    "synonyms" : [ ],
    "infraspeciesList" : [ ],
    "ebarId" : null,
    "ebarCanadianScope" : null,
    "ebarGlobalScope" : null
  },
  "speciesCharacteristics" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "reproductionComments" : "Goldenseal reproduces both clonally and sexually, with clonal division more frequent than asexual reproduction. It takes between 4 and 5 years for a plant to reach sexual maturity, i.e. the point at which it produces flowers. Plants in the first stage, when the seed erupts and cotyledons emerge, can remain in this state one or more years. The second vegetative stage occurs during years two and three (and sometimes longer) and is characterized by the development of a single leaf and absence of a well developed stem. Finally, the third stage is reproductive, at which point flowering and fruiting occurs. This last stage takes between 4 and 5 years to develop (Burkhart and Jacobson 2006).<br /><br />Flowers in April through May, and fruits from June through July (Eichenberger and Parker 1976, Sinclair et al. 2000). Fruit and seed set is not dependent on cross-pollination because Goldenseal has a mixed-mating system and flowers show similar fruit set whether or not pollinators were excluded (Sanders 2004, Christensen and Gorchov 2010).<br />In the northern reaches of goldenseal's range, in southwest Ontario, seedlings are rare (Sinclair and Catling 2000a). A study in the core portion of the range, in Ohio, found that while seedlings were far fewer than ramets, a 'substantial' number of the seedling-minority made it to the next life history stage, and ultimately represents an infusion of genetic diversity into the otherwise highly clonal population (Christensen and Gorchov 2010).<br />Christensen and Gorchov (2010) noted the following that seedling rarity is not due to: a) infrequent flowering, low fruit or seed set, and low seed viability.<br /><br />Christensen and Gorchov (2010) provide a good, clear diagram of the life-history of this plant, including diagrams of the possible transitions, places of regression to an earlier life stage, between life stages.",
    "ecologyComments" : null,
    "habitatComments" : "In the United States goldenseal is found in rich, densely shaded, deciduous forests with good air flow and water drainage (Greenfield and Davis 2012).  Light gaps and soil disturbance stimulate local proliferation (McGraw et al. 2003).<br /><br />Canada: In Southwest Ontario goldenseal is limited to deciduous woodlands near floodplains and periodic spring-flooded plateaus.  There only remnants of this woodland remains, less than 5%of these forests remain from pre-settlement times (Sinclair and Catling 2000).<br /><br />Goldenseal grows best in rich, mesic hardwood forest, especially those underlain by limestone or alkaline soils, butis also known from slightly acidic soils too. These forests are often second growth forests with the following associates (listed alphabetically by strata): <i>Acer rubrum</i>, <i>Acer saccharum</i>, <i>Betula lenta</i>, <i>Carpinus caroliniana</i>, <i>Carya </i>spp., <i>Fagus grandifolia</i>, <i>Fraxinus americana</i>,<i> Liriodendron tulipifera</i>, <i>Ostrya virginiana</i>, <i>Quercus</i> spp., <i>Thuja occidentalis</i>, <i>Tilia americana</i>, <i>Ulmus rubra</i>, <i>Cornus alternifolia</i>, <i>Corylus americana</i>, <i>Lindera benzoin</i>, <i>Lonicera </i>spp., <i>Parthenocissus quinquefolia</i>,<i> Toxicodendron radicans</i>, <i>Adiantum pedatum</i>, <i>Anemone quinquefolia</i>, <i>Aralia nudicaulis</i>, <i>Arisaema triphyllum</i>, <i>Asarum canadense</i>, <i>Asplenium platyneuron</i>, <i>Asplenium rhizophyllum</i>, <i>Carex platyphylla</i>, <i>Carex</i> spp., <i>Caulophyllum thalictroides</i>, <i>Cimicifuga racemosa</i>, <i>Dicentra</i> spp., <i>Dryopteris</i> spp., <i>Geranium maculatum</i>, <i>Hepatica</i> spp., <i>Hydrophyllum</i> spp., <i>Maianthemum </i>spp., <i>Mitella diphylla</i>, <i>Osmorhiza</i> spp., <i>Panax quinquefolius</i>, <i>Podophyllum peltatum</i>, <i>Polystichum acrostichoides</i>, <i>Sanguinaria canadensis</i>, <i>Trillium </i>spp., <i>Uvularia</i> spp., <i>Viola</i> spp. Species composition will vary considerable from region to region, but some of the above associates are likely to be found. Areas with <i>Hydrastis</i> also tend to have a nice collection of spring wildflowers and fern diversity is also likely higher than surrounding areas.<br />",
    "generalDescription" : "Goldenseal is a perennial plant that grows from stems one to two feet high.  Plants with single leaves produce no flowers and plants with two leaves produce flowers (Van der Voort et al. 2003).  The flowers are greenish-white, made up of three sepals and many stamens and carpels which emerge in April or May.  Fruits ripen between July and August.  Goldeneal produces a rhizome with many adventitious roots emerging from it.  The rhizome is yellowish, growing horizontally, is knotty and grows between 4-7cm long and between 0.5-2cm in width (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).",
    "diagnosticCharacteristics" : null,
    "speciesMarineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesTerrestrialHabitats" : [ {
      "cagTerrHabId" : 109257,
      "terrestrialHabitat" : {
        "id" : 1,
        "terrestrialHabitatDescEn" : "Forest - Hardwood",
        "terrestrialHabitatDescEs" : null,
        "terrestrialHabitatDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "speciesRiverineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesPalustrineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesLacustrineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesSubterraneanHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesEstuarineHabitats" : [ ]
  }
}

Central Biotics ID Parameters

Parameter Description

id

The primary key value (ELEMENT_GLOBAL_ID) of the record within Central Biotics

Element Code Parameters

Parameter Description

elCode

The Biotics Element Code (ELCODE_BCD) of the record

Only one parameter should be used. If multiple parameters are provided, only one will be considered. The order of precedence is:

  1. ouSeqUid

  2. id

  3. elCode

For example, if the provided ouSeqUid doesn’t match a record, no result will be returned, even if the id or elCode values match.

HTTP request

GET /api/data/taxonSearch?ouSeqUid=doesNotExist&id=154701 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Content-Type: text/plain;charset=ISO-8859-1

No taxon record found with ouSeqUid=doesNotExist

Get Ecosystem Hierarchy

Path

/api/data/ecosystemHierarchy/{ouSeqUid}

This service summarizes the upper level hierarchy for an Ecosystem record. It includes the uniqueID (Global UID) and the URL for all of the upper level entries which have been published to Explorer. If an Association ID is provided, the results will contain entries for Alliances and above. If a Group or Terrestrial Ecological System ID is provided, the results only contain entries for Macrogroup and above.

Parameter Description

ouSeqUid

The taxon’s Element Global UID

HTTP request

GET /api/data/ecosystemHierarchy/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.683060 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

[ {
  "uniqueId" : null,
  "name" : "Forest & Woodland",
  "nsxUrl" : null,
  "ecosystemType" : "CLASS",
  "classificationCode" : "1"
}, {
  "uniqueId" : null,
  "name" : "Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland",
  "nsxUrl" : null,
  "ecosystemType" : "SUBCLASS",
  "classificationCode" : "1.B"
}, {
  "uniqueId" : null,
  "name" : "Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland",
  "nsxUrl" : null,
  "ecosystemType" : "FORMATION",
  "classificationCode" : "1.B.2"
}, {
  "uniqueId" : "ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.860284",
  "name" : "Eastern North American & Great Plains Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland",
  "nsxUrl" : "/Taxon/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.860284/Eastern_North_American_Great_Plains_Cool_Temperate_Forest_Woodland",
  "ecosystemType" : "DIVISION",
  "classificationCode" : "1.B.2.Na"
}, {
  "uniqueId" : null,
  "name" : "Southern Rocky Mountain Two-needle Pinyon - One-seed Juniper Woodland",
  "nsxUrl" : null,
  "ecosystemType" : "MACROGROUP",
  "classificationCode" : "M027"
}, {
  "uniqueId" : "ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.833279",
  "name" : "Shortleaf Pine - Oak Forest & Woodland",
  "nsxUrl" : "/Taxon/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.833279/Pinus_echinata_-_Quercus_falcata_-_Quercus_stellata_Forest_Woodland_Group",
  "ecosystemType" : "GROUP",
  "classificationCode" : "G012"
}, {
  "uniqueId" : "ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.899395",
  "name" : "<i>Pinus echinata - Quercus stellata - Quercus velutina</i> Ozark-Ouachita Woodland Alliance",
  "nsxUrl" : "/Taxon/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.899395/Ozark-Ouachita_Shortleaf_Pine_-_Oak_Woodland",
  "ecosystemType" : "ALLIANCE",
  "classificationCode" : "A3271"
} ]

If the ouSeqUid parameter doesn’t match an Ecosystem record (which includes situations where it matches a plant or animal record), no results will be returned.

HTTP request

GET /api/data/ecosystemHierarchy/doesNotExist HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Content-Type: text/plain;charset=ISO-8859-1

No ecosystem record found with specified ouSeqUid doesNotExist

Overview of Search Services

There are multiple web services that support searching for taxa records.

  1. Combined Search - supports searching for both species and ecosystems using search criteria which are applicable to both types of records.

  2. Species Search - supports searching for only species; extends the search criteria available through the Combined Search to include support for additional criteria which are only applicable to species records.

  3. Ecosystems Search - supports searching for only ecosystems; extends the search criteria available through the Combined Search to include support for additional criteria which are only applicable to ecosystems records.

All of these work in the same way. Each web service accepts a POST request, where the content body is a JSON object that defines all search options. Refer to The Search Criteria Object for details. The service returns a JSON object that includes the matched records, a summary of the matching records, and a copy of the criteria which was used for the search. See Search Results for details.

The Search Criteria Object

HTTP request

POST /api/data/search HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Length: 350
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

{
  "criteriaType" : "combined",
  "textCriteria" : [ ],
  "statusCriteria" : [ ],
  "locationCriteria" : [ ],
  "pagingOptions" : {
    "page" : null,
    "recordsPerPage" : null
  },
  "recordSubtypeCriteria" : [ ],
  "modifiedSince" : null,
  "locationOptions" : null,
  "classificationOptions" : null,
  "recordTypeCriteria" : [ ]
}
Path Type Description

criteriaType

String

Required; Specifies the type of criteria being provided, which must correspond to the web service being called. Possible values are: combined, species, or ecosystems.

textCriteria

Array

Optional; Criteria used for searching by name or code; See Text Criteria for details.

statusCriteria

Array

Optional; Criteria for searching by conservation status; See Status Criteria for details.

locationCriteria

Array

Optional; Criteria for searching by location; See Location Criteria for details.

locationOptions

Null

Optional; See Location Options for details.

recordTypeCriteria

Array

Optional; Criteria for limiting results by record type; See Record Type Criteria for details. Only allowed if criteriaType=combined

recordSubtypeCriteria

Array

Optional; Criteria for limiting results by record sub-type; See Record Subtype Criteria for details.

pagingOptions

Object

Optional; Paging options; See Paging Options for details.

modifiedSince

Timestamp

Optional; Criteria used for searching for records modified since a given time. The value must be a date and time with a UTC offset in ISO 8601 format.

classificationOptions

Null

Optional; See Classification Options for details.

If criteriaType=species then the following additional criteria are also supported.

Path Type Description

speciesTaxonomyCriteria

Array

Optional; Criteria for searching by species taxonomy. See Species Taxonomy Criteria for details.

If criteriaType=ecosystems then the following additional criteria are also supported.

Path Type Description

ecosystemsTaxonomyCriteria

Array

Optional; Criteria for searching by ecosystem taxonomy. See Ecosystems Taxonomy Criteria for details.

Individual search parameters are added to array properties that end with the suffix "Criteria". Each of these properties is an array of parameters relating to a logical topic. When the criteria is evaluated, the parameters within each array are joined with ORs, and the overall arrays are joined with ANDs. However, national and subnational rank criteria are evaluated with each location parameter. For example, if the textCriteria array contains entries X, Y, and Z, the statusCriteria array contains entries A and B, and nationalRankCriteria N1 and N2 the locationCriteria the search will look for records:

where (textCriteria=X or textCriteria=Y or textCriteria=Z) and (statusCriteria=A or statusCriteria=B) and ( (locationCriteria=E and nationalRankCriteria=N1) or (locationCriteria=E and nationalRankCriteria=N2) )

Text Criteria

Text Criteria are used to match search strings against field values.

The textCriteria array can contain the following types of parameters:

The textCriteria array and all parameter types are supported by all search types.

Quick Search Parameter

A Quick Search Parameter is used to perform a broad search using a provided search term. Logically, it is equivalent to an Advanced Text Search with the following parameters defined:

  • a similarTo comparison matched against allNames

  • an equals comparison match against code

{
  "paramType" : "quickSearch",
  "searchToken" : "foo"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to quickSearch

searchToken

String

Required; The search value being evaluated (case does not matter).

Supported by:

Advanced Text Search Parameter
{
  "paramType" : "textSearch",
  "searchToken" : "foo",
  "matchAgainst" : "allNames",
  "operator" : "similarTo"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to textSearch

searchToken

String

Required; The search value being evaluated (case does not matter).

matchAgainst

String

Required; The fields against which the search value will be matched. Possible values:

scientificName - the primary scientific name.

allScientificNames - the primary scientific name(s) and synonyms.

primaryCommonName - the primary common name. If searching for ecological records, this also includes the translated name.

allCommonNames - the primary common name and all other common names.

allNames - all scientific and common names.

code - uniqueId, elcode, and elementGlobalId. If searching for ecological records, this also includes the classification code. Note that similarTo is not supported for this field.

operator

String

Required; The operator used for the comparison. Possible values: similarTo, contains, startsWith, equals

Supported by:

Status Criteria

Status Criteria are used to search for taxa having any of the specified conservation status values.

The statusCriteria array can contain the following types of parameters:

The statusCriteria array is supported by all search types, but some of the parameter types are restricted to certain web services.

Global Rank Parameter

Searches for rounded global rank values that match the specified value. This also matches records which have a T Rank. In other words, a search value of G1 will match a taxon record with a rounded global rank of T1.

{
  "paramType" : "globalRank",
  "globalRank" : "G1"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to globalRank

globalRank

String

Required; The rounded global rank value (case does not matter). Possible values: G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, GH, GX, GNR, GNA, GU.

Supported by:

National Rank Parameter

Searches for rounded national rank values that match the specified value. If a record has multiple national ranks, it will be returned if at least one rank matches the specified value. For example, searching for N1 will match a stored value of N1M,N3B,N2N.

{
  "paramType" : "nationalRank",
  "nationalRank" : "N1"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to nationalRank

nationalRank

String

Required; The rounded national rank value (case does not matter). Possible values: N1, N2, N3, N4, N5, NH, NX, NNR, NNA, NU.

Supported by:

Subnational Rank Parameter

Searches for rounded subnational rank values that match the specified value. This also matches P Ranks. In other words, a search value of S1 will match a taxon record with a rounded subnational rank of P1. If a record has multiple subnational ranks, it will be returned if at least one rank matches the specified value. For example, searching for S1 will match a stored value of S1M,S3B,S2N. It will also match a stored value of P1M,PNRN.

{
  "paramType" : "subnationalRank",
  "subnationalRank" : "S1"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to subnationalRank

subnationalRank

String

Required; The rounded subnational rank value (case does not matter). Possible values: S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, SH, SX, SNR, SNA, SU.

Supported by:

USESA Status Parameter

Searches for USESA Status values that match the specified value. If a record has multiple USESA status codes, it will be returned if at least one of them matches the specified value.

{
  "paramType" : "usesaStatus",
  "usesaCode" : "E"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to usesaStatus

usesaCode

String

Required; The USESA status code (case does not matter). Possible values: E, T, PE, PT, C, XE, XN, SAE, SAT, PSAE, PSAT, PDL, DL, PXN

Supported by:

COSEWIC Status Parameter

Search for COSEWIC Status values that match the specified value.

{
  "paramType" : "cosewicStatus",
  "cosewicCode" : "E"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to cosewicStatus

cosewicCode

String

Required; The COSEWIC status code (case does not matter). Possible values: X, XT, E, T, SC, NAR, DD, CH, CM, CL, Non-active/Nonactive

Supported by:

Location Criteria

Location Criteria are used to search for taxa which have distribution records within any of the specified locations.

The locationCriteria array can contain the following types of parameters:

The locationCriteria array and all parameter types are supported by all search types.

Nation Parameter
{
  "paramType" : "nation",
  "nation" : "US"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to nation

nation

String

Required; The ISO nation code (case does not matter).

Supported by:

Subnation Parameter
{
  "paramType" : "subnation",
  "subnation" : "VA",
  "nation" : "US"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to subnation

nation

String

Required; The ISO nation code which contains the subnation (case does not matter).

subnation

String

Required; The subnation code, as defined within Biotics (case does not matter).

Supported by:

Location Options

These are additional options that affect how Location Criteria are evaluated.

{
  "origin" : "onlyExotics"
}
Path Type Description

origin

String

Optional; Defines whether searches will be limited to only include species which are native or exotic within the specified locations. Defaults to "all" if the property or the locationOptions object is not specified. Only applicable when searching for species. If specified for a search which does not return species, this property will be ignored. Possible values: all, onlyNatives, onlyExotics

Supported by:

Record Type Criteria

This criteria is intended as a way to quickly limit the results of a combined search to one type of records. As such, it is only supported by the Combined Search web service.

The recordTypeCriteria array can contain the following types of parameters:

Record Type Parameter
{
  "paramType" : "recordType",
  "recordType" : "SPECIES"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to recordType

recordType

String

Required; The type of records to return (case does not matter). Supported values: SPECIES, ECOSYSTEM

Supported by:

Record Subtype Criteria

This criteria is intended as a way to quickly limit the results of either a combined search or an ecosystems search to a particular type of ecosystem. As such, the array can only be populated with values when calling the Combined Search or Ecosystems Search web services.

The recordSubtypeCriteria array can contain the following types of parameters:

Ecosystem Type Parameter
{
  "paramType" : "ecosystemType",
  "ecosystemType" : "MACROGROUP"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to ecosystemType

ecosystemType

String

Required; The subtype of ecosystem records to return (case does not matter). Supported values: CLASS, SUBCLASS, FORMATION, DIVISION, MACROGROUP, GROUP, ALLIANCE, ASSOCIATION, TERRESTRIAL_ECOLOGICAL_SYSTEM

Supported by:

Species Taxonomy Criteria

Species Taxonomy Criteria are used to search for species which are classified within any of the specified scientific or informal taxonomy categories.

The speciesTaxonomy array can contain the following types of parameters:

This array can only be included when calling the Species Search web service.

Scientific Taxonomy Parameter
{
  "paramType" : "scientificTaxonomy",
  "level" : "GENUS",
  "scientificTaxonomy" : "Collinsia",
  "kingdom" : "Animalia"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to scientificTaxonomy

level

String

Required; The taxonomic hierarchy level (case does not matter). Possible values: KINGDOM,PHYLUM,CLASS,ORDER,FAMILY,GENUS

scientificTaxonomy

String

Required; The taxonomy value (case does not matter)

kingdom

String

The kingdom which contains the scientificTaxonomy search term (case does not matter). This parameter is ignored if level is KINGDOM but is required for all other levels.

Supported by:

Informal Taxonomy Parameter
{
  "paramType" : "informalTaxonomy",
  "informalTaxonomy" : "Birds"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to informalTaxonomy

informalTaxonomy

String

Required; The informal taxonomic category (case does not matter).

Supported by:

Ecosystems Taxonomy Criteria

Ecosystems Taxonomy Criteria are used to search for ecosystems which have any of the specified ancestors. Results will be children or further descendants of the specified records.

The ecosystemsTaxonomy array can contain the following types of parameters:

This array can only be included when calling the Ecosystems Search web service.

Ecosystem Hierarchy Ancestor Parameter
{
  "paramType" : "ecosystemHierarchyAncestor",
  "classificationCode" : "M067"
}
Path Type Description

paramType

String

Required; Must be set to ecosystemHierarchyAncestor

classificationCode

String

Required; The classification code of the higher level (ancestor) ecosystem. Example values: 1 (Class code), 1.B (Subclass code), 1.B.2 (Formation code), 1.B.2.Nd (Division code), M886 (Macrogroup key), G206 (Group key), A3328 (Alliance Key)

Supported by:

Classification Options

{
  "includeInfraspecies" : true,
  "includeProvisional" : true,
  "includeNonstandard" : true
}
Path Type Description

includeInfraspecies

Boolean

Optional; Defines whether or not to include varieties, subspecies, and populations within search results. Defaults to true if either the property value or classificationOptions object is not defined. Only applicable when searching for species. If specified for a search which does not return species, this property will be ignored.

includeProvisional

Boolean

Optional; Defines whether taxa with provisional taxonomy will be returned. Defaults to true if either the property value or classificationOptions object is not defined.

includeNonstandard

Boolean

Optional; Defines whether taxa with nonstandard taxonomy will be returned. Defaults to true if either the property value or classificationOptions object is not defined.

Supported by:

Paging Options

{
  "page" : 0,
  "recordsPerPage" : 20
}
Path Type Description

page

Number

Optional; Zero-indexed page number; default value is 0.

recordsPerPage

Number

Optional; Records per page; default value is 20.

Search Results

HTTP request

POST /api/data/search HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 299

{
  "criteriaType" : "combined",
  "textCriteria" : [ ],
  "statusCriteria" : [ ],
  "locationCriteria" : [ ],
  "pagingOptions" : null,
  "recordSubtypeCriteria" : [ ],
  "modifiedSince" : null,
  "locationOptions" : null,
  "classificationOptions" : null,
  "recordTypeCriteria" : [ ]
}

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "results" : [ {
    "recordType" : "SPECIES",
    "elementGlobalId" : 0,
    "uniqueId" : "ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.129701",
    "nsxUrl" : "/Taxon/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.129701/Quercus_acerifolia",
    "elcode" : "PDFAG05350",
    "scientificName" : "Quercus acerifolia",
    "formattedScientificName" : "<i>Quercus acerifolia</i>",
    "primaryCommonName" : "Mapleleaf Oak",
    "primaryCommonNameLanguage" : "EN",
    "roundedGRank" : "G1",
    "nations" : [ {
      "nationCode" : "US",
      "roundedNRank" : "N1",
      "subnations" : [ {
        "subnationCode" : "AR",
        "roundedSRank" : "S1",
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }, {
        "subnationCode" : "OK",
        "roundedSRank" : "SNA",
        "exotic" : true,
        "native" : false
      } ],
      "exotic" : true,
      "native" : false
    } ],
    "lastModified" : null,
    "classificationStatus" : null,
    "speciesGlobal" : {
      "usesaCode" : "LE",
      "cosewicCode" : "X",
      "saraCode" : null,
      "synonyms" : [ "Synonym 1", "Synonym 2" ],
      "otherCommonNames" : [ "Common name 1", "Common name 2" ],
      "kingdom" : "Plantae",
      "phylum" : "Anthophyta",
      "taxclass" : "Dicotyledoneae",
      "taxorder" : "Fagales",
      "family" : "Fagaceae",
      "genus" : "Quercus",
      "taxonomicComments" : "<b>Taxonomic comments</b> might include some HTML markup",
      "informalTaxonomy" : "Plants - Vascular Plants - Flowering Plants - Dicots",
      "infraspecies" : false,
      "completeDistribution" : true
    },
    "gRank" : "G1G2"
  }, {
    "recordType" : "ECOSYSTEM",
    "elementGlobalId" : 0,
    "uniqueId" : "ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.683214",
    "nsxUrl" : "/Taxon/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.683214/Juniperus_virginiana_-_Quercus_spp_Ruderal_Forest",
    "elcode" : "CEGL004731",
    "scientificName" : "Juniperus virginiana - Quercus spp. Ruderal Forest",
    "formattedScientificName" : "<i>Juniperus virginiana - Quercus</i> spp. Ruderal Forest",
    "primaryCommonName" : "Highland Rim Ruderal Red-cedar - Oak Forest",
    "primaryCommonNameLanguage" : "EN",
    "roundedGRank" : "GNA",
    "nations" : [ {
      "nationCode" : "US",
      "roundedNRank" : "NNA",
      "subnations" : [ {
        "subnationCode" : "AL",
        "roundedSRank" : "SNA"
      }, {
        "subnationCode" : "GA",
        "roundedSRank" : "SNA"
      }, {
        "subnationCode" : "KY",
        "roundedSRank" : "SNA"
      }, {
        "subnationCode" : "TN",
        "roundedSRank" : "SNA"
      } ]
    } ],
    "lastModified" : null,
    "classificationStatus" : null,
    "ecosystemGlobal" : {
      "translatedScientificName" : "Eastern Red-cedar - Oak species Ruderal Forest",
      "taxclassCode" : "1",
      "taxsubclassCode" : "1.B",
      "formationCode" : "1.B.2",
      "divisionCode" : "1.B.2.Na",
      "macrogroupKey" : "M013",
      "taxgroupKey" : "G030",
      "allianceKey" : "A3227",
      "ecosystemType" : "ASSOCIATION",
      "classificationCode" : "CEGL004731",
      "parentName" : "Ruderal Eastern Red-cedar - Virginia Pine - Mixed Conifer Forest"
    },
    "gRank" : "GNA"
  } ],
  "resultsSummary" : {
    "page" : 0,
    "recordsPerPage" : 20,
    "totalPages" : 1,
    "totalResults" : 2,
    "speciesResults" : {
      "total" : 10
    },
    "ecosystemResults" : {
      "total" : 1,
      "classes" : 0,
      "subclasses" : 0,
      "formations" : 0,
      "divisions" : 0,
      "macrogroups" : 0,
      "groups" : 0,
      "alliances" : 0,
      "associations" : 1,
      "terrestrialEcologicalSystems" : 0
    }
  },
  "searchCriteria" : {
    "criteriaType" : "combined",
    "textCriteria" : [ ],
    "statusCriteria" : [ ],
    "locationCriteria" : [ ],
    "pagingOptions" : {
      "page" : 0,
      "recordsPerPage" : 20
    },
    "recordSubtypeCriteria" : [ ],
    "modifiedSince" : null,
    "locationOptions" : null,
    "classificationOptions" : null,
    "recordTypeCriteria" : [ ]
  }
}
Path Type Description

results

Array

The search results, which might contain a mixture of species and ecosystem records. These can be distinguished by their recordType property.

resultsSummary

Object

A summary of the results returned

searchCriteria

Object

The criteria used for the search. If default values were used for any parameters, they will be included.

Search Results Summary
Path Type Description

page

Number

The current page of results, zero-indexed

recordsPerPage

Number

The number of records per page of results

totalPages

Number

The total number of pages of results which are available

totalResults

Number

The total number of matching records

speciesResults

Object

The number of matching species; only included for combined or species searches

speciesResults.total

Number

The total number of matching species

ecosystemResults

Object

The number of matching ecosystems; only included for combined or ecosystems searches. The matching records are broken down by ecosystem type.

ecosystemResults.total

Number

The total number of matching ecosystems

Species Result
Path Type Description

recordType

String

Always set to SPECIES

elementGlobalId

Number

The record ID within Central Biotics

uniqueId

String

The record’s primary unique identifer

nsxUrl

String

The relative URL at which the record can be viewed

elcode

String

The Element Code

scientificName

String

The scientific name, without any formatting markup

formattedScientificName

String

The scientific name, possibly including formatting markup

primaryCommonName

String

The primary common name

primaryCommonNameLanguage

String

The ISO code for the primary common name’s language

roundedGRank

String

The rounded NatureServe global conservation status rank

gRank

String

The NatureServe global conservation status rank

lastModified

Null

The time the record was last updated

classificationStatus

Null

Classification status. Possible values are Standard, Nonstandard, Provisional

speciesGlobal

Object

Properties unique to species records

speciesGlobal.usesaCode

String

USESA status

speciesGlobal.cosewicCode

String

COSEWIC code

speciesGlobal.saraCode

Null

SARA code

speciesGlobal.synonyms

Array

Synonyms

speciesGlobal.otherCommonNames

Array

Other common names

speciesGlobal.kingdom

String

Kingdom

speciesGlobal.phylum

String

Phylum

speciesGlobal.taxclass

String

Class

speciesGlobal.taxorder

String

Order

speciesGlobal.family

String

Family

speciesGlobal.genus

String

Genus

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy

String

A concatenation of all informal taxonomy levels

speciesGlobal.infraspecies

Boolean

Set to true if the taxon is a subspecies or variety

speciesGlobal.completeDistribution

Boolean

Indicates whether the distribution information is complete

speciesGlobal.taxonomicComments

String

Additional information about the taxonomic classificatoin

nations

Array

The nations in which a distribution record exists

nations[].nationCode

String

The ISO code of the nation

nations[].roundedNRank

String

The rounded NatureServe national conservation status rank within the nation

nations[].exotic

Boolean

Indicator of whether the taxon is exotic somewhere within the nation

nations[].native

Boolean

Indicator of whether the taxon is native somewhere within the nation

nations[].subnations

Array

The subnations in which a distribution record exists within the nation

nations[].subnations[].subnationCode

String

The subnation code, as defined within Biotics

nations[].subnations[].roundedSRank

String

The rounded NatureServe subnational conservation status rank within the subnation

nations[].subnations[].exotic

Boolean

Indicator of whether the taxon is exotic to the subnation

nations[].subnations[].native

Boolean

Indicator of whether the taxon is native to the subnation

Ecosystem Result
Path Type Description

recordType

String

Always set to ECOSYSTEM

elementGlobalId

Number

The record ID within Central Biotics

uniqueId

String

The record’s primary unique identifer

nsxUrl

String

The relative URL at which the record can be viewed

elcode

String

The Element Code

scientificName

String

The scientific name, without any formatting markup

formattedScientificName

String

The scientific name, possibly including formatting markup

primaryCommonName

String

The primary common name

primaryCommonNameLanguage

String

The ISO code for the primary common name’s language

roundedGRank

String

The rounded NatureServe global conservation status rank

gRank

String

The NatureServe global conservation status rank

lastModified

Null

The time the record was last updated

classificationStatus

Null

Classification status. Possible values are Standard, Nonstandard, Provisional

ecosystemGlobal

Object

Properties unique to ecosystem records

ecosystemGlobal.ecosystemType

String

The type of ecosystem. Possible values: CLASS, SUBCLASS, FORMATION, DIVISION, MACROGROUP, GROUP, ALLIANCE, ASSOCIATION, TERRESTRIAL_ECOLOGICAL_SYSTEM

ecosystemGlobal.translatedScientificName

String

The translated scientific name

ecosystemGlobal.taxclassCode

String

The classification code of the higher level IVC Class

ecosystemGlobal.taxsubclassCode

String

The classification code of the higher level IVC Subclass

ecosystemGlobal.formationCode

String

The classification code of the higher level IVC Formation

ecosystemGlobal.divisionCode

String

The classification code of the higher level IVC Division

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupKey

String

The classification code of the higher level IVC Macrogroup

ecosystemGlobal.taxgroupKey

String

The classification code of the higher level IVC Group

ecosystemGlobal.allianceKey

String

The classification code of the higher level IVC Alliance

ecosystemGlobal.classificationCode

String

The classification code of the taxon

ecosystemGlobal.parentName

String

The name of the parent record in the IVC classification hierarchy

nations

Array

The nations in which a distribution record exists

nations[].nationCode

String

The ISO code of the nation

nations[].roundedNRank

String

The rounded NatureServe national conservation status rank within the nation

nations[].subnations

Array

The subnations in which a distribution record exists within the nation

nations[].subnations[].subnationCode

String

The subnation code, as defined within Biotics

nations[].subnations[].roundedSRank

String

The rounded NatureServe subnational conservation status rank within the subnation

Common Errors

Here are examples of some common errors which might be encountered when calling the search web services.

Malformed JSON

HTTP request
POST /api/data/search HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Length: 32
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

{"unexpectedPropertyName":"foo"}
HTTP response
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "timestamp" : "2020-09-14T15:22:22.962+0000",
  "status" : 400,
  "error" : "Bad Request",
  "message" : "JSON parse error: Missing type id when trying to resolve subtype of [simple type, class org.natureserve.nsx.search.criteria.CommonSearchCriteria]: missing type id property 'criteriaType'; nested exception is com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.exc.InvalidTypeIdException: Missing type id when trying to resolve subtype of [simple type, class org.natureserve.nsx.search.criteria.CommonSearchCriteria]: missing type id property 'criteriaType'\n at [Source: (PushbackInputStream); line: 1, column: 32]",
  "path" : "/api/data/search"
}

Invalid enumeration value

HTTP request
POST /api/data/search HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 381

{
  "criteriaType" : "combined",
  "textCriteria" : [ ],
  "statusCriteria" : [ ],
  "locationCriteria" : [ ],
  "pagingOptions" : null,
  "recordSubtypeCriteria" : [ ],
  "modifiedSince" : null,
  "locationOptions" : null,
  "classificationOptions" : null,
  "recordTypeCriteria" : [ {
    "paramType" : "recordType",
    "recordType" : "INVALID_RECORD_TYPE"
  } ]
}
HTTP response
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "timestamp" : "2020-09-14T15:22:09.165+0000",
  "status" : 400,
  "error" : "Bad Request",
  "message" : "JSON parse error: Cannot deserialize value of type `org.natureserve.nsx.enums.RecordType` from String \"INVALID_RECORD_TYPE\": value not one of declared Enum instance names: [ECOSYSTEM, SPECIES]; nested exception is com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.exc.InvalidFormatException: Cannot deserialize value of type `org.natureserve.nsx.enums.RecordType` from String \"INVALID_RECORD_TYPE\": value not one of declared Enum instance names: [ECOSYSTEM, SPECIES]\n at [Source: (PushbackInputStream); line: 13, column: 20] (through reference chain: org.natureserve.nsx.search.criteria.CommonSearchCriteria[\"recordTypeCriteria\"]->java.util.ArrayList[0]->org.natureserve.nsx.search.criteria.RecordTypeParameter[\"recordType\"])",
  "path" : "/api/data/search"
}

Wrong Criteria Type Provided for Service

HTTP request
POST /api/data/search HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 309

{
  "criteriaType" : "ecosystems",
  "textCriteria" : [ ],
  "statusCriteria" : [ ],
  "locationCriteria" : [ ],
  "pagingOptions" : null,
  "recordSubtypeCriteria" : [ ],
  "modifiedSince" : null,
  "locationOptions" : null,
  "classificationOptions" : null,
  "ecosystemsTaxonomyCriteria" : [ ]
}
HTTP response
HTTP/1.1 500 Internal Server Error
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "timestamp" : "2020-09-14T15:22:57.525+0000",
  "status" : 500,
  "error" : "Internal Server Error",
  "message" : "Class org.natureserve.nsx.search.criteria.EcosystemSearchCriteria not subtype of [simple type, class org.natureserve.nsx.search.criteria.CommonSearchCriteria]",
  "path" : "/api/data/search"
}

HTTP request

POST /api/data/search HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Length: 350
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

{
  "criteriaType" : "combined",
  "textCriteria" : [ ],
  "statusCriteria" : [ ],
  "locationCriteria" : [ ],
  "pagingOptions" : {
    "page" : null,
    "recordsPerPage" : null
  },
  "recordSubtypeCriteria" : [ ],
  "modifiedSince" : null,
  "locationOptions" : null,
  "classificationOptions" : null,
  "recordTypeCriteria" : [ ]
}
Path Type Description

criteriaType

String

Required; Must be set to combined

textCriteria

Array

Optional; See Text Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Quick Search Parameter, Advanced Text Search Parameter

statusCriteria

Array

Optional; See Status Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Global Rank Parameter

locationCriteria

Array

Optional; See Location Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Nation Parameter, Subnation Parameter

locationOptions

Null

Optional; See Location Options for details.

recordTypeCriteria

Array

Optional; See Record Type Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Record Type Parameter

recordSubtypeCriteria

Array

Optional; See Record Subtype Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Ecosystem Type Parameter

modifiedSince

Timestamp

Optional; Criteria used for searching for records modified since a given time. The value must be a date and time with a UTC offset in ISO 8601 format.

classificationOptions

Null

Optional; See Classification Options for details.

HTTP request

POST /api/data/speciesSearch HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 354

{
  "criteriaType" : "species",
  "textCriteria" : [ ],
  "statusCriteria" : [ ],
  "locationCriteria" : [ ],
  "pagingOptions" : {
    "page" : null,
    "recordsPerPage" : null
  },
  "recordSubtypeCriteria" : [ ],
  "modifiedSince" : null,
  "locationOptions" : null,
  "classificationOptions" : null,
  "speciesTaxonomyCriteria" : [ ]
}
Path Type Description

criteriaType

String

Required; Must be set to species

textCriteria

Array

Optional; See Text Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Quick Search Parameter, Advanced Text Search Parameter

statusCriteria

Array

Optional; See Status Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Global Rank Parameter, National Rank Parameter, Subnational Rank Parameter, USESA Status Parameter

locationCriteria

Array

Optional; See Location Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Nation Parameter, Subnation Parameter

locationOptions

Null

Optional; See Location Options for details.

recordSubtypeCriteria

Array

Optional; See Record Subtype Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: None

speciesTaxonomyCriteria

Array

Optional; See Species Taxonomy Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Scientific Taxonomy Parameter, Informal Taxonomy Parameter

modifiedSince

Timestamp

Optional; Criteria used for searching for records modified since a given time. The value must be a date and time with a UTC offset in ISO 8601 format.

classificationOptions

Null

Optional; See Classification Options for details.

HTTP request

POST /api/data/ecosystemsSearch HTTP/1.1
Content-Length: 360
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

{
  "criteriaType" : "ecosystems",
  "textCriteria" : [ ],
  "statusCriteria" : [ ],
  "locationCriteria" : [ ],
  "pagingOptions" : {
    "page" : null,
    "recordsPerPage" : null
  },
  "recordSubtypeCriteria" : [ ],
  "modifiedSince" : null,
  "locationOptions" : null,
  "classificationOptions" : null,
  "ecosystemsTaxonomyCriteria" : [ ]
}
Path Type Description

criteriaType

String

Required; Must be set to ecosystems

textCriteria

Array

Optional; See Text Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Quick Search Parameter, Advanced Text Search Parameter

statusCriteria

Array

Optional; See Status Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Global Rank Parameter

locationCriteria

Array

Optional; See Location Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Nation Parameter, Subnation Parameter

locationOptions

Null

Optional; See Location Options for details.

recordSubtypeCriteria

Array

Optional; See Record Subtype Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Ecosystem Type Parameter

ecosystemsTaxonomyCriteria

Array

Optional; See Ecosystems Taxonomy Criteria for details. Allowed parameters: Ecosystem Hierarchy Ancestor Parameter

modifiedSince

Timestamp

Optional; Criteria used for searching for records modified since a given time. The value must be a date and time with a UTC offset in ISO 8601 format.

classificationOptions

Null

Optional; See Classification Options for details.

Export

The export web service supports exporting taxa record summaries in multiple formats. The web service accepts a POST request, where the content body is a JSON object that defines the export options. Refer to the Export Criteria Object for details. The service returns a JSON object that includes a job id to track the progress of the export.

HTTP request

POST /api/export/taxonSearch HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 463

{
  "criteria" : {
    "criteriaType" : "combined",
    "textCriteria" : [ ],
    "statusCriteria" : [ ],
    "locationCriteria" : [ ],
    "pagingOptions" : {
      "page" : null,
      "recordsPerPage" : null
    },
    "recordSubtypeCriteria" : [ ],
    "modifiedSince" : null,
    "locationOptions" : null,
    "classificationOptions" : null,
    "recordTypeCriteria" : [ ]
  },
  "exportFormat" : "SUMMARY_JSON",
  "exportLanguage" : "en"
}
Path Type Description

exportFormat

String

Required; The format for the export (case does not matter). Possible values are SUMMARY_JSON and SUMMARY_XLSX.

exportLanguage

String

Required; When exporting records to Excel, values will be translated to this language if specific translations have been defined. Possible values are en, es, fr (case does not matter).

criteria

Object

Required; Search Criteria. Paging Options are ignored; all search results are returned. See The Search Criteria Object for details.

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "jobId" : "147d4d41-d287-494e-9739-7a0d854483b3"
}
Path Type Description

jobId

String

The jobId to track export progress using the Job API.

Export Job Data

The data property of the export job response contains information about the success of the export and, if successful, a link to download the requested records.

{
  "success" : true,
  "errorMessage" : null,
  "data" : { },
  "url" : "https://explorer-downloads.natureserve.org/shortTerm/explorer/taxaSearchExports/2020-09-14/6e53c0e0-647c-4ce4-8381-d951b42e6913.json"
}
Path Type Description

success

Boolean

Indicates if the job succeeded.

errorMessage

Null

If success is false, this will contain information about the error

data

Object

This field is not used.

url

String

The link to download the file.

Job

The job web service is used to get the status of a job. The web service accepts a get request, where the job id is a path variable. The service returns a JSON object that includes the status of the job.

Path

/api/job/{jobId}

Parameter Description

jobId

Required; The Job Id

HTTP request

GET /api/job/6e53c0e0-647c-4ce4-8381-d951b42e6913 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "state" : "Finished",
  "data" : {
    "success" : true,
    "errorMessage" : null,
    "data" : { },
    "url" : "https://explorer-downloads.natureserve.org/shortTerm/explorer/taxaSearchExports/2020-09-14/6e53c0e0-647c-4ce4-8381-d951b42e6913.json"
  },
  "percentComplete" : 100.0,
  "successful" : true,
  "error" : null,
  "group" : "QuartzJobs",
  "timeScheduled" : "2020-09-14T15:25:27.6861648Z",
  "timeStarted" : "2020-09-14T15:25:27.6864148Z",
  "timeFinished" : "2020-09-14T15:25:27.6866648Z",
  "timeLastChecked" : "2020-09-14T15:25:27.6869148Z"
}
Path Type Description

state

String

Current state of the job. Possible values are Queued Executing Pending Finished.

percentComplete

Number

Progress of the job.

successful

Boolean

When state is Finished, this indicates if the job was successful.

error

String

If successful is false, this will contain information about the error.

group

String

Type of job.

timeScheduled

String

Time the job was scheduled.

timeStarted

String

Time the job was started.

timeFinished

String

Time the job was finished.

timeLastChecked

String

Time the job status was last checked.

data

Object

Job specific data.

Domain Values

Nations

The nations service returns an array of containing a nation domain object and a boolean indicating if the nation has subnations that have been defined. Only nations for which at least one taxon has been published are returned. Supported nation codes are all ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes, in addition to the following non-ISO codes:

  • XA: Carribean Region

  • XB: West Indies

  • XC: Greater Antilles

  • XD: Lesser Antilles

  • XE: Hispaniola

  • AN: Netherlands Antilles

  • YU: Yugoslavia

Path

/api/data/nations

HTTP request

POST /api/data/nations HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

[ {
  "nation" : {
    "id" : 38,
    "nameEn" : "Canada",
    "nameEs" : null,
    "nameFr" : null,
    "isoCode" : "CA",
    "region" : "Canada"
  },
  "hasSubnations" : true
}, {
  "nation" : {
    "id" : 139,
    "nameEn" : "Mexico",
    "nameEs" : null,
    "nameFr" : null,
    "isoCode" : "MX",
    "region" : "Mexico"
  },
  "hasSubnations" : false
}, {
  "nation" : {
    "id" : 225,
    "nameEn" : "United States",
    "nameEs" : null,
    "nameFr" : null,
    "isoCode" : "US",
    "region" : null
  },
  "hasSubnations" : true
} ]
Path Type Description

nation

Object

Nation domain object. See Nation Domain Object for details.

hasSubnations

Boolean

Indicates if the nation has defined subnations.

Nation Domain Object

{
  "id" : 38,
  "nameEn" : "Canada",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "isoCode" : "CA",
  "region" : "Canada"
}
Path Type Description

id

Number

Nation id.

nameEn

String

English name.

nameEs

String

Spanish name. May be null.

nameFr

String

French name. May be null.

isoCode

String

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code, or one of the listed non-ISO codes: XA XB XC XD XE AN YU

region

String

The country’s region. Possible values are Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Canada, Caribbean, Central America, Eurasia, Europe, Mexico, North Atlantic, Oceania, South America, United States

Subnations

The subnations service returns an array of all defined Subnation domain objects for a supplied Nation code.

Path

/api/data/subnations/{nationCode}

Parameter Description

nationCode

Nation code (case sensitive). See Nations for valid values.

HTTP request

GET /api/data/subnations/US HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

[ {
  "id" : 2,
  "nameEn" : "Alabama",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "AL",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 1,
  "nameEn" : "Alaska",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "AK",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 6,
  "nameEn" : "Arizona",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "AZ",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 4,
  "nameEn" : "Arkansas",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "AR",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 7,
  "nameEn" : "California",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "CA",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 8,
  "nameEn" : "Colorado",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "CO",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 9,
  "nameEn" : "Connecticut",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "CT",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 11,
  "nameEn" : "Delaware",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "DE",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 12,
  "nameEn" : "Florida",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "FL",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 14,
  "nameEn" : "Georgia",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "GA",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 90,
  "nameEn" : "Great Smoky Mountains National Park",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "GS",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 18,
  "nameEn" : "Idaho",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "ID",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 19,
  "nameEn" : "Illinois",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "IL",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 20,
  "nameEn" : "Indiana",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "IN",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 17,
  "nameEn" : "Iowa",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "IA",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 21,
  "nameEn" : "Kansas",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "KS",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 22,
  "nameEn" : "Kentucky",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "KY",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 23,
  "nameEn" : "Louisiana",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "LA",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 25,
  "nameEn" : "Maryland",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "MD",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 24,
  "nameEn" : "Massachusetts",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "MA",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 28,
  "nameEn" : "Michigan",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "MI",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 29,
  "nameEn" : "Minnesota",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "MN",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 32,
  "nameEn" : "Mississippi",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "MS",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 30,
  "nameEn" : "Missouri",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "MO",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 33,
  "nameEn" : "Montana",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "MT",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 88,
  "nameEn" : "Navajo Nation",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "NN",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 36,
  "nameEn" : "Nebraska",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "NE",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 40,
  "nameEn" : "Nevada",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "NV",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 38,
  "nameEn" : "New Jersey",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "NJ",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 39,
  "nameEn" : "New Mexico",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "NM",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 41,
  "nameEn" : "New York",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "NY",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 34,
  "nameEn" : "North Carolina",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "NC",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 35,
  "nameEn" : "North Dakota",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "ND",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 42,
  "nameEn" : "Ohio",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "OH",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 43,
  "nameEn" : "Oklahoma",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "OK",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 44,
  "nameEn" : "Oregon",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "OR",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 45,
  "nameEn" : "Pennsylvania",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "PA",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 48,
  "nameEn" : "South Carolina",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "SC",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 49,
  "nameEn" : "South Dakota",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "SD",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 50,
  "nameEn" : "Tennessee",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "TN",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 87,
  "nameEn" : "Tennessee Valley Authority",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "TV",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 51,
  "nameEn" : "Texas",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "TX",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 52,
  "nameEn" : "Utah",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "UT",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 55,
  "nameEn" : "Vermont",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "VT",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 53,
  "nameEn" : "Virginia",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "VA",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 56,
  "nameEn" : "Washington",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "WA",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 58,
  "nameEn" : "West Virginia",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "WV",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 57,
  "nameEn" : "Wisconsin",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "WI",
  "dnationId" : 225
}, {
  "id" : 59,
  "nameEn" : "Wyoming",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "WY",
  "dnationId" : 225
} ]
Path Type Description

[]

Array

Array of Subnation Domain objects. See Subnation Domain Object for details.

Subnation Domain Object

{
  "id" : 2,
  "nameEn" : "Alabama",
  "nameEs" : null,
  "nameFr" : null,
  "subnationCode" : "AL",
  "dnationId" : 225
}
Path Type Description

id

Number

Subnation id.

nameEn

String

English name.

nameEs

String

Spanish name. May be null.

nameFr

String

French name. May be null.

subnationCode

String

Subnation code.

dnationId

Number

Nation id.

Informal Taxonomy

The informal taxonomy service returns the entire informal taxonomy tree, represented as a list of Informal Taxonomy nodes. Each node contains a name and an array of Informal Taxonomy subnodes.

Path

/api/data/informalTaxonomy

HTTP request

GET /api/data/informalTaxonomy HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

[ {
  "name" : "Animals",
  "subnodes" : [ {
    "name" : "Vertebrates",
    "subnodes" : [ {
      "name" : "Mammals",
      "subnodes" : [ ]
    } ]
  } ]
}, {
  "name" : "Plants",
  "subnodes" : [ {
    "name" : "Vascular Plants - Flowering Plants",
    "subnodes" : [ {
      "name" : "Dicots",
      "subnodes" : [ ]
    } ]
  } ]
} ]
Path Type Description

[]

Array

Array of Informal Taxonomy Domain objects. See Informal Taxonomy Domain Object for details.

Informal Taxonomy Domain Object

{
  "name" : "Animals",
  "subnodes" : [ {
    "name" : "Vertebrates",
    "subnodes" : [ {
      "name" : "Mammals",
      "subnodes" : [ ]
    } ]
  } ]
}
Path Type Description

name

String

Informal Taxonomy name.

subnodes

Array

Array of Informal Taxonomy objects.

Scientific Taxonomy

The scientific taxonomy service returns a list of Strings which have the specified parent, sorted in alphabetical order (case insensitive). Either both parameters must be specified, or neither can be be specified. If the latter, all kingdoms are returned.

Path

/api/data/scientificTaxonomy

HTTP request

GET /api/data/scientificTaxonomy?parentName=Ranunculaceae&level=FAMILY HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Parameter Description

level

The taxonomic level of the parent. Valid values are KINGDOM, PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER, FAMILY, GENUS

parentName

The parent name (case sensitive).

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

[ "Hydrastis" ]
Path Type Description

[]

Array

List of Scientific Taxonomy Strings.

IVC Descendants

The IVC Descendants service returns a list of IVC Descendant objects. Each object represents a direct descendant of the specified record containing its name, classification code, and has a boolean indicating if the descendant also has descendants. Results are limited to children and grandchildren for which additional children exist. For example, a Macrogroup without any child Groups will not be returned. Either both parameters must be specified, or neither can be be specified. If the latter, all classes are returned.

Path

/api/data/ivcDescendants

HTTP request

GET /api/data/ivcDescendants?parentCode=M027&level=MACROGROUP HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Parameter Description

level

The classification code of the IVC parent (case sensitive).

parentCode

The IVC level of the parent (case does not matter). Valid values are CLASS SUBCLASS FORMATION DIVISION MACROGROUP GROUP.

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

[ {
  "name" : "Shortleaf Pine - Oak Forest",
  "code" : "G012",
  "hasChildren" : true
} ]
Path Type Description

[]

Array

Array of IVC Descendants. See IVC Descendant Domain Object for details.

IVC Descendant Domain Object

{
  "name" : "Shortleaf Pine - Oak Forest",
  "code" : "G012",
  "hasChildren" : true
}
Path Type Description

name

String

Descendant name.

code

String

Classification Code.

hasChildren

Boolean

Indicates if the IVC entry has descendants.

COSEWIC Status

This service returns an array of objects representing Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) statuses.

Path

/api/data/cosewic

HTTP request

GET /api/data/cosewic HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

[ {
  "id" : 3,
  "cosewicDescEn" : "Endangered",
  "cosewicDescEs" : null,
  "cosewicDescFr" : null,
  "cosewicCode" : "E"
}, {
  "id" : 5,
  "cosewicDescEn" : "Special Concern",
  "cosewicDescEs" : null,
  "cosewicDescFr" : null,
  "cosewicCode" : "SC"
} ]
Path Type Description

[]

Array

Array of COSEWIC domain objects. See COSEWIC Domain Object for details.

COSEWIC Domain Object

{
  "id" : 3,
  "cosewicDescEn" : "Endangered",
  "cosewicDescEs" : null,
  "cosewicDescFr" : null,
  "cosewicCode" : "E"
}
Path Type Description

id

Number

COSEWIC id.

cosewicDescEn

String

English description.

cosewicDescEs

Null

Spanish description. May be null.

cosewicDescFr

Null

French description. May be null.

cosewicCode

String

COSEWIC status code.

Feature Services for Individual Taxa

NatureServe Explorer provides several feature services that allow access to spatial data relating to individual taxa.

These services can be accessed by URLs of the form:

/explorer-maps/{SERVICE_NAME}/{OU_SEQ_UID}/FeatureServer

{SERVICE_NAME} is the name of a specific service, and OU_SEQ_UID is the unique identifier of a taxon published to NatureServe Explorer. For example, Ursus arctos (Brown Bear) has a unique identifier of ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102187. This identifier is visible in a page’s URL when viewing a species or ecosystems page. For example, a feature service that displays the State/Provincial Conservation Status of Ursus arctos is available at https://explorer.natureserve.org/explorer-maps/species_subnational_ranks/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102187/FeatureServer/

These services implement the GeoServices API. Each feature service URL can be treated as an Esri Feature Service and can viewed within ArcGIS Online webmaps, ArcGIS Pro, ArcGIS Desktop, or within other web applications. Refer to the ArcGIS Online Help to learn more creating maps within the ArcGIS Online map viewer and adding layers. Online documentation is also available for ArcGIS Pro and ArcGIS Desktop.

Note that data is not necessarily available for all taxa. To check whether a service contains data for a taxon, you can query a layer within the service to count the number of features contained within the layer. If the query returns a count of 0, there is no data available. For example:

The services have been implemented using Koop. See below for specific details about each service.

Note that Koop requires that all GeoServices API parameters be provided using the exact parameter names. It is case sensitive. For example, if the objectIds parameter is provided using a parameter name of objectids, Koop will not detect the parameter value.

Species Subnational Ranks Feature Service

Path

/explorer-maps/species_subnational_ranks/{OU_SEQ_UID}/FeatureServer

This service provides a State and Provincial Conservation Status map for an individual species.

This service is only supported for Species taxa; it does not work for Ecosystems.

Note that the service does not generalize features based upon scale. For best performance, we recommend loading all of the features through a single query and then adding the results to your map as a new FeatureLayer. While a FeatureLayer created from the service URL will work, it will continually re-download the same features as a user pans and zooms around the map.

The Nested Hexagon Framework

The Nested Hexagon Framework was created by the University of Kansas and used within the Western Association of Fish & Wildlife Agencies Crucial Assessment Tool.

Its foundation is a well-defined hexagon grid which covers most of North America. Each hex covers 1 square mile. Hexes are grouped into cogs, where a cog consists of a central hex plus each adjacent hex, for a total of seven hexes per cog (7 sq miles). Cogs are similarly grouped into wheels, where each wheel consists of a central cog and its six adjacent cogs (49 sq miles). The framework divides its coverage area into 5x5 degree tiles, such that each wheel is fully contained within a single tile. (Technically, the tile boundaries aren’t quite rectangular, since they follow the wheel boundaries, which in turn follow the cog and hex boundaries.)

Nested Hexagon Framework Grids

NatureServe has extended the Nested Hexagon Framework’s (NHF) coverage area to also include Northern Canada, Hawaii, and the Caribbean.

NatureServe has also created broader aggregations of hexagons:

  • Level 1 Summary Hex Aggregations consist a central NHF wheel and all six adjacent wheels. It includes a total of 343 one-square mile hexagons.

  • Level 2 Summary Hex Aggregations consist of a central Level 1 Summary Hex Aggregation and all six adjacent Level 1 Summary Hex Aggregations. It includes a total of 2,401 one-square mile hexagons.

  • Level 3 Summary Hex Aggregations consist of a central Level 2 Summary Hex Aggregation and all siz adjacent Level 2 Summary Hex Aggregations. It includes a total of 16,807 one-square mile hexagons

Technically, the exact boundaries of a Level 1, 2, or 3 Summary Hex Aggregation would be very jagged. However, because these features are intended to be viewed at broad geographic scales where the exact borders would be nearly undiscernable, they are shown on NatureServe Explorer as "approximate hexagons". In the diagram below, the green outline shows how an Approximate Level 1 Summary Hexagon is generated from the NHF wheels (outlined in red) which comprise the feature.

Approximate Level 1 Summary Hexagon

When viewing species distributation data that is visualized using the Nested Hexagon Framework, be aware that a displayed hexagon means that the species occurs somewhere within the feature, and that that the species is not necessarily present everywhere within the feature.

Data which is observed within a Nested Hexagon Framework feature is "rolled up" to higher levels. If a species is observed somewhere within a one-square mile hexagon, the species will be be reported as present within the NHF wheel which contains the hexagon. Similarly, at broader scales, the species will be reported as being present somewhere within each of the Level 1-3 Summary Hex Aggregations which contain the hexagon.

Taxon Data Model

The Taxon Data Model is slightly different for species and ecosystems. Furthermore, certain fields are only populated for particular subtypes.

In addition to the JSON response data documented below, you can also download a CSV summary of the data model. This alternative format allows you to compare the portions of the data model which are used by each record type and subtype.

Date Values

Dates are represented as ISO 8601 strings. Dates without a specific time component are formatted as "yyyy-mm-dd"; dates with a time component are formatted using their GMT/UTC representation. For example, "2020-01-13T22:01:17.110971Z".

Domain Values

Many properties are defined as domain values. The values from these properties are obtained from a collection of pre-defined values. These are modeled as objects which have a consistent set of properties:

  • An internal ID value

  • Display values in English, Spanish, and French, usually ending with a "DescEn" suffix

Properties following these patterns are excluded from the documentation below.

References to other Taxon records

Some properties serve as references to other taxa records. These cross-links are modeled using a consistent set of property names:

  • uniqueId - the unique identifier of the referenced taxon

  • scientificName - the unformatted scientific name of the referenced taxon

  • formattedScientificName - the formatted scientific name of the referenced taxon

  • nsxUrl - the relative URL at which the other taxon can be viewed, if it has been published to NatureServe Explorer

  • primaryCommonName - sometimes included; the primary common name of the referenced taxon

  • elcode - sometimes included; the elcode of the referenced taxon

Plant Data Model

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
  "circumscripConfidence" : null,
  "classificationLevel" : {
    "id" : 17,
    "classificationLevelNameEn" : "Species",
    "classificationLevelNameEs" : null,
    "classificationLevelNameFr" : null
  },
  "classificationStatus" : {
    "id" : 1,
    "classificationStatusDescEn" : "Standard",
    "classificationStatusDescEs" : null,
    "classificationStatusDescFr" : null
  },
  "iucn" : {
    "id" : 5,
    "iucnDescEn" : "Vulnerable",
    "iucnDescEs" : null,
    "iucnDescFr" : null,
    "iucnCode" : "VU"
  },
  "nameCategory" : {
    "id" : 4,
    "nameCategoryDescEn" : "Vascular Plant",
    "nameCategoryDescEs" : null,
    "nameCategoryDescFr" : null,
    "nameTypeCd" : "P",
    "nameTypeDesc" : "Botanical"
  },
  "rankMethodUsed" : {
    "id" : 1,
    "rankMethodUsedDescEn" : "Rank calculator v.3.1x - 2011-2015 rank factors",
    "rankMethodUsedDescEs" : null,
    "rankMethodUsedDescFr" : null,
    "rankMethodUsedExternalDescEn" : null,
    "rankMethodUsedExternalDescEs" : null,
    "rankMethodUsedExternalDescFr" : null
  },
  "formattedScientificName" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>",
  "scientificName" : "Hydrastis canadensis",
  "scientificNameAuthor" : "L.",
  "primaryCommonName" : "Goldenseal",
  "relatedItisNames" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> L. (TSN 18781)",
  "uniqueId" : "ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154701",
  "elcode" : "PDRAN0F010",
  "conceptRefFullCitation" : "Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.",
  "conceptName" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i>",
  "taxonomicComments" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis</i> occurs in eastern North America and is a monotypic genus. In the most current taxonomic revision <i>Hydrastis </i>is placed in Hydrastidaceae, with one other monotypic genus, <i>Glaucidium,</i> which is restricted to Japan (Tobe 2003).",
  "roundedGRank" : "G3",
  "conservationStatusFactorsEditionDate" : "2013-04-29",
  "conservationStatusFactorsEditionAuthors" : "Oliver, L.",
  "primaryCommonNameLanguage" : "EN",
  "recordType" : "SPECIES",
  "elementNationals" : [ {
    "elementNationalId" : 211679,
    "classifConfidence" : null,
    "nation" : {
      "id" : 225,
      "nameEn" : "United States",
      "nameEs" : null,
      "nameFr" : null,
      "isoCode" : "US",
      "region" : null
    },
    "roundedNRank" : "N3",
    "elementSubnationals" : [ {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 380016,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 25,
        "nameEn" : "Maryland",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "MD",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S2",
      "srank" : "S2",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 380016,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 597053,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 28,
        "nameEn" : "Michigan",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "MI",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S2",
      "srank" : "S2",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 597053,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 621497,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 29,
        "nameEn" : "Minnesota",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "MN",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S1",
      "srank" : "S1",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 621497,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 416745,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 23,
        "nameEn" : "Louisiana",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "LA",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "SNA",
      "srank" : "SNA",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 416745,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 599197,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 87,
        "nameEn" : "Tennessee Valley Authority",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "TV",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "SNR",
      "srank" : "SNR",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 599197,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 446299,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 14,
        "nameEn" : "Georgia",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "GA",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S2",
      "srank" : "S2",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 446299,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 388827,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 57,
        "nameEn" : "Wisconsin",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "WI",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S2",
      "srank" : "S2S3",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 388827,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 295434,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 41,
        "nameEn" : "New York",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "NY",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S2",
      "srank" : "S2",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 295434,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 557226,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 11,
        "nameEn" : "Delaware",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "DE",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S3",
      "srank" : "S3",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 557226,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 512451,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 24,
        "nameEn" : "Massachusetts",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "MA",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S1",
      "srank" : "S1",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 512451,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 533891,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 50,
        "nameEn" : "Tennessee",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "TN",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S4",
      "srank" : "S4",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 533891,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 468061,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 2,
        "nameEn" : "Alabama",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "AL",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S2",
      "srank" : "S2",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 468061,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 430764,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 53,
        "nameEn" : "Virginia",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "VA",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S3",
      "srank" : "S3",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 430764,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 279630,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 4,
        "nameEn" : "Arkansas",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "AR",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S4",
      "srank" : "S4S5",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 279630,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 473918,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 90,
        "nameEn" : "Great Smoky Mountains National Park",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "GS",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "P1",
      "srank" : "P1",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 473918,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 473919,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 17,
        "nameEn" : "Iowa",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "IA",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S3",
      "srank" : "S3",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 473919,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 621506,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 36,
        "nameEn" : "Nebraska",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "NE",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "SNA",
      "srank" : "SNA",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 621506,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 474264,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 58,
        "nameEn" : "West Virginia",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "WV",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S3",
      "srank" : "S3S4",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 474264,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 477257,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 45,
        "nameEn" : "Pennsylvania",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "PA",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S4",
      "srank" : "S4",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 477257,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 489818,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 19,
        "nameEn" : "Illinois",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "IL",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S4",
      "srank" : "S4",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 489818,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 557103,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 55,
        "nameEn" : "Vermont",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "VT",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S1",
      "srank" : "S1",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 557103,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : true,
        "native" : null
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 512452,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 21,
        "nameEn" : "Kansas",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "KS",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S1",
      "srank" : "S1",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 512452,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 294228,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 34,
        "nameEn" : "North Carolina",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "NC",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S3",
      "srank" : "S3",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 294228,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 534839,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 22,
        "nameEn" : "Kentucky",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "KY",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S4",
      "srank" : "S4",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 534839,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 486641,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 43,
        "nameEn" : "Oklahoma",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "OK",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "SNA",
      "srank" : "SNA",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 486641,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 514056,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 9,
        "nameEn" : "Connecticut",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "CT",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S1",
      "srank" : "S1",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 514056,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 545671,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 38,
        "nameEn" : "New Jersey",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "NJ",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S1",
      "srank" : "S1",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 545671,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 600537,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 42,
        "nameEn" : "Ohio",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "OH",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S4",
      "srank" : "S4",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 600537,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 586445,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 30,
        "nameEn" : "Missouri",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "MO",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S5",
      "srank" : "S5",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 586445,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 531013,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 20,
        "nameEn" : "Indiana",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "IN",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S3",
      "srank" : "S3",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 531013,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 545661,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 32,
        "nameEn" : "Mississippi",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "MS",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S1",
      "srank" : "S1",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 545661,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    } ],
    "nrank" : "N3N4",
    "nrankReviewYear" : 2012,
    "speciesNational" : {
      "elementNationalId" : 211679,
      "exotic" : false,
      "native" : true
    }
  }, {
    "elementNationalId" : 241912,
    "classifConfidence" : null,
    "nation" : {
      "id" : 38,
      "nameEn" : "Canada",
      "nameEs" : null,
      "nameFr" : null,
      "isoCode" : "CA",
      "region" : "Canada"
    },
    "roundedNRank" : "N2",
    "elementSubnationals" : [ {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 288768,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 67,
        "nameEn" : "Ontario",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "ON",
        "dnationId" : 38
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "S2",
      "srank" : "S2",
      "speciesSubnational" : {
        "elementSubnationalId" : 288768,
        "hybrid" : false,
        "exotic" : false,
        "native" : true
      }
    } ],
    "nrank" : "N2",
    "nrankReviewYear" : 2017,
    "speciesNational" : {
      "elementNationalId" : 241912,
      "exotic" : false,
      "native" : true
    }
  } ],
  "lastModified" : null,
  "lastPublished" : null,
  "nsxUrl" : "/Taxon/ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154701/Hydrastis_canadensis",
  "grank" : "G3G4",
  "grankReviewDate" : "2012-11-30",
  "grankChangeDate" : "2012-11-30",
  "grankReasons" : "Goldenseal, <i>Hydrastis canadensis, </i>an herbaceous understory species of the eastern deciduous forest, with the core of its range in Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  It extends north into Ontario, Canada and as far south in the United States to Alabama, east to North Carolina and north to Vermont.<br /><br />Goldenseal may be best known for its use as an herbal supplement for a variety of health purposes, including as an immune booster and anti-inflammatory agent.  Its earliest known use was by indigenous people in the eastern North America and by the 1700s it was used as a digestion aid and treatment for skin imflammation (Barton 1798).   Its use is well documented from the 1800s to the present, with increasing demand through time as markets expanded beyond local usage.  The species has been primarily wild-harvested, and over-collection of the plant is a predominate threat.<br /><br />Concern due to over-collection is expressed at the national levels both in the United States and Canada. Since 1997, goldenseal has been listed in Appendix II of the Convention for International Trade on Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), to regulate international trade to ensure there is no detriment to the survival of the species in the wild.  The CITES Appendix II listing requires that exporters obtain CITES permits or certificates for international export of whole, parts and powdered roots and rhizomes of goldenseal. In Canada, goldenseal is listed as Threatened on Schedule I of the federal Species at Risk Act. <br /><br />Long-term decline since the beginning of its harvest history is evident, and short term trends are more localized, from declining to stable.  State conservation statuses range from vulnerable to critically imperiled in the periphery of the range, to uncommon and secure in the core of its range.  As of 2013, the species is state-listed as endangered, vulnerable or threatened in at least ten states.  Seven of the states within goldenseal's range do not have State plant endangered species lists or protection laws.  <br /><br />Goldenseal, from a rangewide perspective and in a classical perspective of distribution and abundance is currently uncommon to secure, however, from a more holistic conservation perspective the extent of threats, long-term trends and short-term trends demand continuous and close monitoring in both the United States and Canada.",
  "rankInfo" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "aooPercentGood" : null,
    "enviromentalSpecificity" : {
      "id" : 8,
      "enviromentalSpecificityDescEn" : "Moderate.  Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.",
      "enviromentalSpecificityDescEs" : null,
      "enviromentalSpecificityDescFr" : null
    },
    "intrinsicVulnerability" : {
      "id" : 4,
      "intrinsicVulnerabilityDescEn" : "Moderately vulnerable",
      "intrinsicVulnerabilityDescEs" : null,
      "intrinsicVulnerabilityDescFr" : null
    },
    "longTermTrend" : {
      "id" : 32,
      "longTermTrendDescEn" : "Decline of 10-50%",
      "longTermTrendDescEs" : null,
      "longTermTrendDescFr" : null
    },
    "numberEos" : {
      "id" : 15,
      "numberEosDescEn" : "> 300",
      "numberEosDescEs" : null,
      "numberEosDescFr" : null
    },
    "numberGoodEos" : {
      "id" : 22,
      "numberGoodEosDescEn" : "Unknown",
      "numberGoodEosDescEs" : null,
      "numberGoodEosDescFr" : null
    },
    "numberProtEos" : {
      "id" : 7,
      "numberProtEosDescEn" : "Few to several (1-12) occurrences appropriately protected and managed",
      "numberProtEosDescEs" : null,
      "numberProtEosDescFr" : null
    },
    "popSize" : {
      "id" : 33,
      "popSizeDescEn" : "10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals",
      "popSizeDescEs" : null,
      "popSizeDescFr" : null
    },
    "rangeExtent" : {
      "id" : 33,
      "rangeExtentDescEn" : "200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)",
      "rangeExtentDescEs" : null,
      "rangeExtentDescFr" : null
    },
    "shortTermTrend" : {
      "id" : 37,
      "shortTermTrendDescEn" : "Decline of <30% to relatively stable",
      "shortTermTrendDescEs" : null,
      "shortTermTrendDescFr" : null
    },
    "threatImpactAssigned" : {
      "id" : 2,
      "threatImpactAssignedDescEn" : "Very high - high",
      "threatImpactAssignedDescEs" : null,
      "threatImpactAssignedDescFr" : null
    },
    "rangeExtentComments" : "Range extent was calculated based on a map in Sinclair and Catling (2000a). Range extent is closer to 1,250,000 sq km. <br /><br />Eastern United States, northward into Ontario: southern Vermont to Ontario, west to Minnesota and south to Georgia, Alabama, and Arkansas. Common in Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, and West Virginia; uncommon around the range perimeter. The central portion of its range is and was where goldenseal was the most abundant, including Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia (Sinclair and Catling 2000a). Christensen and Gorchov (2010) describe the core part of the historical range as the Ohio River Valley.",
    "areaOfOccupancy" : null,
    "areaOfOccupancyComments" : "A lower end for area of occupancy was estimated based on the number of occurrences in NatureServe's database. As of 2012, there were approximately 700 occurrences in the United States and Canada documented in NatureServe's data, and an upper limit of 12,500 4-km grid cells.",
    "numberEosComments" : "USA: 1000+ extant occurrences globally. Alabama: 14; Arkansas: 100s; Connecticut: 6, Delaware: 26;Georgia: 15; Kansas (no occurrences delineated), Kentucky: &gt;100; Illinois: 100s; Indiana: 59; Iowa: 21; Massachusetts: 4, Maryland: 19; Michigan: 91; Minnesota: 14; Mississippi: 5; Missouri: 100s; New York: 22; North Carolina: 31; New Jersey: 2; Ohio: many; Pennsylvania: 17; Vermont: 5; Tennessee: 154; West Virginia: many; Wisconsin: &gt;100 CANADA: Ontario (22) (NatureServe Element Occurrence data 2012). Element occurrence data not available for Virginia. Since many states do not actively track this species, and because it is clonal, population numbers are not well known. Arkansas, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Ohio, and West Virginia likely have the highest number of plants.",
    "popSizeComments" : "Populations are typically between several stems to several hundred ramets (i.e. vegetative stems emerging from one parental plant) (Sanders and McGraw 2005, Sinclair and Catling 2000, Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).  In Ohio, it is estimated that 62% of populations contain fewer than 200 ramets, 10% had between 200 and 1,000 ramets and 28% had more than 1,000 ramets (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).  The majority of populations in Ohio are small.  <br />Research in West Virginia, one of the core range states, on larger-scale habitat requirements, or mesotopographic distribution patterns, found patches of goldenseal to be very diffuse across the landscape (McGraw et al. 2005).",
    "viabilityComments" : null,
    "threatImpactComments" : "<i>Hydrastis canadensis, </i>Goldenseal, a medicinal herb, is threatened primarily by removal of habitat, decline in habitat quality, wild-collection and deer browsing.<br /><br />Habitat destruction is a primary threat throughout its range, as reported by Sinclair and Catling (2000a) only 5% of forested habitat that supports goldenseal in Canada remains, in many personal communications with Natural Heritage Botanists in 2012 and throughout New England (Tait 2006). It is surmised that local extinctions in Ohio were the result of urban sprawl (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004). The interaction and compounding intensification of over-collection and habitat loss, should not be overlooked. Albrecht and McCarthy (2006) suggest that observations by botanists of population disappearance in the early 19th century documented this co-occurrence of threats. It is also suggested that the combination of these two threats may reduce or reverse positive efforts of stewardship, or 'managed' populations (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006). It should also be recognized that the combined interaction of these threats may be increasing the rate of decline in areas of its range where these two threats are actively occurring.<br /><br /><br />Goldenseal has been cultivated for 100+ years throughout its range and historically most of the trade domestically and internationally comes from wild harvested plants (Christensen and Gorchov 2010). In recent years there has been an apparent shift. The CITES Trade Database (200-2013) indicates that much of the material in international trade, and all in 2003, which is legal is from cultivated plants. The market for goldenseal is expected to grow at a rate of 5% to 10% annually, and the market for high quality cultivated material is expected to grow 10 to 15% annually (Greenfield and David 2012).<br /><br />Cultivated goldenseal makes p a large portion of domestic trade according to the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA), however, the amount of wild-harvested rhizome that is collected and traded in the United States is unknown. In Indiana, collection pressure has intensified dramatically over the last 10 years, based on the number of inquiries by herbal diggers in the state (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources). Along with the increased demand for goldenseal in Indiana, according to State officials, it is evident that herbal diggers that are harvesting wild goldenseal in July and August are also harvesting American ginseng (<i>Panax quinquefolius)</i> outside the legal harvest season that has not yet had a chance to reproduce (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources). Law enforcement officials in Indiana are concerned for the species due to the amount being shipped from the state, and while there are no quantitative data on population declines in Indiana (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources), declines seem likely. Collection pressure in parts of the species' range where unemployment is high is incentivized by prices paid for wild-collected roots/rhizomes in the herbal market (McGraw et al. 2003). Studies suggest that if as little as 10% of the plants from a population are removed by collected annually, that the population will go extinct over time (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).<br /><br />Invasive species is also a threat, including pressure from both non-native plants. White-tailed deer browse is also a threat in Ohio (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004) and in other parts of the range.<br /><br />Further threats as noted by state Natural Heritage Botanists:<br />Alabama: Incompatible forestry practices appear to be the foremost concern, with invasive species of secondary importance (Al Schotz, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Arkansas: Unknown (Theo Witsell, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Connecticut: Invasive species and canopy closure. Severity of the threats is unknown (Nelson DeBarros &amp; Nancy Murray, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Delaware: Invasive species and deer browse (William A. McAvoy, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Indiana: Not known, but collecting and habitat destruction likely (Michael Homoya, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Kansas: Unknown (Craig C. Freeman, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Kentucky: The current threats are land conversion/development, collection, and high deer populations (Deborah White, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Massachusetts: This plant has never been common in Massachusetts, populations are very small and threatened by herbivory (Bryan Connolly, pers. comm., 2012)<br />Michigan: Collecting and habitat destruction (M.R. Penskar et al. 2001).<br />Minnesota: Invasive species (such as garlic mustard and buckthorn) continue to be discovered in the greater area of goldenseal's range in Minnesota. This will likely be a rising threat to populations in the long-term (Derek Anderson, Welby Smith, &amp; Nancy Sather, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Missouri: Current threats are over harvesting, particularly on public land. (Malissa Underwood, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Mississippi: In the Loess Bluff Physiographic Province, rapid subdivision development is encroaching into the habitat of goldenseal. One population has already probably been extirpated by a \"Loess Bluff Restoration Project\" associated with a housing development. In the Pontotoc Ridge Physiographic Province, the private land owner is considering developing the land as a new subdivision(Heather Sullivan, pers. comm., 2012).<br />New York: It is collected for medicinal purposes but so far there is no evidence that it is being over-collected in New York. There is a moderate threat from habitat destruction, especially in the Lower Hudson area. Exotic species like garlic mustard and bush honeysuckle threaten its understory habitat (Steve Young, pers. comm., 2012).<br />North Carolina: Poaching and effects of climate change (drought, increased temperatures, wind damage, invasive species) (Laura Gadd, pers. comm., 2012).<br />New York: It is collected for medicinal purposes but so far there is no evidence that it is being over-collected in New York. There is a moderate threat from habitat destruction, especially in the Lower Hudson area. Exotic species like garlic mustard and bush honeysuckle threaten its understory habitat (Steve Young, pers. comm. 2012).<br />Ohio: Some threats include development, recreation, roads and associated maintenance, resource extraction and processing (timber, oil, renewable energy), agriculture, and non-native species (Rick Gardner, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Ontario: Possibly lack of disturbance at some sites (Sinclair &amp; Catling 1998) (Michael J. Oldham, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Pennsylvania: Invasive species, succession (more coming in later report), and gas development (Chris Firestone, pers. comm., 2012.)<br />Tennessee: Timber operations and ATV trails are the main threats (Todd Crabtree, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Virginia: Mostly unknown, but harvest and development are likely threats (John Townsend, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Vermont: Invasives, development, and climate change. (Bob Popp &amp; Aaron Marcus, pers. comm., 2012).<br />Wisconsin: Forest conversion is likely the largest historical threat. Forest fragmentation and development is likely the largest current threat with invasive plants and earthworm likely causing significant impacts, especially for spread by seed. Leaf herbivory is unknown, but deer populations are high in the known region. Fruit herbivory and seed destruction is also unknown, but turkeys and rodents may be causing destruction of seed or placement in inappropriate habitat. Possible threats by logging, although the level of logging in the southern part of the state where it is found is relatively low, especially in the southeast. Impacts of harvest are unknown. We do not receive any harvest data and reports of sales to ginseng dealers is erratic. It would be fairly simple to survey ginseng dealers and ask them about amounts and trends in goldenseal harvest. Dealers may also have a sense if it is generally being harvested sustainably. (Kevin Doyle, Assistant Botanist &amp; Ryan O'Connor, Assistant Ecologist, Kelly Kearns, pers. comm., 2012).<br /><br />West Virginia: Wild harvest (P.J. Harmon, pers. comm., 2012).",
    "shortTermTrendComments" : "It is known that the rhizome of <i>Hydrastis canadensis </i>is wild-collected for medicinal uses.  Short term trend information is available from a few sources. There is decline in some populations due to wild-collection and habitat loss. Wild-collection in Canada is prohibited.  Overall population decline is evidenced through fewer populations present, fewer patches per population, and fewer ramets per patch (Sanders and McGraw 2005). Rangewide, or state-by-state, abundance information for goldenseal is unknown, which is typical of most wild-harvested plant species (McGraw et al. 2003).  Abundance and short-term trends in the core range states, in terms of both population size (numbers) and patches, is not available because it is not state-protected, and hence not monitored closely.  There are studies and observations for a few jurisdictions.<br /><br />Canada:<br />Population studies in Ontario, Canada detected no declines between 1991 and 1998.  Some patches may have been increasing while others were decreasing (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  The rate of expansion over several decades in Ontario is considered slight and slow, and possibly because of lack of disturbance given that populations in areas with some disturbance (greater light and nutrient resources) had highly variable growth rates (Sinclair and Catling 2002).<br /><br />United States:<br />In West Virginia, evidence of poaching was documented near Morgantown, West Virginia (Sanders and McGraw 2005), however, it is widely known that the rhizome is collected for trade in the medicinal market.  <br /><br />In Ohio, a core range state, recent short-term declines of approximately 30% were detected in goldenseal (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004, pers. comm. Gorchov 2012). Of 42 sites documented in Ohio from 1977-1998, 14 of these were extirpated as of 2002, if the rate of decline is constant, approximately 1.6% of populations are expected to be extirpated each year, and approximately a 30% decline over 20 years (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004, pers. comm. Gorchov 2012). <br /><br />In New York, recent studies have shown on-going extirpations as the distribution was reduced from 14 counties to 12 counties, due to habitat loss (Tait 2006).<br /><br />In Indiana, another core-range state, a dramatic increase in the amount of goldenseal harvested over the past 10 years has occurred, and law enforcement officials have expressed concern for the species due to the tonnage being shipped from the state (pers. comm. Indiana Department of Natural Resources).  Even though quantitative information about trends in Indiana do not exist, sharp increases in collection over 10 years suggest that a decline is very likely in this slow growing perennial.  A study described the growth rate of goldenseal as 'slight' (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).<br /><br />Some information about short-term trends is available from state Natural Heritage botanists.  Alabama (pers. comm. A. Schotz 2012) and Ohio (pers. comm. R. Gardner 2012) have had short term declines and West Virginia (pers. comm. P. Harmon) may also have short term declines. Botanists from the following states; AR, DE, KY, MO, MS, NC, NY, PA, TN, and VT say that the species is stable to slightly declining in their state.",
    "longTermTrendComments" : "Since the mid 1800s, populations throughout goldenseal's range have dramatically declined due to collection for medicinal uses and habitat destruction (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).  There is anecdotal evidence that during the 19th century as botanists noticed the decline and loss of goldenseal populations because of market demand and loss of habitat, greater pressure on managed or previously unharvested populations intensified (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006).  Once-abundant populations were decimated, and the distribution of this widespread species was reduced to isolated, scattered patches (Mulligan and Gorchov 2004, CITES 1991, Lloyd and Lloyd 1884-1885 in Foster 1991, Henkel and Klugh 1904).<br /><br />Loss of habitat is another primary threat both in United States (Tait 2006) and Canada (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  There are only remnants of the woodlands remaining where this species occurs in Canada: less than 5% of these forests remain from presettlement times (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).  Similarly, in New England during the 1800s, forest conversion, from forested lands to agriculture and settlement, reached its height and approximately 80% of the originally forested land was lost (Tait 2006).  In addition, many Ohio populations have gone extinct (Christensen and Gorchov 2010).  A study by Mulligan and Gorchov (2004) assessed the status of 71 historical locations of goldenseal in Ohio and concluded that nearly half of the populations had been extirpated (13% of the extinctions were due to habitat destruction).  They note that this number may be somewhat mitigated by the rate of colonization, however, that is unknown.<br /><br />Finally, according to the proposal to list goldenseal in Appendix II of CITES (1997),  \"the decline to rarity of this species has been reiterated by numerous authors including Millspaugh 1887, Henkel and Klugh 1904, Lloyd and Lloyd 1908, Grieve 1931, Deam 1940, Fernald 1950, Hill 1952, Gleason 1968, Schery 1972, Wofford 1989, Catling and Small 1994, Elliott 1995, Foster 1991, and Foster 1995.\"",
    "inventoryNeeds" : "Need further population data from states, especially those with 'uncommon' and 'secure' SRANKs (state conservation ranks). All states need to monitor population trends to determine effects that legal and illegal collection, as well as threats from habitat loss, are having on the populations. States that actively track this species should search areas of potential habitat. Populations should be monitored for the presence of the leaf blight which is threatening the population in the Great Smoky Mountains.",
    "numberProtEosComments" : "Many sites throughout the range are on federal, state, local, or private organizations (including some populations within Nature Conservancy preserves). Plants on public and protected lands need greater protection from illegal collecting and existing regulations protecting plants on public and protected lands need greater enforcement. <br /><br />Removal from state protected list occurred in North Carolina, in December 2010. The North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Plant Conservation Board removed goldenseal from the protected plant list (Greenfield and Davis 2012).  There are no state restrictions on harvesting or cultivating in the state.  Within the state, however, permits to collect the plants on federal forests will not be granted (Greenfield and Davis 2012).",
    "protectionNeeds" : "Plants on public and protected lands need greater protection from legal and illegal collecting, and existing regulations protecting plants on public and protected lands need greater enforcement.  Also, it is common practice for some harvesters to collect in late-summer and fall as the plant is going dormant. This may maximize harvesting returns and minimize collection and threats to the plant because a) rhizomes are bigger inthe fall than in the early part of the growing season and b) more rhizomes moisture content is lower in the fall so fewer rhizomes need to be collected to equal the fresh:dry weight ration of rhizomes collected in the spring (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006).  These observations could be used to guide permitting by state governments.",
    "otherConsiderations" : "Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, using samples from both wild and cultivated populations in North Carolina (cultivated), Ohio (cultivated), Pennsylvania (wild) and West Virginia (wild), showed that most genetic variation was found within groups and among samples within populations, but not between the wild and cultivated groups (Kelley 2009).  Moderate to high levels of genetic variation were found within both the wild and cultivated groups (F-statistic = 0.738, within populations) (Kelley 2009).  What is important to note, however, is that Kelley (2009) found that some populations had very low genetic diversity suggesting that these wild populations were not frequently reproducing sexually, and expanding vegetatively.  This is not surprising since it is widely known that it is clonal.  Another genetic study in 2012 examining genetic diversity of 6 population in western North Carolina found that most genetic variation was within populations, but that overall all genetic and allelic diversity was low among populations suggesting that outbreeding depression would be an unlikely effect from replanting declining populations in North Carolina (Torgerson 2012).",
    "intrinsicVulnerabilityComments" : "Primarily a clonal species with low seed to ramet production, but with some or few seedlings advancing to higher life stages allowing for at least infrequent infusion of genetic diversity into populations via sexual reproduction by seed.  It takes between four and five years for a plant to reach sexual maturity, i.e. the point at which it produces flowers.  Seedlings successfully moving forward to the next life-stages may be dependent on geographic location within its range, since in Ontario seedlings were rarely observed while in Ohio seedlings were still low in number but not rare (Sinclair and Catling 2000, Christensen and Gorchov 2010).<br /><br />Sexual reproduction contributes less to population growth due to low survival of seedlings: only 36% of seedlings made it to yr 2 and only 54% of these made it to yr 3, but new ramets had a 73% survival rate to the second year (Christensen and Gorchov 2010).  Further inbreeding is not expected in goldenseal since it produces ramets and flowers, and is self-compatible (Sinclair et al. 2000, Sanders and McGraw 2003, Christensen and Gorchov 2010, Mulligan and Gorchov 2004).<br /><br />In terms of population growth rate, Sinclair and Catling (2002) describe goldenseal's growth rate in non-harvested populations, at the northern limit of its range as slight and slow.  Studies in West Virginia examining its recovery from harvest, show an initial surge in growth (increased stem number), but that few plants progressed from one life history stage to the next in following years (Van der Voort et al. 2003).  This is exemplified by results in Sanders and McGraw (2005), who examined growth response to harvest.  Sanders and McGraw (2005) found that ramet leaf area recovered only 34% of the orginal pre-harvested leaf-area after 2 years [leaf area in the sampling plots from year 1 to year 2 was a measure of growth and recovery].",
    "enviromentalSpecificityComments" : null
  },
  "animalCharacteristics" : null,
  "occurrenceDelineations" : [ {
    "eoSpecsDetailId" : 123469,
    "locationUseClass" : {
      "id" : 1,
      "locationUseClassDescEn" : "Not applicable",
      "locationUseClassDescEs" : null,
      "locationUseClassDescFr" : null
    },
    "eoSpecGroupName" : null,
    "subtypes" : null,
    "inferredExtentDistance" : null,
    "inferredExtentNotes" : null,
    "minimumEoCriteria" : "Any naturally occurring discrete population defines an occurrence.",
    "mappingGuidance" : null,
    "separationBarriers" : null,
    "separationDistanceUnsuitableHabitatat" : 0.5,
    "separationDistanceSuitableHabitatat" : 1.5,
    "altSeparationProcedure" : null,
    "separationJustification" : "There are no data to suggest minimum distances between occurrences but we suggest at least 0.5 kilometers of unsuitable habitat or 1.5 kilometers of suitable but unoccupied habitat as separation distances between individual occurrences. Individual stems are generally found in clumps or clusters, with clumps ranging from a handful of stems to over a thousand stems. The typical clump range appears to be between 70 and 500 stems. Distinct clumps with continuous suitable habitat should be considered sub-populations of one large single occurrence, assuming there is no more than 1.5 kilometers between clumps.",
    "versionDate" : "2000-01-14",
    "versionAuthor" : "Weldy, T., and S. Young",
    "versionNotes" : "NYHP",
    "lastModified" : null
  } ],
  "plantCharacteristics" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "genusEconomicValue" : true,
    "economicComments" : "Goldenseal roots, plants, leaves, seeds, fruits and whole plants are sold in many forms: powdered, dried or fresh (Egert 2007). Two parts of the goldenseal plant are used for medicinal purposes: the rhizomes and leaves (or aerial parts).  Rhizomes seem to be the preferred target for harvest because goldenseal rhizomes have the highest concentration of medicinally-active alkaloids, berberine, hydrastine and canadine.  Leaves and stems  contain lower levels of these alkaloids (Douglas et al. 2010).<br /><br />Studies have found that goldenseal performs well as a yeast inhibitor, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, bile stimulant, and immune system stimulant (Bradley 1992, Benigni et al. 1962, Liu 1991, Kaneda 1991, Murray 1995, Sun 1988, Sack 1982). These properties help cure mouth and gum disorders, eye afflictions, infected wounds, bacterial or fungal infections, diarrhea, vaginitis, food poisoning, giardia, cholera, and dermatitis (e.g. Mills 1991, Murray 1995, Amalaradjou &amp; Venkitanarayanan 2011). In a survey of AIDS/HIV patients, goldenseal was one of the products most purchased, and most recommended by health-store employees (Medical Sciences Bulletin 1995).<br /><br />Studies in medical journals focused on the interaction of goldenseal with other drugs (Guo et al. 2011, Chatuphonprasert 2012, Shi &amp; Klotz 2012, Gurley et al. 2012,  Zadoyan &amp; Fuhr 2012, and Yamaura et al. 2012) and its chemical makeup (Le et al. 2012). There is evidence of the effectiveness of it treating mycoplasmosis (Arjoon 2012), H1N1 influenza A virus (Cecil et al. 2011), cancer (Karmakar et al. 2010 and Kim et al. 2010), and growth inhibition of MRSA (methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>)(Cech et al. 2012).<br /><br />The American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) is a trade association with over 200 herbal companies as members. AHPA surveys their members annually and goldenseal tonnage reports are based on these surveys (from up to 10 companies). Between 21 and 63 tons of dried rhizome and 0.1-10 tons of fresh wild rhizome were harvested each year from 2000-2010. In 1998, the AHPA recorded only 2% from cultivated sources, and this percentage increased to17-41% between 2000 - 2010.  AHPA members increased procurement of cultivated goldenseal by 2-17% from 1998-2010 (Dentali &amp; Zimmerman 2012).  AHPA (2012) reported in that timeframe that 21,500 kg of the total 255,000 kg harvested were exported internationally. Since, 2003 all US exports (including roots, powder, and derivatives) are from cultivated sources according to the CITES trade database (2013).<br /><br />As with other medicinal plants, the \"problem\" with cultivating goldenseal is that you have to wait several years to get a product.  There are two methods for cultivating goldenseal: woods-cultivated and wild-simulated.  Woods/forest cultivated methods require less investment, but profit earnings are unpredictable.  Burkhart and Jacobson (2009) indicated that cultivating goldenseal in a forest was not profitable at a historics price of $20/pound because of the annual production cost over the multiple years required before harvest. However, if has been suggested that organic certification may be a viable option to increase profitability of cultivated goldenseal (Burkhart and Jacobson 2009).<br /><br />The price for rhizomes increased from the $5/lb in the 1970s to $40/lb in the late 1990s and early 2000s, with a downturn in 2005 when growers and wild harvesters earned about $15/lb. The price per pound for leaves consistently averages half that of the rhizomes (PA DCNR 2012). In 2010, organic goldenseal farmers were earning $40/lb for rhizomes (Baker 2010). Recent information indicates that cultivated goldenseal may be garnering a higher price than wild goldenseal, with cultivated root selling for $30-35/dried pound and wild material selling for $20-25/pound (David and Greenfield 2012).",
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    "stewardshipOverview" : "Populations should be monitored for impacts related to harvest, and wild-collection is a primary threat to this species.  Most populations of goldenseal are made-up of 1000 and fewer stems, and while populations may be small protecting even the smallest should be considered.  Goldenseal maintains a mixed-breeding system and is able to self-pollinate to produce fruit, as well as produce sterile stems (non-flowering) that are genetically identical to other stems in the same patch (Christensen and Gorchov 2010, Sanders 2004).  Since goldenseal is capable of self-pollination to set fruit, even small populations can be long-lived, and can act as sources of genetic variability for other nearby populations (Sanders 2004).  Further, populations in small areas should be considered for conservation based on research that showed that goldenseal responds favorably to light and soil disturbance, and larger populations were associated with small habitat area (Sinclair and Catling 200b).  A genetic study in North Carolina showed that while higher levels of genetic diversity were measured within populations, that genetic and allelic diversity was low across populations suggesting that reintroductions into populations would not likely cause outbreeding depression (Torgerson 2012). <br><br>Studies show that the best measure of past collection is the number of fertile (Sinclair and Catling 2000, Christensen and Gorchov 2010) and large sterile plants (Christensen and Gorchov 2010) from year to year, as these two life classes are responsible for maintaining or proliferating population size.<br><br>Data collection on environmental conditions such as temperature, precipitation and soil nutrients should be maintained over the life of any monitoring program.  Buds for next year's stems are formed in summer or fall (Sinclair and Catling 2000) and spring growth is likely linked with the size of the flower bud and a determiner of whether plants will reproduce vegetatively or sexually in a given year (Christensen and Gorchov 2010). Growth is dependent on precipitation and temperature, and in one study high levels of soil nutrients (especially phosphorus) promoted growth of young stems (Sinclair and Catling 2000).<br><br>Other data related to the habitat should also be collected, such as percent canopy cover and soil displacement by animals and uprooted trees since goldenseal positively responds to mild disturbance, particularly light gaps and some soil disturbance (McGraw et al. 2003).  Management and monitoring of patches should be done based on changes in leaf-area from year to year, and not stem count.  Results from illicitly harvested patches in West Virginia show that leaf-area was immediately and negatively affected compared to pre-harvest leaf-area, and that stem-counts do not clearly relate to pre-harvest numbers (Sanders and McGraw 2005).  Finally, if populations are harvested, the time of year this takes place should be noted.  Albrecht and McCarthy (2006) found that fall-harvested populations may recover faster than those harvested in the mid-summer.<br><br>Success in monitoring and managing population dynamics is dependent on the knowledge of the data collectors and program managers, since understanding the reproductive life history of this plant is critical (i.e. it is known that large sterile (non-flowerig) plants transition back and forth from fertile plants) for accurate tracking of population health and viability.  Further, managers should know the local phenology pattern of the plant from emergence to senescence.  Detailed information about the life history of goldenseal is available in Christensen and Gorchov (2010), general biology and complexities associated with management are provided in Sinclair and Catling (2000), and diagram of the root (used in medicinal compounds) available in Van der Voort et al. (2003).",
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    "biologicalResearchNeeds" : "Few studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of the species.  Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed that moderate to high genetic diversity was found in wild populations sampled in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, but that some populations had very low genetic diversity suggesting they are reproducing vegetatively (Kelley 2009). One other study examined 6 goldenseal locations in North Carolina and found that most genetic variation was found within populations, however, genetic diversity across populations was found to be low (Torgerson 2012).  Torgerson (2012) notes that because genetic and allelic diversity was low across all of the goldenseal populations researched in North Carolina, that reintroductions into declining populations should not cause genetic loss through oubreeding depression.  Similar studies in other states in the core range states would further help inform stewardship practices such as reintroductions in harvested populations.  Genetic studies are also needed to examine the consequences of climate change if low genetic levels are detected along the leading or trailing edges of its range.   Genetic diversity should also be considered when developing stewardship programs focused on responsible harvesting.<br /><br />Patterns of rhizome collection need to be documented to better understand the proportion of size classes that harvesters remove, and how goldenseal responds to these different patterns (pers. comm. Gorchov 2012).  In other words, the frequency, intensity and technique of harvesting patterns needs monitoring, in addition to its re-growth response (Albrecht and McCarthy 2006).<br /><br />Modeling is also a need.  Models that project the impact of harvesting based on the different proportions of life history classes collected and at different time intervals are needed (pers. comm. Gorchov 2012).  Models that use real-life harvesting practices could be intrumental in documenting and predicting the decline of goldenseal, and decline is a vital component to assessing extinction risk for this clonal species.<br /><br />The extent of impact of deer browse on patches throughout goldenseal's range is needed (pers. comm. Gorchov 2012).  Many states record that white-tailed deer herbivory is a threat, however, the extent of the threat is not well understood.<br /><br />Lastly, there are a number of questions relating to the economic trade that need research.  It is not clear what percentage of wild harvested goldenseal is used domestically.  It is not clear what the harvest or cultivation practices are of herbal companies that do not belong to AHPA (American Herbal Products Association). It is also not clear if this is offsetting collection pressure from wild populations of goldenseal, given that some states continue to report declines, and to what extent poaching is impacting wild populations.  More research is required to determine whether current goldenseal demands can be satisfied by increased cultivation and whether market prices might stabilize if there are potentially stable supplies of goldenseal.",
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  "references" : [ {
    "id" : 719339,
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Albrecht and McCarthy",
    "shortCitationYear" : 2006,
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Anderson",
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Bailey",
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  }, {
    "id" : 129446,
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  }, {
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Catling and Small",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1994,
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  }, {
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Eichenberger and Parker",
    "shortCitationYear" : 1976,
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Elliott",
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  }, {
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    "citation" : "Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.",
    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Fernald",
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  }, {
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Freeman",
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  }, {
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    "id" : 719389,
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Gadd",
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  }, {
    "id" : 645418,
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    "id" : 135172,
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    "shortCitationYear" : 1968,
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  }, {
    "id" : 719366,
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  }, {
    "id" : 719343,
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    "id" : 147766,
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    "id" : 128066,
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  "speciesCharacteristics" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 154701,
    "reproductionComments" : "Goldenseal reproduces both clonally and sexually, with clonal division more frequent than asexual reproduction. It takes between 4 and 5 years for a plant to reach sexual maturity, i.e. the point at which it produces flowers. Plants in the first stage, when the seed erupts and cotyledons emerge, can remain in this state one or more years. The second vegetative stage occurs during years two and three (and sometimes longer) and is characterized by the development of a single leaf and absence of a well developed stem. Finally, the third stage is reproductive, at which point flowering and fruiting occurs. This last stage takes between 4 and 5 years to develop (Burkhart and Jacobson 2006).<br /><br />Flowers in April through May, and fruits from June through July (Eichenberger and Parker 1976, Sinclair et al. 2000). Fruit and seed set is not dependent on cross-pollination because Goldenseal has a mixed-mating system and flowers show similar fruit set whether or not pollinators were excluded (Sanders 2004, Christensen and Gorchov 2010).<br />In the northern reaches of goldenseal's range, in southwest Ontario, seedlings are rare (Sinclair and Catling 2000a). A study in the core portion of the range, in Ohio, found that while seedlings were far fewer than ramets, a 'substantial' number of the seedling-minority made it to the next life history stage, and ultimately represents an infusion of genetic diversity into the otherwise highly clonal population (Christensen and Gorchov 2010).<br />Christensen and Gorchov (2010) noted the following that seedling rarity is not due to: a) infrequent flowering, low fruit or seed set, and low seed viability.<br /><br />Christensen and Gorchov (2010) provide a good, clear diagram of the life-history of this plant, including diagrams of the possible transitions, places of regression to an earlier life stage, between life stages.",
    "ecologyComments" : null,
    "habitatComments" : "In the United States goldenseal is found in rich, densely shaded, deciduous forests with good air flow and water drainage (Greenfield and Davis 2012).  Light gaps and soil disturbance stimulate local proliferation (McGraw et al. 2003).<br /><br />Canada: In Southwest Ontario goldenseal is limited to deciduous woodlands near floodplains and periodic spring-flooded plateaus.  There only remnants of this woodland remains, less than 5%of these forests remain from pre-settlement times (Sinclair and Catling 2000).<br /><br />Goldenseal grows best in rich, mesic hardwood forest, especially those underlain by limestone or alkaline soils, butis also known from slightly acidic soils too. These forests are often second growth forests with the following associates (listed alphabetically by strata): <i>Acer rubrum</i>, <i>Acer saccharum</i>, <i>Betula lenta</i>, <i>Carpinus caroliniana</i>, <i>Carya </i>spp., <i>Fagus grandifolia</i>, <i>Fraxinus americana</i>,<i> Liriodendron tulipifera</i>, <i>Ostrya virginiana</i>, <i>Quercus</i> spp., <i>Thuja occidentalis</i>, <i>Tilia americana</i>, <i>Ulmus rubra</i>, <i>Cornus alternifolia</i>, <i>Corylus americana</i>, <i>Lindera benzoin</i>, <i>Lonicera </i>spp., <i>Parthenocissus quinquefolia</i>,<i> Toxicodendron radicans</i>, <i>Adiantum pedatum</i>, <i>Anemone quinquefolia</i>, <i>Aralia nudicaulis</i>, <i>Arisaema triphyllum</i>, <i>Asarum canadense</i>, <i>Asplenium platyneuron</i>, <i>Asplenium rhizophyllum</i>, <i>Carex platyphylla</i>, <i>Carex</i> spp., <i>Caulophyllum thalictroides</i>, <i>Cimicifuga racemosa</i>, <i>Dicentra</i> spp., <i>Dryopteris</i> spp., <i>Geranium maculatum</i>, <i>Hepatica</i> spp., <i>Hydrophyllum</i> spp., <i>Maianthemum </i>spp., <i>Mitella diphylla</i>, <i>Osmorhiza</i> spp., <i>Panax quinquefolius</i>, <i>Podophyllum peltatum</i>, <i>Polystichum acrostichoides</i>, <i>Sanguinaria canadensis</i>, <i>Trillium </i>spp., <i>Uvularia</i> spp., <i>Viola</i> spp. Species composition will vary considerable from region to region, but some of the above associates are likely to be found. Areas with <i>Hydrastis</i> also tend to have a nice collection of spring wildflowers and fern diversity is also likely higher than surrounding areas.<br />",
    "generalDescription" : "Goldenseal is a perennial plant that grows from stems one to two feet high.  Plants with single leaves produce no flowers and plants with two leaves produce flowers (Van der Voort et al. 2003).  The flowers are greenish-white, made up of three sepals and many stamens and carpels which emerge in April or May.  Fruits ripen between July and August.  Goldeneal produces a rhizome with many adventitious roots emerging from it.  The rhizome is yellowish, growing horizontally, is knotty and grows between 4-7cm long and between 0.5-2cm in width (Sinclair and Catling 2000a).",
    "diagnosticCharacteristics" : null,
    "speciesMarineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesTerrestrialHabitats" : [ {
      "cagTerrHabId" : 109257,
      "terrestrialHabitat" : {
        "id" : 1,
        "terrestrialHabitatDescEn" : "Forest - Hardwood",
        "terrestrialHabitatDescEs" : null,
        "terrestrialHabitatDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "speciesRiverineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesPalustrineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesLacustrineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesSubterraneanHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesEstuarineHabitats" : [ ]
  }
}
Path Type Description

conceptName

String; May contain HTML markup

Name Used in Concept Reference.

conceptRefFullCitation

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Concept Reference.

conservationStatusFactorsEditionAuthors

String; May contain HTML markup

NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Authors.

conservationStatusFactorsEditionDate

Date

NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date.

elcode

String

NatureServe Element Code.

elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

formattedScientificName

String; Not null; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

grank

String; Not null

Global Status.

grankChangeDate

Date

Global Status Last Changed.

grankReasons

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Reasons.

grankReviewDate

Date

Global Status Last Reviewed.

lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

lastPublished

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Published.

nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

primaryCommonName

String

Common Name.

primaryCommonNameLanguage

String

The primary common name’s ISO language code.

recordType

RecordType

The type of taxon record. Possible values: SPECIES, ECOSYSTEM

relatedItisNames

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Related ITIS Names.

roundedGRank

String

Global Status (Rounded).

scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

scientificNameAuthor

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name Author.

taxonomicComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Taxonomic Comments.

uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

animalCharacteristics

AnimalCharacteristics

Characteristics unique to animal taxon records. Only populated for: ANIMAL.

circumscripConfidence

CircumscripConfidence domain value

Classification Confidence.

classificationLevel

ClassificationLevel domain value

Classification Level.

classificationLevel.classificationLevelNameEn

String

English Display Name.

classificationLevel.classificationLevelNameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

classificationLevel.classificationLevelNameFr

String

French Display Name.

classificationStatus

ClassificationStatus domain value

Classification Status.

elementManagement

ElementManagement

Management Summary.

elementManagement.additionalTopics

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Additional Topics.

elementManagement.biologicalResearchNeeds

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Biological Research Needs.

elementManagement.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementManagement.eoManagementGroupName

String; May contain HTML markup

Group Name.

elementManagement.impacts

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Species Impacts.

elementManagement.managementMethods

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Management Requirements.

elementManagement.managementProgramContacts

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Monitoring Programs.

elementManagement.managementResearchNeeds

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Management Research Needs.

elementManagement.managementResearchPrograms

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Management Research Programs.

elementManagement.monitoringMethods

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Monitoring Requirements.

elementManagement.monitoringProgramContacts

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Monitoring Program Contacts.

elementManagement.restorationPotential

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Restoration Potential.

elementManagement.siteConservationPlansConsidered

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Preserve Selection & Design Considerations.

elementManagement.stewardshipOverview

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Stewardship Overview.

iucn

Iucn domain value

IUCN Red List Category.

iucn.iucnCode

String

IUCN Code Value.

nameCategory

NameCategory domain value

Category.

nameCategory.nameTypeCd

String

Name Type Code. Possible values: A (for animals), P (for plants), C (for Ecosystems, aka, Communities)

nameCategory.nameTypeDesc

String

Name Type Description.

plantCharacteristics

PlantCharacteristics

Characteristics unique to plant taxon records. Only populated for: PLANT.

plantCharacteristics.economicComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Economic Comments.

plantCharacteristics.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

plantCharacteristics.genusEconomicValue

Boolean

Economically Important Genus.

plantCharacteristics.plantCommercialImportances[]

Set of PlantCommercialImportance

Commercial Importance.

plantCharacteristics.plantCommercialImportances[].plantCagCommImportId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

plantCharacteristics.plantCommercialImportances[].commercialImportance

CommercialImportance domain value

CommercialImportance domain value.

plantCharacteristics.plantDurations[]

Set of PlantDuration

Duration.

plantCharacteristics.plantDurations[].plantCagDurationId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

plantCharacteristics.plantDurations[].duration

Duration domain value

Duration domain value.

plantCharacteristics.plantEconomicUses[]

Set of PlantEconomicUse

Economic Uses.

plantCharacteristics.plantEconomicUses[].plantCagEconomicUseId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

plantCharacteristics.plantEconomicUses[].economicUse

EconomicUse domain value

EconomicUse domain value.

plantCharacteristics.plantProductionMethods[]

Set of PlantProductionMethod

Production Methods.

plantCharacteristics.plantProductionMethods[].plantCagProdMethodId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

plantCharacteristics.plantProductionMethods[].productionMethod

ProductionMethod domain value

ProductionMethod domain value.

rankInfo

RankInfo

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors.

rankInfo.areaOfOccupancyComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Area of Occupancy Comments.

rankInfo.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

rankInfo.enviromentalSpecificityComments

String

Environmental Specificity Comments.

rankInfo.intrinsicVulnerabilityComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Fragility Comments.

rankInfo.inventoryNeeds

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Inventory Needs.

rankInfo.longTermTrendComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Long-term Trend Comments.

rankInfo.numberEosComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Estimated Number of Element Occurrences Comments.

rankInfo.numberProtEosComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Global Protection Comments.

rankInfo.otherConsiderations

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Other Considerations.

rankInfo.popSizeComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Global Abundance Comments.

rankInfo.protectionNeeds

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Protection Needs.

rankInfo.rangeExtentComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Range Extent Comments.

rankInfo.shortTermTrendComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Short-term Trend Comments.

rankInfo.threatImpactComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Threat Comments.

rankInfo.viabilityComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Viability/Integrity Comments.

rankInfo.aooPercentGood

AooPercentGood domain value

Percent Area with Good Viability/Integrity.

rankInfo.areaOfOccupancy

AreaOfOccupancy domain value

Area of Occupancy.

rankInfo.enviromentalSpecificity

EnviromentalSpecificity domain value

Environmental Specificity.

rankInfo.intrinsicVulnerability

IntrinsicVulnerability domain value

Fragility.

rankInfo.longTermTrend

LongTermTrend domain value

Long-term Trend.

rankInfo.numberEos

NumberEos domain value

Estimated Number of Element Occurrences.

rankInfo.numberGoodEos

NumberGoodEos domain value

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity.

rankInfo.numberProtEos

NumberProtEos domain value

Global Protection.

rankInfo.popSize

PopSize domain value

Global Abundance.

rankInfo.rangeExtent

RangeExtent domain value

Range Extent.

rankInfo.shortTermTrend

ShortTermTrend domain value

Short-term Trend.

rankInfo.threatImpactAssigned

ThreatImpactAssigned domain value

Degree of Threat.

rankMethodUsed

RankMethodUsed domain value

Rank Method Used.

speciesCharacteristics

SpeciesCharacteristics

Characteristics unique to species taxon records.

speciesCharacteristics.diagnosticCharacteristics

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Diagnostic Characteristics.

speciesCharacteristics.ecologyComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Ecology Comments.

speciesCharacteristics.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.generalDescription

Long String; May contain HTML markup

General Description.

speciesCharacteristics.habitatComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Habitat Comments.

speciesCharacteristics.reproductionComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Reproduction Comments.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesEstuarineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesEstuarineHabitat

Estuarine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesEstuarineHabitats[].cagEstuarineHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesEstuarineHabitats[].estuarineHabitat

EstuarineHabitat domain value

EstuarineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesLacustrineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesLacustrineHabitat

Lacustrine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesLacustrineHabitats[].cagLacusHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesLacustrineHabitats[].lacustrineHabitat

LacustrineHabitat domain value

LacustrineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesMarineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesMarineHabitat

Marine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesMarineHabitats[].cagMarineHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesMarineHabitats[].marineHabitat

MarineHabitat domain value

MarineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesPalustrineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesPalustrineHabitat

Palustrine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesPalustrineHabitats[].cagPalusHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesPalustrineHabitats[].palustrineHabitat

PalustrineHabitat domain value

PalustrineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesRiverineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesRiverineHabitat

Riverine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesRiverineHabitats[].cagRiverineHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesRiverineHabitats[].riverineHabitat

RiverineHabitat domain value

RiverineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesSubterraneanHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesSubterraneanHabitat

Subterranean Habitats. Only populated for: ANIMAL.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesTerrestrialHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesTerrestrialHabitat

Terrestrial Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesTerrestrialHabitats[].cagTerrHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesTerrestrialHabitats[].terrestrialHabitat

TerrestrialHabitat domain value

TerrestrialHabitat domain value.

speciesGlobal

SpeciesGlobal

Data only applicable for species taxon records.

speciesGlobal.kingdom

String

Kingdom.

speciesGlobal.phylum

String

Phylum.

speciesGlobal.taxclass

String

Class.

speciesGlobal.taxorder

String

Order.

speciesGlobal.family

String

Family.

speciesGlobal.genus

String

Genus.

speciesGlobal.infraspecies

Boolean

Infraspecies Indicator. If true, the taxon record represents a sub-species or variety.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies

ParentSpecies

Parent Species. Populated if the taxon record represents a sub-species or variety.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.parentSpeciesId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.primaryCommonName

String

Common Name.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

speciesGlobal.americanFisheriesStatus

String

American Fisheries Society Status.

speciesGlobal.americanFisheriesStatusDate

Date

American Fisheries Society Status Assignment Date.

speciesGlobal.completeDistribution

Boolean

Complete Distribution Indicator. Set to true if this record’s distribution data is complete; false if it is incomplete.

speciesGlobal.cosewic

Cosewic domain value

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC).

speciesGlobal.cosewic.cosewicCode

String

COSEWIC Code value.

speciesGlobal.cosewicComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Comments on COSEWIC.

speciesGlobal.cosewicDate

Date

COSEWIC Status Assignment Date.

speciesGlobal.ebarCanadianScope

Boolean

Ecosystem-based Automated Ranges Canadian Scope.

speciesGlobal.ebarGlobalScope

Boolean

Ecosystem-based Automated Ranges Global Scope.

speciesGlobal.ebarId

String

Ecosystem-based Automated Ranges Id.

speciesGlobal.interpretedCosewic

String

Implied Status of the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC).

speciesGlobal.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.saraStatus

String

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status.

speciesGlobal.saraStatusDate

Date

SARA Status Assignment Date.

speciesGlobal.usesa

Usesa domain value

U.S. Endangered Species Act.

speciesGlobal.usesa.usesaCode

String

USESA Code Value.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[]

List of Infraspecies

Infraspecies.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].infraspeciesId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].primaryCommonName

String

Common Name.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

speciesGlobal.usesaComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Comments on Endangered Species Act Statuses.

speciesGlobal.usesaDate

Date

USESA Status Assignment Date.

speciesGlobal.interpretedUsesa

String

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

speciesGlobal.cites

Cites domain value

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES).

speciesGlobal.fwsRegion

FwsRegion domain value

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region.

speciesGlobal.genusSize

GenusSize domain value

Genus Size.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy

InformalTaxonomy

Informal Taxonomy.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.displayOrder

Integer

Display Order.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.distributionStatus

DistributionStatusType

Informal Taxonomy Distribution Status. Possible values: complete, not, semi

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.hasChildren

Boolean

Has Children Indicator.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.informalTaxonomyId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.level

Integer

Informal Taxonomy Level. Possible values: 1, 2, or 3.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.level1

String

Informal Taxonomy Level 1 Value.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.level2

String

Informal Taxonomy Level 2 Value.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.level3

String

Informal Taxonomy Level 3 Value.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.parentId

Integer

Informal Taxonomy Parent ID.

speciesGlobal.jurisEndem

JurisEndem domain value

Endemism.

speciesGlobal.nomenclaturallyEst

NomenclaturallyEst domain value

NomenclaturallyEst domain value.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[]

List of Synonym

Synonyms.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[].formattedSynonym

String; May contain HTML markup

Formatted Synonym Name.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[].id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[].synonym

String

Synonym Name.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[].synonymAuthor

String; May contain HTML markup

Synonym Author.

elementNationals[]

Set of ElementNational

National Data. Information about the taxon’s presence in various nations.

elementNationals[].elementNationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].nrank

String

NatureServe National Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].nrankReviewYear

Integer

National Rank Review Year.

elementNationals[].roundedNRank

String

Rounded NatureServe National Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].classifConfidence

ClassifConfidence domain value

ClassifConfidence domain value.

elementNationals[].nation

Nation domain value

Nation.

elementNationals[].nation.isoCode

String

Nation ISO Country Code.

elementNationals[].nation.nameEn

String

English Display Name.

elementNationals[].nation.nameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

elementNationals[].nation.nameFr

String

French Display Name.

elementNationals[].nation.region

String

Region.

elementNationals[].speciesNational

SpeciesNational

Species National Data.

elementNationals[].speciesNational.elementNationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].speciesNational.exotic

Boolean

Exotic.

elementNationals[].speciesNational.native

Boolean

Native.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[]

Set of ElementSubnational

Subnational Data. Information about the taxon’s presence in various subnations.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].elementSubnationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].roundedSRank

String

Rounded NatureServe Subnational Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].srank

String

NatureServe Subnational Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational

SpeciesSubnational

Species Subnational Data. Information about a species' presence in a particular subnation

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational.elementSubnationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational.exotic

Boolean

Exotic. The species is present in the subnation due to direct or indirect human intervention.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational.hybrid

Boolean

Hybrid.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational.native

Boolean

Native.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation

Subnation domain value

State/Province.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.dnationId

Integer

Nation ID. The ID of the nation in which the subnation resides.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.nameEn

String

English Display Name.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.nameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.nameFr

String

French Display Name.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.subnationCode

String

Subnation Code. As defined within Biotics.

occurrenceDelineations[]

Set of OccurrenceDelineation

Population / Occurrence Delineation.

occurrenceDelineations[].altSeparationProcedure

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Alternate Separation Procedure.

occurrenceDelineations[].eoSpecGroupName

String; May contain HTML markup

Group Name.

occurrenceDelineations[].eoSpecsDetailId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

occurrenceDelineations[].inferredExtentDistance

Double

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown).

occurrenceDelineations[].inferredExtentNotes

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Inferred Minimum Extent Justification.

occurrenceDelineations[].lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

occurrenceDelineations[].mappingGuidance

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Mapping Guidance.

occurrenceDelineations[].minimumEoCriteria

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence.

occurrenceDelineations[].separationBarriers

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Separation Barriers.

occurrenceDelineations[].separationDistanceSuitableHabitatat

Double

Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat.

occurrenceDelineations[].separationDistanceUnsuitableHabitatat

Double

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat.

occurrenceDelineations[].separationJustification

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Separation Justification.

occurrenceDelineations[].subtypes

String

Subtype(s).

occurrenceDelineations[].versionAuthor

String; May contain HTML markup

Author.

occurrenceDelineations[].versionDate

Date

Date.

occurrenceDelineations[].versionNotes

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Version Notes.

occurrenceDelineations[].locationUseClass

LocationUseClass domain value

Use Class.

occurrenceViabilities[]

Set of OccurrenceViability

Population / Occurrence Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].eoRankSpecsDetailId

Integer

Primary Key for Row.

occurrenceViabilities[].eoRankSpecsGroupName

String

Group Name.

occurrenceViabilities[].excellentViability

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Excellent Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].fairViability

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Fair Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].goodViability

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Good Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

occurrenceViabilities[].poorViability

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Poor Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].versionAuthor

String

Author.

occurrenceViabilities[].versionDate

Date

Date.

occurrenceViabilities[].versionNotes

String

Version Notes.

occurrenceViabilities[].viabilityJustification

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Justification.

occurrenceViabilities[].locationUseClass

LocationUseClass domain value

Use Class.

otherCommonNames[]

List of CommonName

Other Common Names.

otherCommonNames[].id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

otherCommonNames[].language

String

ISO Language Code.

otherCommonNames[].name

Long String; Not null; May contain HTML markup

Name.

references[]

List of Reference

References.

references[].citation

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Full Citation.

references[].id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

references[].lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

references[].referenceCode

String

Reference Code.

references[].shortCitationAuthor

String

Short Citation Author.

references[].shortCitationYear

Integer

Short Citation Year.

Animal Data Model

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "elementGlobalId" : 102187,
  "circumscripConfidence" : {
    "id" : 1,
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  "formattedScientificName" : "<i>Ursus arctos</i>",
  "scientificName" : "Ursus arctos",
  "scientificNameAuthor" : "Linnaeus, 1758",
  "primaryCommonName" : "Brown Bear",
  "relatedItisNames" : "<i>Ursus arctos</i> Linnaeus, 1758 (TSN 180543)",
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  "elcode" : "AMAJB01020",
  "conceptRefFullCitation" : "Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.",
  "conceptName" : "<i>Ursus arctos</i>",
  "taxonomicComments" : "Genetic studies of brown bears indicate that the traditional morphology-based taxonomy of brown bears is highly discordant with bear phylogeny as indicated by geographic patterns of mtDNA variation. Based on recent and permafrost-preserved Pleistocene material, there is no genetic (mtDNA) support for the validity of any of the commonly recognized North American subspecies (e.g., <i>horribilis</i>, <i>middendorffi</i>), and North American brown bears do not represent a distinct lineage with respect to brown bears in Northern Asia and Europe (Waits et al. 1998, Leonard et al. 2000, Barnes et al. 2002). If a subspecific name is to be applied to North American brown bears, it should be <i>Ursus arctos arctos</i>, a taxon whose range encompasses both North America and parts of Eurasia. This name has been adopted for North American brown bears by ITIS (http://www.itis.usda.gov/index.html), which lists <i>U. a. horribilis</i> and <i>U. a. nelsoni</i> as invalid because they are junior synonyms of <i>U. a. arctos</i>.<br /><br />SPECIFICS: Based on electrophoretic data indicating that the Kodiak Island population is reproductively isolated from the mainland Alaska population, Allendorf et al. (1992) concluded that the Kodiak Island population may warrent subspecific recognition (i.e., as subspecies <i>middendorffi</i>). However, subsequent studies have revealed that the mtDNA sequence observed in all individuals from Kodiak Island is identical to sequences observed in brown bears from many regions in mainland Alaska and from northern Asia and Europe (Waits et al. 1998). MtDNA data also provide no support for a distinct taxonomic group on the Kenai Peninsula; all sequences from individuals sampled in this region group with other mainland Alaska bears. Cronin et al. (1991) also found that the two morphological forms of <i>U. arctos</i>, grizzly and coastal brown bears, do not cluster as distinct mtDNA lineages. Waits et al. (1998) suggested that the morphological differences used to define brown bear subspecies may represent phenotypic plasticity in differing environments rather than long-term genetic isolation.<br /><br />Recent studies of mtDNA from permafrost-preserved material indicate that the Beringian brown bear population of 36,000 years ago included mtDNA sequences from three clades now restricted to local regions in North America (Leonard et al. 2000). Thus the geographical partitioning of mtDNA haplotypes in extant North American populations is a relatively recent event (a consequence of founder effects and lineage partitioning) rather than evidence of long history of isolation. Waits et al. (1998) had suggested that the North American clades of brown bears likely are evolutionarily significant units that should be managed separately for conservation, but the genetic data from the perma-frost preserved material raise doubts about this (Leonard et al. 2000).<br /><br />Bears from Yellowstone National Park have less allozyme variation than do all other North American populations except for the Kodiak Island population. There are significant genetic differences between Cabinet-Yaak-Selkirk and Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem bears, but not between Yellowstone and Northern Continental Divide populations (Allendorf et al. 1992).<br /><br />Western and eastern populations of brown bears in Europe comprise two distinct lineages that diverged about 850,000 years ago (Dorozynski, 1994, Science 263:175).<br /><br />Various kinds of evidence (fossils, protein, mitochondrial DNA) indicate that the brown bear and polar bear are sister taxa, more closely related to each other than either is to the black bear (see Shields and Kocher 1991, Cronin et al. 1991). In fact, recent mtDNA data indicate that the brown bear is paraphyletic with respect to the polar bear (i.e., brown bears from certain areas are genetically more closely related to the polar bear than they are to other brown bears) (e.g, Waits et al. 1998, Barnes et al. 2002, and other sources cited therein).",
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    "rangeExtentComments" : "Formerly throughout western North America, north from northern Mexico; northwestern Africa, all of the Palearctic from western Europe, Near and Middle East through the northern Himalayas to western and northern China and Chukot (Russia) and Hokkaido (Japan) (Wozencraft, in Wilson and Reeder 1993); see Pasitschniak-Arts (1993) for additional details.  In North America, present range includes Alaska, northern and western Canada, northern Continental Divide in Montana, Cabinet/Yaak mountains in Montana/Idaho, Selkirk Mountains in Idaho/Washington, Northern Cascades in Washington, and Yellowstone area, Wyoming/Montana/Idaho. Some bears in the Cabinet-Yaak ecosystem of Montana and Idaho and Selkirk ecosystem of Idaho and Washington mingle in the Purcell Mountains in southern British Columbia, and movement data indicate that the Cabinet-Yaak and Selkirk populations are connected to a much larger population (several hundred bears) extending north into British Columbia (USFWS 1999). However, the listed distinct population segment is confined to the U.S. portion of these ecosystems.  Common only in Alaska, parts of the Yukon, northern and coastal British Columbia, and portions of the northern Rocky Mountains. USFWS has proposed reintroduction in the Bitterroot ecosystem of east-central Idaho and adjacent Montana.  In Europe, apart from northern Europe, distribution has shrunk to a few isolated populations in the Pyrenees, the Apenines, the Alps, the Balkan Peninsula, and the Carpathians (see Hartl and Hell 1994).",
    "areaOfOccupancy" : null,
    "areaOfOccupancyComments" : null,
    "numberEosComments" : null,
    "popSizeComments" : "In North America, there are currently about 30,000-35,000 grizzly bears in Alaska, 21,660 in Canada, and 800-1000 in the lower 48 states. Population estimates for Asian grizzlies are unavailable.  See Knick and Kasworm (1989), Brannon et al. (1988), Knight et al. (1988), Hayward (1989), and Keating (1989) for discussion of status and mortality patterns in Glacier and Yellowstone parks and in Idaho-Washington-British Columbia.  As of the early 1990s, the Yellowstone population was estimated at 200-350 (Mattson and Reid 1991). USFWS (1990) noted that a record 57 cubs were born in the Yellowstone ecosystem in 1990.  Northern Continental Divide population was estimated at 440-680 in 1985, unknown number in Selway-Bitterroot (probably fewer than 10) (Matthews and Moseley 1990). Selkirk recovery zone includes an estimated 46 bears, 19 in the U.S. and 27 in Canada (USFWS 1999). Cabinet-Yaak recovery zone supports 30-40 bears (conservative estimate) (USFWS 1999). Between 1964 and 1991, there were 21 credible reports of grizzly bears in the North Cascades south of Canada (Almack et al. 1993).  Canada: Current populations (early 1990s) have been estimated at between 140 and 5680 (mainly 1000-3000) individuals in each of 12 grizzly bear zones in Canada; local populations probably are being overharvested (Banci 1991, which see for a detailed analysis of status in Canada). See also Macey (1979 COSEWIC report) for further information on status in Canada (population estimated at about 20,000, the majority in the Yukon and British Columbia).",
    "viabilityComments" : null,
    "threatImpactComments" : "Historical decline due to habitat loss and fragmentation and killing by humans. Primary threats are habitat alienation, alteration, and loss; increased access to wilderness; and hunting (both legal and illegal). Increased access increases human-bear contacts, some of which result in destruction of bears. Alien species threaten food resources in some areas; in Montana, white pine blister rust has killed whitebark pines (seeds serve as food for bears) and knapweed have displaced native plants that serve as foods for bears and their prey.  See Horejsi (1989) for a discussion of land-use threats (petroleum and natural gas development, grazing by domestic stock) and excessive bear mortality in southwestern Alberta. See also Matthews and Moseley (1990) for discussion of threats.  Basic problem in the Cabinet-Yaak/Selkirk ecosystem is reduced habitat availability due to land use by humans and increased human access into habitat; this results in increased bear mortality. Access management plans have addressed this problem to some degree but have not been fully implemented (USFWS 1999). Several large mines in Montana, if approved, may pose a threat (USFWS 1999). Forestry, mining, recreation, and road building also affect habitat in British Columbia where the two portions of this distinct population segment are connected (USFWS 1999).",
    "shortTermTrendComments" : "Declining in most areas. See Knick and Kasworm (1989), Brannon et al. (1988), Knight et al. (1988), Hayward (1989), and Keating (1989) for discussion of status and mortality patterns in Glacier and Yellowstone parks and in Idaho-Washington-British Columbia. As of the early 1990s, the Yellowstone population was stable, but \"optimism over prospects of long-term persistence...does not seem warranted\" (Mattson and Reid 1991). Eberhardt et al. (1994) employed data on reproductive and survival rates to conclude that the Yellowstone population may be increasing. USFWS (1990) noted that a record 57 cubs were born in the Yellowstone ecosystem in 1990. Yellowstone population was reported as stable or slightly increasing in the 1980s by Blanchard et al. (1992). A population model presented by Dennis et al. (1991) suggested that the Yellowstone population is doomed to extinction in the long term. Recent trend in Glacier population is debatable. Populations in the Cabinet-Yaak/Selkirk ecosystem appear to be responding to protective measures that reduce mortality. Population trends are inconclusive (USFWS 1999).  In the western Carpathians of Europe, excessive killing by human decreased the population to about 40 in 1932; subsequent protection led to an increase to about 700 in the early 1990s (Hartl and Hell 1994).",
    "longTermTrendComments" : null,
    "inventoryNeeds" : "Monitoring should concentrate on annual inventories of mothers with newborn young.",
    "numberProtEosComments" : "Even relatively large parks may be ineffective in protecting populations if many individuals use land outside park boundaries. About 95 percent of the habitat in the Cabinet-Yaak/Selkirk ecosystem is in public ownership (USFWS 1999).",
    "protectionNeeds" : "Bears and habitat need to be protected in core areas throughout their range. A draft environmental impact statement for grizzly bear recovery in the Bitterroot Ecosystem was available in July 1997 (USFWS 1997). For the Cabinet-Yaak/Selkirk ecosystem, maintain habitat connectivity in Canada (USFWS 1999).",
    "otherConsiderations" : "",
    "intrinsicVulnerabilityComments" : null,
    "enviromentalSpecificityComments" : null
  },
  "animalCharacteristics" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 102187,
    "majorHabitat" : null,
    "nonMigrant" : true,
    "localMigrant" : true,
    "longDistanceMigrant" : false,
    "mobilityMigrationComments" : "In North America, often exhibits discrete elevational movements from spring to fall, following seasonal food availability (LeFranc et al. 1987); generally at lower elevations in spring, higher elevations in mid-summer and winter.<br><br>Home range exhibits much variation among different individuals, areas, and seasons; male range generally is larger than that of female; annual range varies from less than 25 sq km (Kodiak Island) to more than 2000 sq km (see LeFranc et al. 1987), generally several hundred sq km (Banci 1991, Pasitschniak-Arts 1993). Range from 2,000 to 60,000 hectares in Yellowstone, averaging 8,000 hectares (Craighead 1976); male home ranges in the Yukon averaged 41,400 hectares (Pearson 1975).",
    "foodHabitsComments" : "Opportunistic omnivore. In all areas, vegetal matter is a dominant portion of the diet. Feeds on carrion, fish (especially coastal populations), large and small mammals, insects, fruit, grasses, bark, roots, mushrooms, and garbage. May cache food (and guard it). In the Yellowstone region, ungulate remains were a major portion of early season scats; graminoids dominated in May and June, and whitebark pine seeds were most important in late season scats; berries composed a minor portion of scats in all seasons (Mattson et al. 1991). May feed on insect aggregations (e.g., army cutworm moths, ladybird beetles); in Shoshone National Forest, Yellowstone ecosystem, alpine insect aggregations are an important source of food, especially in the absence of high-quality foraging alternatives in July and August of most years (Mattson et al. 1991). In Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta, main food was roots of HEDYSARUM SULPHURESCENS in spring and autumn, ERYTHRONIUM GRANDIFLORUM corms and green vegetation (mainly umbellifers) from June through early August; VACCINIUM fruits were important in late July and August (see Hamer et al. [1991] for further details). Sometimes preys on black bear and conspecifics (Mattson et al., 1992, J. Mamm. 73:422-425).",
    "animalPhenologyComments" : "Tends to be predominantly crepuscular with the least activity during midday, but much individual variation. Dormant in winter. In North America, usually enters den in October or November, emerges usually in April-May (some in late March in south). In the Northwest Territories, Canada, den entrance occurred primarily in last two weeks of October; the majority of bears emerged from dens in the first week of May (McLoughlin et al. 2002). The latest dates of den entrance in North America are on southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska, where mean dates of den entrance for males and females are in mid-November and early December, respectively (Van Daele et al. 1990).",
    "colonialBreeder" : false,
    "length" : 213,
    "width" : null,
    "weight" : 680000,
    "animalPhenologies" : [ {
      "animalCagPhenologyId" : 101734,
      "animalPhenology" : {
        "id" : 5,
        "animalPhenologyDescEn" : "Crepuscular",
        "animalPhenologyDescEs" : null,
        "animalPhenologyDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    }, {
      "animalCagPhenologyId" : 101731,
      "animalPhenology" : {
        "id" : 1,
        "animalPhenologyDescEn" : "Hibernates/aestivates",
        "animalPhenologyDescEs" : null,
        "animalPhenologyDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    }, {
      "animalCagPhenologyId" : 101733,
      "animalPhenology" : {
        "id" : 4,
        "animalPhenologyDescEn" : "Nocturnal",
        "animalPhenologyDescEs" : null,
        "animalPhenologyDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    }, {
      "animalCagPhenologyId" : 101732,
      "animalPhenology" : {
        "id" : 3,
        "animalPhenologyDescEn" : "Diurnal",
        "animalPhenologyDescEs" : null,
        "animalPhenologyDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    } ],
    "animalFoodHabits" : [ {
      "animalCagFoodHabitsId" : 103237,
      "foodHabits" : {
        "id" : 3,
        "foodHabitsDescEn" : "Invertivore",
        "foodHabitsDescEs" : null,
        "foodHabitsDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    }, {
      "animalCagFoodHabitsId" : 103238,
      "foodHabits" : {
        "id" : 4,
        "foodHabitsDescEn" : "Herbivore",
        "foodHabitsDescEs" : null,
        "foodHabitsDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    }, {
      "animalCagFoodHabitsId" : 103236,
      "foodHabits" : {
        "id" : 2,
        "foodHabitsDescEn" : "Piscivore",
        "foodHabitsDescEs" : null,
        "foodHabitsDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    }, {
      "animalCagFoodHabitsId" : 103235,
      "foodHabits" : {
        "id" : 1,
        "foodHabitsDescEn" : "Carnivore",
        "foodHabitsDescEs" : null,
        "foodHabitsDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    }, {
      "animalCagFoodHabitsId" : 103240,
      "foodHabits" : {
        "id" : 6,
        "foodHabitsDescEn" : "Frugivore",
        "foodHabitsDescEs" : null,
        "foodHabitsDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    }, {
      "animalCagFoodHabitsId" : 103239,
      "foodHabits" : {
        "id" : 5,
        "foodHabitsDescEn" : "Granivore",
        "foodHabitsDescEs" : null,
        "foodHabitsDescFr" : null
      },
      "adult" : true,
      "immature" : true
    } ]
  },
  "occurrenceDelineations" : [ {
    "eoSpecsDetailId" : 1704,
    "locationUseClass" : {
      "id" : 1,
      "locationUseClassDescEn" : "Not applicable",
      "locationUseClassDescEs" : null,
      "locationUseClassDescFr" : null
    },
    "eoSpecGroupName" : null,
    "subtypes" : "Den site, Feeding concentration site",
    "inferredExtentDistance" : 10.0,
    "inferredExtentNotes" : "Set conservatively low, based on an individual home range of 8000 hectares. Extent of viable populations will be much, much larger. In the northern interior of North America, inferred extents of 23 kilometers (home range of 40,000 hectares) can be used.",
    "minimumEoCriteria" : "Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.",
    "mappingGuidance" : null,
    "separationBarriers" : "Major water barriers; arbitrarily set at those greater than 5 kilometers across.",
    "separationDistanceUnsuitableHabitatat" : null,
    "separationDistanceSuitableHabitatat" : null,
    "altSeparationProcedure" : "Occurrences generally should be based on major occupied physiographic or ecogeographic units that are separated by areas of relatively low bear density or use (e.g., major urban areas, very rugged alpine ridges, very wide bodies of water) These units may be based on available bear sightings/records or on movements of radio-tagged individuals, or they may be based on the subjective determinations by biologists familiar with bears and their habitats. Where occupied habitat is exceptionally extensive and continuous, that habitat may be subdivided into multiple contiguous occurrences as long as that does not reduce the occurrence rank (i.e., do not split up an A occurrence into multiple occurrences that would be ranked less than A).",
    "separationJustification" : "Brown bears are highly mobile and readily disperse hundreds of kilometers across many types of habitats; populations and metapopulations tend to encompass huge areas (Craighead 1976, Pearson 1975). Hence, meaningful bear occurrences should represent large occupied landscape units, but these often will not be demographically isolated from other occurrences. Isolation would require huge separation distances that would yield impractically large occurrences.",
    "versionDate" : "2004-09-28",
    "versionAuthor" : "Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson",
    "versionNotes" : null,
    "lastModified" : null
  } ],
  "plantCharacteristics" : null,
  "elementManagement" : {
    "elementGlobalId" : 102187,
    "eoManagementGroupName" : null,
    "stewardshipOverview" : null,
    "impacts" : null,
    "restorationPotential" : null,
    "siteConservationPlansConsidered" : null,
    "managementMethods" : "See Peek et al. (1987), Darling and Archibald (1990), and especially LeFranc et al. (1987) for reviews of conservation and management. See Banci (1991) for a detailed discussion of management issues in Canada, especially hunting, waste management, education, and park management. See Servheen and Sandstrom (1993) for a discussion of ecosystem management and linkage zones for grizzly bears and other large carnivores in the northern Rocky Mountains. <br><br>Intensive management is needed in peripheral areas where populations may need to be protected, supplemented, and/or reintroduced to wilderness habitat that still exists. <br><br>Translocation of nuisance bears has been only partially successful in Yellowstone area (see Brannon 1987). See Maguire and Servheen (1992) for a discussion of biological and sociological concerns relevant to population augmentation through translocation of bears from a larger population to a smaller one. Allendorf et al. (1992) examined genetic data and computer simulations and concluded that many extant populations can be maintained only by intensive management that includes movement of bears among currently isolated populations. <br><br>Best management strategy: elimination of human-associated food sources that attract bears and often result in mortality (Knight et al. (1988), and maintenance of intact wilderness systems. Management should be conservative and not unduly swayed by short-term positive trends (Mattson and Reid 1991). <br><br>See Herrero (1985) for information on prevention of attacks on humans. <br><br>In 1993, USFWS announced the availability for public review of the draft Bitterroot Ecosystem (Idaho, Montana) and North Cascades (Washington) chapters of the grizzly bear recovery plan; similar chapters already have been completed for the other ecosystems where grizzly bears still exist in the lower 48 states. <br><br>Recently revised recovery plan is controversial among bear biologists; an alternative plan has been authored under the aegis of The Wilderness Society (1994, Science 263:599). <br><br>A draft environmental impact statement for grizzly bear recovery in the Bitterroot Ecosystem was available in July 1997 (USFWS 1997). See Roy and Fischer (1995) for an overview of the recovery approach in the Bitterroot ecosystem. <br><br>Draft habitat-based recovery criteria for the Yellowstone ecosystem were available in July 1999 (contact Grizzly Bear Recovery Coordinator, University of Montana, Missoula; FW6_grizzly@fws.gov).",
    "monitoringMethods" : "Monitoring should concentrate on annual inventories of mothers with newborn young. Eberhardt et al. (1994) recommedned the continued use of radiotelemetry to increase the sample size on which population estimates are made.",
    "managementProgramContacts" : "Management has included closure to public use of areas within national wildlife refuges in which heavy human use has adversely affected bears (e.g., on Kodiak National Widlife Refuge; see Federal Register, 19 July 1995).",
    "monitoringProgramContacts" : null,
    "managementResearchPrograms" : null,
    "managementResearchNeeds" : null,
    "biologicalResearchNeeds" : "Further genetic research needed to clarify the taxonomic relationships of coastal, island and other populations.",
    "additionalTopics" : null
  },
  "occurrenceViabilities" : [ ],
  "references" : [ {
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    "shortCitationYear" : 1992,
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  }, {
    "id" : 106312,
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    "shortCitationAuthor" : "Herrero",
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    "citation" : "Pearson, A. M. 1975. The northern interior grizzly bear URSUS ARCTOS L. Canadian Wildlife Service Report Series, no. 34, 86 pp.",
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    "citation" : "Peek, J. M., et al. 1987. Grizzly bear conservation and management: a review. Wildlife Society Bull. 15:160-169.",
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    "citation" : "Roy, M., and H. Fischer. 1995. Bitterroot grizzly recovery: a community-based alternative. Endangered Species Update 12(12):1-4.",
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    "citation" : "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1997. Grizzly bear recovery in the Bitterroot ecosystem. Draft environmental impact statement.",
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    "citation" : "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2017. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; removing the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem population of Grizzly Bears from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. Federal Register 82(125):30502-30633.",
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    "citation" : "Van Daele, L. J., V. G. Barnes, Jr., and R. B. Smith. 1990. Denning  characteristics of brown bears on Kodiak Island, Alaska. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8:257-267.",
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    "citation" : "Waits, L. P., S. L. Talbot, R. H. Ward, and G. F. Shields. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the North American brown bear and implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 12:408-417.",
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    "citation" : "Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.",
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    "name" : "brown bear",
    "language" : "EN"
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      "fwsRegionDescFr" : null
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      "genusSizeDescFr" : null
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      "jurisEndemDescEs" : null,
      "jurisEndemDescFr" : null
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      "level1" : "Animals",
      "level2" : "Vertebrates",
      "level3" : "Mammals",
      "level" : 3,
      "hasChildren" : false,
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      "distributionStatus" : "complete",
      "displayOrder" : 6
    },
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    "infraspecies" : false,
    "kingdom" : "Animalia",
    "phylum" : "Craniata",
    "taxclass" : "Mammalia",
    "taxorder" : "Carnivora",
    "family" : "Ursidae",
    "genus" : "Ursus",
    "americanFisheriesStatus" : null,
    "americanFisheriesStatusDate" : null,
    "saraStatus" : null,
    "saraStatusDate" : null,
    "cosewicDate" : null,
    "interpretedCosewic" : "X,SC",
    "cosewicComments" : "The species was considered a single unit and designated Not at Risk in April 1979. Split into two populations in April 1991 (Prairie population and Northwestern population). In May 2012, the entire species was re-examined and split into two populations (Western and Ungava populations).",
    "usesaDate" : null,
    "interpretedUsesa" : "PS:LE,LT,XN",
    "usesaComments" : "Listed by USFWS as Threatened in the 48 coterminous States (July 28, 1975) [as <i>U. a. horribilis</i>], Endangered in Mexico (June 2, 1970), and Endangered in China/Tibet (subspecies <i>U. a. pruinosus</i>) and Italy (subspecies <i>U. a arctos</i>) (June 14, 1976). Subspecies <i>horribilis</i> is listed as an Experimental Population, Non-Essential in portions of Idaho and Montana. The North Cascades Ecosystem Recovery Zone Population is Under Review (in 2016, FWS continues to find that reclassifying grizzly bears in this ecosystem as endangered is warranted but precluded). The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) Distinct Population Segment (Wyoming and Montana) has recovered and was delisted on June 30, 2017; USFWS (2018) affirm their decision that the GYE (Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem) population of grizzly bears is recovered and should remain delisted.",
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    "synonyms" : [ ],
    "infraspeciesList" : [ ],
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    "reproductionComments" : "Breeds in late spring and early summer. Implantation is delayed; gestation lasts about 184 days. Litter size is 1-4 (average 2). Young are born in winter, remain with mother usually the first two winters. Breeding interval generally is 2-4 years. In North America, first parturition occurs at 5-6 years in the south, 6-9 years in the north. A few live as long as 20-25 years. Long life span, late sexual maturity, protracted reproductive cycles.",
    "ecologyComments" : "May congregate in areas with abundant food; otherwise solitary except when breeding or caring for young. Density estimates range from 1/1.5-4 sq km (Kodiak Island) to 1/50 sq km (Yellowstone) to 0.6-7.9/1000 sq km (Norway). <br><br>In the Yellowstone region, lack of berries and large fluctuations in the size of pine seed crops were major factors limiting bear density (Mattson et al. 1991). <br><br>In British Columbia-Montana, survivorship of adult and subadult females was the most important variable in estimating population trend.",
    "habitatComments" : "Now found mostly in arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and subalpine mountain forests. Once found in a wide variety of habitats including: open prairie, brushlands, riparian woodlands, and semidesert scrub. Ranges widely at the landscape level. Most populations require huge areas of suitable habitat. Common only where food is abundant and concentrated (e.g., salmon runs, caribou calving grounds). Typically digs own hibernation den, usually on steep northern slope where snow accumulates. See LeFranc et al. (1987). <br><br>Young are born in den in cave, crevice, hollow tree, hollow dug under rock, or similar site. Use of summit or ridge for mating (in May-June) reported for Banff National Park, Alberta, but not elsewhere (Hamer and Herrero 1990). In the Northwest Territories, Canada, all dens were on well-drained slopes; the majority of dens faced south (25), followed by west (13), east (10), and north (8); most dens were constructed under cover of tall shrubs (<i>Betula glandulosa </i>and <i>Salix</i>), the root structures of which supported ceilings of dens; esker habitat was selected more than expected by chance (McLoughlin et al. 2002).<br><br>In Spain, remnant deciduous forests and upland creek drainages were prime feeding areas (Clevenger et al. 1992).",
    "generalDescription" : "Color ranges from pale yellowish to dark brown; usually white tips on the hairs, especially on the back, resulting in a frosted or grizzled effect; facial profile concave; claws on front feet of adults about 4 inches long and curved; noticeable hump above shoulders; head and body of adults about 6-8 feet, height at shoulders 3-4.5 feet (Burt and Grossenheider 1964).",
    "diagnosticCharacteristics" : "Differs from black bear in being larger as an adult and by having a hump above the shoulders and a concave (rather than straight or convex) facial profile.",
    "speciesMarineHabitats" : [ ],
    "speciesTerrestrialHabitats" : [ {
      "cagTerrHabId" : -107512,
      "terrestrialHabitat" : {
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        "terrestrialHabitatDescEn" : "Forest - Mixed",
        "terrestrialHabitatDescEs" : null,
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        "terrestrialHabitatDescFr" : null
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        "terrestrialHabitatDescEn" : "Woodland - Mixed",
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        "terrestrialHabitatDescEn" : "Grassland/herbaceous",
        "terrestrialHabitatDescEs" : null,
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        "terrestrialHabitatDescEn" : "Forest - Hardwood",
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        "terrestrialHabitatDescFr" : null
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      "riverineHabitat" : {
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        "riverineHabitatDescEn" : "CREEK",
        "riverineHabitatDescEs" : null,
        "riverineHabitatDescFr" : null
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        "riverineHabitatDescEn" : "MEDIUM RIVER",
        "riverineHabitatDescEs" : null,
        "riverineHabitatDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
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      "riverineHabitat" : {
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        "riverineHabitatDescEn" : "Moderate gradient",
        "riverineHabitatDescEs" : null,
        "riverineHabitatDescFr" : null
      }
    }, {
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      "riverineHabitat" : {
        "id" : 7,
        "riverineHabitatDescEn" : "Low gradient",
        "riverineHabitatDescEs" : null,
        "riverineHabitatDescFr" : null
      }
    } ],
    "speciesPalustrineHabitats" : [ {
      "cagPalusHabId" : -101995,
      "palustrineHabitat" : {
        "id" : 6,
        "palustrineHabitatDescEn" : "Riparian",
        "palustrineHabitatDescEs" : null,
        "palustrineHabitatDescFr" : null
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    } ],
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  }
}
Path Type Description

conceptName

String; May contain HTML markup

Name Used in Concept Reference.

conceptRefFullCitation

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Concept Reference.

conservationStatusFactorsEditionAuthors

String; May contain HTML markup

NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Authors.

conservationStatusFactorsEditionDate

Date

NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date.

elcode

String

NatureServe Element Code.

elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

formattedScientificName

String; Not null; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

grank

String; Not null

Global Status.

grankChangeDate

Date

Global Status Last Changed.

grankReasons

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Reasons.

grankReviewDate

Date

Global Status Last Reviewed.

lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

lastPublished

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Published.

nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

primaryCommonName

String

Common Name.

primaryCommonNameLanguage

String

The primary common name’s ISO language code.

recordType

RecordType

The type of taxon record. Possible values: SPECIES, ECOSYSTEM

relatedItisNames

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Related ITIS Names.

roundedGRank

String

Global Status (Rounded).

scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

scientificNameAuthor

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name Author.

taxonomicComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Taxonomic Comments.

uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

animalCharacteristics

AnimalCharacteristics

Characteristics unique to animal taxon records. Only populated for: ANIMAL.

animalCharacteristics.animalPhenologyComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Phenology Comments.

animalCharacteristics.colonialBreeder

Boolean

Colonial Breeder.

animalCharacteristics.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

animalCharacteristics.foodHabitsComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Food Comments.

animalCharacteristics.length

Integer

Length.

animalCharacteristics.localMigrant

Boolean

Locally Migrant.

animalCharacteristics.longDistanceMigrant

Boolean

Long Distance Migrant.

animalCharacteristics.mobilityMigrationComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Mobility and Migration Comments.

animalCharacteristics.nonMigrant

Boolean

Non-Migrant.

animalCharacteristics.weight

Integer

Weight.

animalCharacteristics.width

Integer

Width.

animalCharacteristics.majorHabitat

MajorHabitat domain value

Habitat Type.

animalCharacteristics.animalFoodHabits[]

Set of AnimalFoodHabits

Food.

animalCharacteristics.animalFoodHabits[].adult

Boolean

Adult Food Habits.

animalCharacteristics.animalFoodHabits[].animalCagFoodHabitsId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

animalCharacteristics.animalFoodHabits[].immature

Boolean

Immature Food Habits.

animalCharacteristics.animalFoodHabits[].foodHabits

FoodHabits domain value

FoodHabits domain value. Trophic type(s) of animal. Values include: carnivore, piscivore, invertivore, herbivore, granivore, frugivore, nectarivore, detritivore, scavenger, coprophagous, parasitic, nonfeeding, and unknown.. The trophic type should constitute 90% of the element’s seasonal diet for any season of the year. Carrion is included in each of the animal-type food categories.

animalCharacteristics.animalPhenologies[]

Set of AnimalPhenology

Phenology.

animalCharacteristics.animalPhenologies[].adult

Boolean

Adult Phenologies.

animalCharacteristics.animalPhenologies[].animalCagPhenologyId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

animalCharacteristics.animalPhenologies[].immature

Boolean

Immature Phenologies.

animalCharacteristics.animalPhenologies[].animalPhenology

AnimalPhenology domain value

AnimalPhenology domain value.

circumscripConfidence

CircumscripConfidence domain value

Classification Confidence.

classificationLevel

ClassificationLevel domain value

Classification Level.

classificationLevel.classificationLevelNameEn

String

English Display Name.

classificationLevel.classificationLevelNameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

classificationLevel.classificationLevelNameFr

String

French Display Name.

classificationStatus

ClassificationStatus domain value

Classification Status.

elementManagement

ElementManagement

Management Summary.

elementManagement.additionalTopics

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Additional Topics.

elementManagement.biologicalResearchNeeds

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Biological Research Needs.

elementManagement.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementManagement.eoManagementGroupName

String; May contain HTML markup

Group Name.

elementManagement.impacts

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Species Impacts.

elementManagement.managementMethods

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Management Requirements.

elementManagement.managementProgramContacts

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Monitoring Programs.

elementManagement.managementResearchNeeds

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Management Research Needs.

elementManagement.managementResearchPrograms

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Management Research Programs.

elementManagement.monitoringMethods

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Monitoring Requirements.

elementManagement.monitoringProgramContacts

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Monitoring Program Contacts.

elementManagement.restorationPotential

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Restoration Potential.

elementManagement.siteConservationPlansConsidered

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Preserve Selection & Design Considerations.

elementManagement.stewardshipOverview

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Stewardship Overview.

iucn

Iucn domain value

IUCN Red List Category.

iucn.iucnCode

String

IUCN Code Value.

nameCategory

NameCategory domain value

Category.

nameCategory.nameTypeCd

String

Name Type Code. Possible values: A (for animals), P (for plants), C (for Ecosystems, aka, Communities)

nameCategory.nameTypeDesc

String

Name Type Description.

plantCharacteristics

PlantCharacteristics

Characteristics unique to plant taxon records. Only populated for: PLANT.

rankInfo

RankInfo

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors.

rankInfo.areaOfOccupancyComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Area of Occupancy Comments.

rankInfo.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

rankInfo.enviromentalSpecificityComments

String

Environmental Specificity Comments.

rankInfo.intrinsicVulnerabilityComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Fragility Comments.

rankInfo.inventoryNeeds

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Inventory Needs.

rankInfo.longTermTrendComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Long-term Trend Comments.

rankInfo.numberEosComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Estimated Number of Element Occurrences Comments.

rankInfo.numberProtEosComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Global Protection Comments.

rankInfo.otherConsiderations

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Other Considerations.

rankInfo.popSizeComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Global Abundance Comments.

rankInfo.protectionNeeds

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Protection Needs.

rankInfo.rangeExtentComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Range Extent Comments.

rankInfo.shortTermTrendComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Short-term Trend Comments.

rankInfo.threatImpactComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Threat Comments.

rankInfo.viabilityComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Viability/Integrity Comments.

rankInfo.aooPercentGood

AooPercentGood domain value

Percent Area with Good Viability/Integrity.

rankInfo.areaOfOccupancy

AreaOfOccupancy domain value

Area of Occupancy.

rankInfo.enviromentalSpecificity

EnviromentalSpecificity domain value

Environmental Specificity.

rankInfo.intrinsicVulnerability

IntrinsicVulnerability domain value

Fragility.

rankInfo.longTermTrend

LongTermTrend domain value

Long-term Trend.

rankInfo.numberEos

NumberEos domain value

Estimated Number of Element Occurrences.

rankInfo.numberGoodEos

NumberGoodEos domain value

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity.

rankInfo.numberProtEos

NumberProtEos domain value

Global Protection.

rankInfo.popSize

PopSize domain value

Global Abundance.

rankInfo.rangeExtent

RangeExtent domain value

Range Extent.

rankInfo.shortTermTrend

ShortTermTrend domain value

Short-term Trend.

rankInfo.threatImpactAssigned

ThreatImpactAssigned domain value

Degree of Threat.

rankMethodUsed

RankMethodUsed domain value

Rank Method Used.

speciesCharacteristics

SpeciesCharacteristics

Characteristics unique to species taxon records.

speciesCharacteristics.diagnosticCharacteristics

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Diagnostic Characteristics.

speciesCharacteristics.ecologyComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Ecology Comments.

speciesCharacteristics.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.generalDescription

Long String; May contain HTML markup

General Description.

speciesCharacteristics.habitatComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Habitat Comments.

speciesCharacteristics.reproductionComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Reproduction Comments.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesEstuarineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesEstuarineHabitat

Estuarine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesEstuarineHabitats[].cagEstuarineHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesEstuarineHabitats[].estuarineHabitat

EstuarineHabitat domain value

EstuarineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesLacustrineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesLacustrineHabitat

Lacustrine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesLacustrineHabitats[].cagLacusHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesLacustrineHabitats[].lacustrineHabitat

LacustrineHabitat domain value

LacustrineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesMarineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesMarineHabitat

Marine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesMarineHabitats[].cagMarineHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesMarineHabitats[].marineHabitat

MarineHabitat domain value

MarineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesPalustrineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesPalustrineHabitat

Palustrine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesPalustrineHabitats[].cagPalusHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesPalustrineHabitats[].palustrineHabitat

PalustrineHabitat domain value

PalustrineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesRiverineHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesRiverineHabitat

Riverine Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesRiverineHabitats[].cagRiverineHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesRiverineHabitats[].riverineHabitat

RiverineHabitat domain value

RiverineHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesSubterraneanHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesSubterraneanHabitat

Subterranean Habitats. Only populated for: ANIMAL.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesSubterraneanHabitats[].cagSubterrHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesSubterraneanHabitats[].subterraneanHabitat

SubterraneanHabitat domain value

SubterraneanHabitat domain value.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesTerrestrialHabitats[]

Set of SpeciesTerrestrialHabitat

Terrestrial Habitats.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesTerrestrialHabitats[].cagTerrHabId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesCharacteristics.speciesTerrestrialHabitats[].terrestrialHabitat

TerrestrialHabitat domain value

TerrestrialHabitat domain value.

speciesGlobal

SpeciesGlobal

Data only applicable for species taxon records.

speciesGlobal.kingdom

String

Kingdom.

speciesGlobal.phylum

String

Phylum.

speciesGlobal.taxclass

String

Class.

speciesGlobal.taxorder

String

Order.

speciesGlobal.family

String

Family.

speciesGlobal.genus

String

Genus.

speciesGlobal.infraspecies

Boolean

Infraspecies Indicator. If true, the taxon record represents a sub-species or variety.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies

ParentSpecies

Parent Species. Populated if the taxon record represents a sub-species or variety.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.parentSpeciesId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.primaryCommonName

String

Common Name.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

speciesGlobal.parentSpecies.uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

speciesGlobal.americanFisheriesStatus

String

American Fisheries Society Status.

speciesGlobal.americanFisheriesStatusDate

Date

American Fisheries Society Status Assignment Date.

speciesGlobal.completeDistribution

Boolean

Complete Distribution Indicator. Set to true if this record’s distribution data is complete; false if it is incomplete.

speciesGlobal.cosewic

Cosewic domain value

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC).

speciesGlobal.cosewic.cosewicCode

String

COSEWIC Code value.

speciesGlobal.cosewicComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Comments on COSEWIC.

speciesGlobal.cosewicDate

Date

COSEWIC Status Assignment Date.

speciesGlobal.ebarCanadianScope

Boolean

Ecosystem-based Automated Ranges Canadian Scope.

speciesGlobal.ebarGlobalScope

Boolean

Ecosystem-based Automated Ranges Global Scope.

speciesGlobal.ebarId

String

Ecosystem-based Automated Ranges Id.

speciesGlobal.interpretedCosewic

String

Implied Status of the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC).

speciesGlobal.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.saraStatus

String

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status.

speciesGlobal.saraStatusDate

Date

SARA Status Assignment Date.

speciesGlobal.usesa

Usesa domain value

U.S. Endangered Species Act.

speciesGlobal.usesa.usesaCode

String

USESA Code Value.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[]

List of Infraspecies

Infraspecies.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].infraspeciesId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].primaryCommonName

String

Common Name.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

speciesGlobal.infraspeciesList[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

speciesGlobal.usesaComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Comments on Endangered Species Act Statuses.

speciesGlobal.usesaDate

Date

USESA Status Assignment Date.

speciesGlobal.interpretedUsesa

String

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

speciesGlobal.cites

Cites domain value

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES).

speciesGlobal.fwsRegion

FwsRegion domain value

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region.

speciesGlobal.genusSize

GenusSize domain value

Genus Size.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy

InformalTaxonomy

Informal Taxonomy.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.displayOrder

Integer

Display Order.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.distributionStatus

DistributionStatusType

Informal Taxonomy Distribution Status. Possible values: complete, not, semi

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.hasChildren

Boolean

Has Children Indicator.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.informalTaxonomyId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.level

Integer

Informal Taxonomy Level. Possible values: 1, 2, or 3.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.level1

String

Informal Taxonomy Level 1 Value.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.level2

String

Informal Taxonomy Level 2 Value.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.level3

String

Informal Taxonomy Level 3 Value.

speciesGlobal.informalTaxonomy.parentId

Integer

Informal Taxonomy Parent ID.

speciesGlobal.jurisEndem

JurisEndem domain value

Endemism.

speciesGlobal.nomenclaturallyEst

NomenclaturallyEst domain value

NomenclaturallyEst domain value.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[]

List of Synonym

Synonyms.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[].formattedSynonym

String; May contain HTML markup

Formatted Synonym Name.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[].id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[].synonym

String

Synonym Name.

speciesGlobal.synonyms[].synonymAuthor

String; May contain HTML markup

Synonym Author.

elementNationals[]

Set of ElementNational

National Data. Information about the taxon’s presence in various nations.

elementNationals[].elementNationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].nrank

String

NatureServe National Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].nrankReviewYear

Integer

National Rank Review Year.

elementNationals[].roundedNRank

String

Rounded NatureServe National Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].classifConfidence

ClassifConfidence domain value

ClassifConfidence domain value.

elementNationals[].nation

Nation domain value

Nation.

elementNationals[].nation.isoCode

String

Nation ISO Country Code.

elementNationals[].nation.nameEn

String

English Display Name.

elementNationals[].nation.nameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

elementNationals[].nation.nameFr

String

French Display Name.

elementNationals[].nation.region

String

Region.

elementNationals[].speciesNational

SpeciesNational

Species National Data.

elementNationals[].speciesNational.elementNationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].speciesNational.exotic

Boolean

Exotic.

elementNationals[].speciesNational.native

Boolean

Native.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[]

Set of ElementSubnational

Subnational Data. Information about the taxon’s presence in various subnations.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].elementSubnationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].roundedSRank

String

Rounded NatureServe Subnational Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].srank

String

NatureServe Subnational Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational

SpeciesSubnational

Species Subnational Data. Information about a species' presence in a particular subnation

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational.elementSubnationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational.exotic

Boolean

Exotic. The species is present in the subnation due to direct or indirect human intervention.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational.hybrid

Boolean

Hybrid.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].speciesSubnational.native

Boolean

Native.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation

Subnation domain value

State/Province.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.dnationId

Integer

Nation ID. The ID of the nation in which the subnation resides.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.nameEn

String

English Display Name.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.nameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.nameFr

String

French Display Name.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.subnationCode

String

Subnation Code. As defined within Biotics.

occurrenceDelineations[]

Set of OccurrenceDelineation

Population / Occurrence Delineation.

occurrenceDelineations[].altSeparationProcedure

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Alternate Separation Procedure.

occurrenceDelineations[].eoSpecGroupName

String; May contain HTML markup

Group Name.

occurrenceDelineations[].eoSpecsDetailId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

occurrenceDelineations[].inferredExtentDistance

Double

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown).

occurrenceDelineations[].inferredExtentNotes

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Inferred Minimum Extent Justification.

occurrenceDelineations[].lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

occurrenceDelineations[].mappingGuidance

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Mapping Guidance.

occurrenceDelineations[].minimumEoCriteria

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence.

occurrenceDelineations[].separationBarriers

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Separation Barriers.

occurrenceDelineations[].separationDistanceSuitableHabitatat

Double

Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat.

occurrenceDelineations[].separationDistanceUnsuitableHabitatat

Double

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat.

occurrenceDelineations[].separationJustification

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Separation Justification.

occurrenceDelineations[].subtypes

String

Subtype(s).

occurrenceDelineations[].versionAuthor

String; May contain HTML markup

Author.

occurrenceDelineations[].versionDate

Date

Date.

occurrenceDelineations[].versionNotes

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Version Notes.

occurrenceDelineations[].locationUseClass

LocationUseClass domain value

Use Class.

occurrenceViabilities[]

Set of OccurrenceViability

Population / Occurrence Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].eoRankSpecsDetailId

Integer

Primary Key for Row.

occurrenceViabilities[].eoRankSpecsGroupName

String

Group Name.

occurrenceViabilities[].excellentViability

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Excellent Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].fairViability

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Fair Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].goodViability

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Good Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

occurrenceViabilities[].poorViability

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Poor Viability.

occurrenceViabilities[].versionAuthor

String

Author.

occurrenceViabilities[].versionDate

Date

Date.

occurrenceViabilities[].versionNotes

String

Version Notes.

occurrenceViabilities[].viabilityJustification

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Justification.

occurrenceViabilities[].locationUseClass

LocationUseClass domain value

Use Class.

otherCommonNames[]

List of CommonName

Other Common Names.

otherCommonNames[].id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

otherCommonNames[].language

String

ISO Language Code.

otherCommonNames[].name

Long String; Not null; May contain HTML markup

Name.

references[]

List of Reference

References.

references[].citation

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Full Citation.

references[].id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

references[].lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

references[].referenceCode

String

Reference Code.

references[].shortCitationAuthor

String

Short Citation Author.

references[].shortCitationYear

Integer

Short Citation Year.

Ecosystems Data Model

Ecosystems records fall into two broad categories:

  • International Vegetation Classification (IVC) System entries

  • Terrestrial Ecological Systems

Terrestrial Ecological Systems are crosswalked to the IVC entries by their relationships to a single Macrogroup and possibly one or more of its Groups. This is modeled by the ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy property, which is only ever populated for these three subtypes.

The sample record shown below is for an IVC Group, but the overall data structure is quite similar for each of the different ecosystem types.

HTTP response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
  "elementGlobalId" : 833279,
  "circumscripConfidence" : {
    "id" : 2,
    "circumscripConfidenceDescEn" : "2 - Moderate",
    "circumscripConfidenceDescEs" : null,
    "circumscripConfidenceDescFr" : null
  },
  "classificationLevel" : {
    "id" : 106,
    "classificationLevelNameEn" : "Group",
    "classificationLevelNameEs" : null,
    "classificationLevelNameFr" : null
  },
  "classificationStatus" : {
    "id" : 1,
    "classificationStatusDescEn" : "Standard",
    "classificationStatusDescEs" : null,
    "classificationStatusDescFr" : null
  },
  "iucn" : null,
  "nameCategory" : {
    "id" : 8,
    "nameCategoryDescEn" : "International Vegetation Classification - Natural",
    "nameCategoryDescEs" : null,
    "nameCategoryDescFr" : null,
    "nameTypeCd" : "C",
    "nameTypeDesc" : "Ecological"
  },
  "rankMethodUsed" : null,
  "formattedScientificName" : "<i>Pinus echinata - Quercus falcata - Quercus stellata</i> Forest &amp; Woodland Group",
  "scientificName" : "Pinus echinata - Quercus falcata - Quercus stellata Forest & Woodland Group",
  "scientificNameAuthor" : "NTSRV",
  "primaryCommonName" : "Shortleaf Pine - Oak Forest & Woodland",
  "relatedItisNames" : null,
  "uniqueId" : "ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.833279",
  "elcode" : "G012",
  "conceptRefFullCitation" : "Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.",
  "conceptName" : "<i>Pinus echinata - Quercus falcata - Quercus stellata</i> Forest &amp; Woodland Group",
  "taxonomicComments" : "There is some regional variation in composition across the range of this group, with examples in the Ozark-Ouachita area and the Upper Coastal Plain lacking <i>Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana</i>, and <i>Quercus montana</i>. Stands found outside of the coastal plains in which <i>Pinus palustris</i> is a component are also included here. These were formerly included in Montane &amp; Piedmont Longleaf Pine Woodland Group (G164). Examples of this group mainly occur in three general areas: the Appalachians (broadly defined to include the Cumberlands and Piedmont); the East Gulf Coastal Plain north of the range of <i>Pinus palustris</i>; and the Ozark-Ouachita areas of Missouri and Arkansas. In addition, any shortleaf pine-dominated or -codominated vegetation of the Interior Low Plateau (ILP), including examples in southern Indiana and the Tennessee portion of Land Between the Lakes, would also be included. Frost (1998) treats the ILP region in a different fire-return-interval class than the core range of this group, although local variation may overwhelm the broad regional differences. If more detailed information becomes available to document important ecological differences between these areas, it would improve our understanding of the dynamics and compositional variability. Vegetation in the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain west of the Mississippi River is accommodated in a different group.<br /><br />A group of dry to xeric sand barren shortleaf pine/scrub oak-dominated associations are also placed here (e.g., <i>Quercus (incana, margarettae, arkansana) - (Pinus echinata) / Schizachyrium scoparium</i> Woodland (CEGL007972), <i>Quercus arkansana - Quercus incana / Selaginella arenicola ssp. riddellii</i> Woodland (CEGL003693), and some other related types). These were formerly placed in Southern Coastal Plain Dry Pine - Oak Forest Group (G155), which has been subsumed here. The addition of these types broadens the ecological amplitude of the group, and some of these may be placed in a different alliance (the others being mainly biogeographic in their primary identity).<br /><br />There is vegetation which lies south of about 32°30'N latitude (about the latitude of Jackson, Mississippi, and within the general range of <i>Pinus palustris</i>) that may not be adequately represented in the NVC and Ecological Systems classifications. This area (which includes the Homochitto National Forest) is different from both the shortleaf pine-oak vegetation to the north and the longleaf pine-dominated vegetation to the east in the non-loessal coastal plain. It could be called \"East Gulf Coastal Plain Mixed Pine (Oak) Forest.\" In stands of this type, all three pine species (<i>Pinus palustris, Pinus taeda</i>, and <i>Pinus echinata</i>) co-occur with oaks (e.g., <i>Quercus alba, Quercus falcata, Quercus pagoda, Quercus shumardii</i>) in a complex mosaic in gently to moderately rolling terrain. This is consistent with the ranges of Oak-Pine vegetation versus Longleaf-Loblolly-Slash Pines in Shantz and Zon (1924). More information is needed.",
  "roundedGRank" : "GNR",
  "conservationStatusFactorsEditionDate" : null,
  "conservationStatusFactorsEditionAuthors" : null,
  "primaryCommonNameLanguage" : "EN",
  "recordType" : "ECOSYSTEM",
  "elementNationals" : [ {
    "elementNationalId" : 833931,
    "classifConfidence" : {
      "id" : 2,
      "classifConfidenceDescEn" : "Moderate",
      "classifConfidenceDescEs" : null,
      "classifConfidenceDescFr" : null
    },
    "nation" : {
      "id" : 225,
      "nameEn" : "United States",
      "nameEs" : null,
      "nameFr" : null,
      "isoCode" : "US",
      "region" : null
    },
    "roundedNRank" : "NNR",
    "elementSubnationals" : [ {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 833933,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 4,
        "nameEn" : "Arkansas",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "AR",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "SNR",
      "srank" : "SNR"
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 833938,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 30,
        "nameEn" : "Missouri",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "MO",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "SNR",
      "srank" : "SNR"
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 833941,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 43,
        "nameEn" : "Oklahoma",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "OK",
        "dnationId" : 225
      },
      "roundedSRank" : "SNR",
      "srank" : "SNR"
    }, {
      "elementSubnationalId" : 833936,
      "subnation" : {
        "id" : 22,
        "nameEn" : "Kentucky",
        "nameEs" : null,
        "nameFr" : null,
        "subnationCode" : "KY",
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          "scientificName" : "Piedmont Hardpan Woodland and Forest",
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        "scientificName" : "South-Central Interior Oak Savanna & Barrens Group",
        "formattedScientificName" : "South-Central Interior Oak Savanna & Barrens Group",
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        "elcode" : "G601",
        "commonName" : "Chinquapin Oak - Shumard Oak - Blue Ash Alkaline Forest & Woodland",
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        "formattedScientificName" : "<i>Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus shumardii - Fraxinus quadrangulata</i> Forest &amp; Woodland Group",
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    "translatedScientificName" : "Shortleaf Pine - Southern Red Oak - Post Oak Forest & Woodland Group",
    "conceptSentence" : "This group encompasses forests and woodlands of the interior plateaus, Appalachians, Piedmont, Ozark-Ouachita, and upper coastal plain regions, north of the primary range of <i>Pinus palustris</i>, in which <i>Pinus echinata</i> dominates the canopy or is a significant component of it.",
    "summary" : "This group encompasses forests and woodlands of the interior plateaus, Appalachians, Piedmont, Ozark-Ouachita, and upper coastal plain regions (north of the primary range of <i>Pinus palustris</i> in the coastal plains) in which <i>Pinus echinata</i> is the canopy dominant (or at least an important component). Examples can occur on a variety of topographic and landscape positions, including ridgetops, upper and midslopes, as well as lower elevations (generally below 700 m [2300 feet]) in the Southern Appalachians such as mountain valleys, as well as on rolling uplands in the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain. Examples occur on a variety of acidic soils or bedrock types. Stands may be codominated by <i>Quercus</i> spp., <i>Carya</i> spp., and other hardwoods, with the varying proportion of pine versus hardwood depending on management (both commercial forestry and ecological management), particularly time since fire. Although examples of this group occur throughout this broad area, there is considerable local variation in their extent in the landscape and in their structure and composition. In more open stands (such as ones in naturally drier regions or ones which have experienced more recent/frequent fire), the understory is characterized by <i>Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium</i>, and other prairie graminoid elements. In the lower elevations of the Southern Appalachians, and under current conditions, stands are dominated by <i>Pinus echinata</i> or <i>Pinus virginiana</i>. <i>Pinus rigida</i> may sometimes be present. Stands found outside of the coastal plains in which <i>Pinus palustris</i> is a component are also included here. Hardwoods are sometimes abundant, especially dry-site oaks such as <i>Quercus falcata, Quercus montana, Quercus stellata</i>, and <i>Quercus coccinea</i>, but also <i>Carya glabra</i> and other hickories. The shrub layer may be well-developed, with <i>Vaccinium pallidum, Gaylussacia baccata</i>, or other acid-tolerant species being most characteristic. Herbs are usually sparse but may include <i>Pityopsis graminifolia</i> and <i>Tephrosia virginiana</i>. There is some regional variation in composition across the range of this group, with examples in the Ozark-Ouachita area and the upper coastal plain lacking <i>Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana</i>, and <i>Quercus montana</i>. In the upper coastal plains, where fire is more frequent, stands of vegetation affiliated with this group may develop a relatively pure and open canopy of <i>Pinus echinata</i> with scattered overstory trees and an herbaceous-dominated understory, but such examples are rare on the modern landscape unless maintained by ecological management. More typical are examples in which <i>Quercus</i> spp., <i>Carya</i> spp., <i>Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer</i> spp., and <i>Nyssa sylvatica</i> have become prominent in the midstory and overstory and in which herbaceous patches are rare.",
    "diagnosticsComments" : "The cover of needle-leaved evergreen trees (<i>Pinus echinata</i> possibly with <i>Pinus rigida</i> and/or <i>Pinus virginiana</i> within their ranges) is variable, but typically is greater than 50%, with broad-leaved deciduous tree species <i>Quercus falcata, Quercus stellata</i>, and/or <i>Quercus montana</i> (within its range) singly or in combination varying greatly depending on management, but typically greater than 25% cover. Shrub diagnostics vary but typically include <i>Vaccinium</i> spp. and <i>Gaylussacia</i> spp. in combination with the above overstory dominants. In more open stands, native warm-season grasses including <i>Schizachyrium scoparium</i> will be dominant rather than shrubs.",
    "ruderal" : false,
    "invasive" : false,
    "taxclass" : "Forest & Woodland",
    "taxclassCode" : "1",
    "taxsubclass" : "Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland",
    "taxsubclassCode" : "1.B",
    "formation" : "Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland",
    "formationCode" : "1.B.2",
    "division" : "Eastern North American Forest & Woodland",
    "divisionCode" : "1.B.2.Na",
    "macrogroup" : "Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland",
    "macrogroupKey" : "M016",
    "taxgroup" : null,
    "taxgroupKey" : null,
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    "vegbankLink" : "http://vegbank.org/natureserve/element_global.2.833279",
    "wetland" : false,
    "environmentalSummary" : "Examples can occur on a variety of topographic and landscape positions, including ridgetops, upper and midslopes, as well as lower elevations (generally below 700 m [2300 feet]) in the Southern Appalachians such as mountain valleys, as well as on rolling uplands in the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain. Examples occur on a variety of acidic soils or bedrock types. In the Ozark Highlands, this group was historically prominent only in the southeastern part, where sandstone-derived soils were common (USFS 1999), being limited in other areas by inadequate winter precipitation and non-conducive soils. In contrast, pine was \"virtually ubiquitous in the historical forests of the Ouachitas\" (USFS 1999). In nearly all cases (at least in the Ouachitas), <i>Pinus echinata</i> occurs with a variable mixture of hardwood species. The exact composition of the hardwoods is much more closely related to aspect and topographic factors than is the pine component (Dale and Ware 1999). The belted character of the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain region, in the form of inner lowlands and cuestas and other low-ridge landforms (Bowman 1911, Fenneman 1938), the associated diversity of soil types, and differences in settlement history appear to account for the importance of shortleaf pine in the Gulf Coast region when compared to the Atlantic Coastal Plain (White and Lloyd 1998). Cuestas and other hills create strong environmental gradients which, coupled with soil characteristics, promote a variety of mixed pine and pine-hardwood vegetation in this region; local differences in topography, parent material, and exposure influence site characteristics, resulting in numerous different plant communities. This group primarily occupies the dry and dry-mesic portion of regional moisture gradients. Wide variation in vegetation composition across this gradient is also strongly related to fire frequency and intensity (White and Lloyd 1998).",
    "dynamics" : "Fire is clearly an important influence and may be the sole factor determining the occurrence of stands of this group rather than hardwood forests under natural conditions. Fires probably were frequent and of low intensity, or a mix of low and higher intensity. Within the range of <i>Pinus virginiana</i>, fire probably is important for determining the balance of the two pine species, the component of hardwoods, and the overall vegetation structure. <i>Pinus echinata</i> is fairly resilient to fire once mature, while <i>Pinus virginiana</i> individuals are fairly susceptible to fire but well-adapted to establishing in areas opened by intense fire. In the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain, the frequent presence of surface fire is important in order to support the reproduction of <i>Pinus echinata</i>, which is a shade-intolerant species and does not survive or grow well when fire-suppressed. Young shortleaf pines are generally slower growing and slower to dominate a site than <i>Pinus taeda</i> or many hardwood competitors, but they usually will endure competition longer. <i>Dendroctonus frontalis</i> (southern pine beetle) outbreaks are an important factor in examples of this group, at least under present conditions. These beetle outbreaks can kill all the pines without creating the conditions for the pines to regenerate. Effects of logging and past clearing as well as fire suppression make understanding of this group's natural character and dynamics difficult. An extensive hardwood component may partly be the result of fire suppression. In natural pine forests, logging may allow pines to regenerate or may change the composition to weedy hardwoods. It might alter canopy composition as well as structure. In the Ozarks and Ouachitas, fire frequency is 3-4 years mean fire interval (range=1-12 years) (Masters et al. 1995). Annual fire was common historically. Replacement and mixed severity fires are infrequent, every 100 to 1000 years. Stand-replacement fires occurred mostly under extreme drought conditions during the growing season. Other disturbance types include ice storms, wind events, and insect infestations. <i>Pinus echinata</i> can maintain dominance on most sites after it overtops competing vegetation, but in general, hardwoods cannot be eliminated from pine sites. On very good sites (i.e., with high site index), however, it may not outgrow competing species such as sweetgum and red maple (Lawson 1990).",
    "threats" : null,
    "bpsCode" : null,
    "evtCode" : null,
    "notVascular" : false,
    "upland" : false,
    "climateChangeComments" : null,
    "conceptAuthor" : "F.H. Eyre (1980)",
    "versionDate" : "2015-05-04",
    "versionAuthor" : "M. Pyne",
    "acknowledgments" : "We have incorporated significant descriptive information previously compiled by A.S. Weakley, K.D. Patterson, T. Govus, and R. Evans.",
    "vegetationSummary" : "<i>Pinus echinata</i> is the canopy dominant (or at least an important component); stands may be codominated by <i>Quercus</i> spp., <i>Carya</i> spp., and other hardwoods. In more open stands, the understory is characterized by <i>Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium</i>, and other prairie graminoid elements. In the lower elevations of the Southern Appalachians, and under current conditions, stands are dominated by <i>Pinus echinata</i> or <i>Pinus virginiana</i>. <i>Pinus rigida</i> may sometimes be present. Some stands (\"montane\" or \"Piedmont\" longleaf) dominated by <i>Pinus palustris</i> are also included here. Hardwoods are sometimes abundant, especially dry-site oaks such as <i>Quercus falcata, Quercus montana (= Quercus prinus)</i>, and <i>Quercus coccinea</i>, but also <i>Carya glabra</i> and other hickories. The shrub layer may be well-developed, with <i>Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium arboreum, Vaccinium stamineum, Gaylussacia baccata</i>, or other acid-tolerant species most characteristic. Herbs are usually sparse but may include <i>Pityopsis graminifolia</i> and <i>Tephrosia virginiana</i>. There is some regional variation in composition across the range of this group, with examples in the Ozark-Ouachita area and the Upper Coastal Plain lacking <i>Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana</i>, and <i>Quercus montana</i>. In the Upper Coastal Plain, where fire is more frequent, stands of vegetation affiliated with this group may develop a relatively pure and open canopy of <i>Pinus echinata</i> with scattered overstory trees and an herbaceous-dominated understory; such examples are rare on the current landscape. More typical are examples in which <i>Quercus</i> spp., <i>Carya</i> spp., <i>Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer</i> spp., and <i>Nyssa sylvatica</i> have become prominent in the midstory and overstory and in which herbaceous patches are rare.",
    "physiognomySummary" : "Examples are dominated by needle-leaved evergreen trees, or a combination of needle-leaved evergreen and broad-leaved deciduous trees. The density of stands may vary from open to closed, depending on moisture regime, climate and management, particularly time since last fire, and average fire frequency over a period of several decades. More open stands are more likely to have a graminoid-dominated ground layer; otherwise the low-shrub stratum may be dense, with herbs correspondingly lower in cover.",
    "ecosystemType" : "GROUP",
    "classificationCode" : "G012",
    "distributionSummary" : "Examples of this group mainly occur in three general areas: the Appalachians (broadly defined to include the Cumberlands and Piedmont) from Alabama to Virginia and Kentucky; the East Gulf Coastal Plain generally north of the range of <i>Pinus palustris</i> from Georgia to Mississippi; and the Ozark-Ouachita areas of Arkansas, adjacent Oklahoma, and southeastern Missouri. In addition, any shortleaf pine-dominated or -codominated vegetation of the Interior Low Plateau, including examples in southern Indiana, the Knobs Region of Kentucky, and the Tennessee portion of Land Between the Lakes, is included. <i>Pinus echinata</i>-dominated or -codominated vegetation in the West Gulf Coastal Plain of Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas is accommodated in Western Gulf Coastal Plain Pine - Oak Forest &amp; Woodland Group (G013).<br /><br />In the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain, this vegetation was the historical matrix in large areas of the region in Alabama and Mississippi, particularly between about 32°30'N latitude and about 35°N latitude. In southwestern Mississippi, this group is apparently dominant on the landscape west of 91°W longitude to the limits of the alluvial plain and northwest of a line running approximately from the intersection of 31°N latitude and 91°W longitude, northeastward to the city of Jackson, Mississippi, extending at least to about 34°N latitude. This is consistent with the ranges of oak-pine vegetation (generally equivalent to this group) versus longleaf-loblolly-slash pines in Shantz and Zon (1924).",
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      "citation" : "MSNHP [Mississippi Natural Heritage Program]. 2006. Ecological communities of Mississippi. Museum of Natural Science, Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Jackson, MS. 9 pp.",
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Name Used in Concept Reference.

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Concept Reference.

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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Authors.

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Scientific Name.

grank

String; Not null

Global Status.

grankChangeDate

Date

Global Status Last Changed.

grankReasons

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Reasons.

grankReviewDate

Date

Global Status Last Reviewed.

lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

lastPublished

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Published.

nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

primaryCommonName

String

Common Name.

primaryCommonNameLanguage

String

The primary common name’s ISO language code.

recordType

RecordType

The type of taxon record. Possible values: SPECIES, ECOSYSTEM

relatedItisNames

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Related ITIS Names.

roundedGRank

String

Global Status (Rounded).

scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

scientificNameAuthor

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name Author.

taxonomicComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Classification Comments

uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

circumscripConfidence

CircumscripConfidence domain value

Classification Confidence.

classificationLevel

ClassificationLevel domain value

Classification Level.

classificationLevel.classificationLevelNameEn

String

English Display Name.

classificationLevel.classificationLevelNameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

classificationLevel.classificationLevelNameFr

String

French Display Name.

classificationStatus

ClassificationStatus domain value

Classification Status.

ecosystemGlobal

EcosystemGlobal

Data only applicable for ecosystem taxon records.

ecosystemGlobal.ecosystemType

EcosystemType

Ecosystem Type. Possible values: CLASS, SUBCLASS, FORMATION, DIVISION, MACROGROUP, GROUP, ALLIANCE, ASSOCIATION, TERRESTRIAL_ECOLOGICAL_SYSTEM

ecosystemGlobal.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

ecosystemGlobal.classificationCode

String

Classification Code or Key. Classification code or key

ecosystemGlobal.taxclass

String

IVC Class Name. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.taxclassCode

String

IVC Class Code. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.taxsubclass

String

IVC Subclass Name. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.taxsubclassCode

String

IVC Subclass Code. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.formation

String

IVC Formation Name. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.formationCode

String

IVC Formation Code. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.division

String

IVC Division Name. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.divisionCode

String

IVC Division Code. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroup

String

IVC Macrogroup Name. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupKey

String

IVC Macrogroup Key. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.taxgroup

String

IVC Group Name. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.taxgroupKey

String

IVC Group Key. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.alliance

String

IVC Alliance Name. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.allianceKey

String

IVC Alliance Key. Populated from an ancestor record in the International Vegetation Classification Hierarchy.

ecosystemGlobal.acknowledgments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Acknowledgments.

ecosystemGlobal.bpsCode

String

BPS Code (Biophysical Setting).

ecosystemGlobal.climateChangeComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Climate Change Effects.

ecosystemGlobal.conceptAuthor

String

Primary Concept Source.

ecosystemGlobal.conceptSentence

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Concept Sentence.

ecosystemGlobal.diagnosticsComments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Diagnostics Characteristics.

ecosystemGlobal.distributionSummary

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Global Distribution.

ecosystemGlobal.dynamics

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Dynamics: Key Processes and Interactions.

ecosystemGlobal.environmentalSummary

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Environmental Summary.

ecosystemGlobal.evtCode

String

EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type).

ecosystemGlobal.invasive

Boolean

Invasive.

ecosystemGlobal.notVascular

Boolean

Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover).

ecosystemGlobal.numberOfPlots

Integer

Number of Plots.

ecosystemGlobal.physiognomySummary

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Vegetation Structure Summary.

ecosystemGlobal.plotAnalysisSummary

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Plot Analysis Summary.

ecosystemGlobal.ruderal

Boolean

Ruderal.

ecosystemGlobal.sortValue

String

Sort.

ecosystemGlobal.summary

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Summary.

ecosystemGlobal.threats

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Threats and Other Change Agents.

ecosystemGlobal.translatedScientificName

String

Translated Name.

ecosystemGlobal.upland

Boolean

Upland.

ecosystemGlobal.vegbankLink

String

Plots Stored in VegBank.

ecosystemGlobal.vegetationSummary

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Floristics Summary.

ecosystemGlobal.versionAuthor

String; May contain HTML markup

Element Description Author(s)

ecosystemGlobal.versionDate

Date

Element Description Version Date

ecosystemGlobal.wetland

Boolean

Wetland.

ecosystemGlobal.landCoverClass

LandCoverClass domain value

Land Cover Class.

ecosystemGlobal.landCoverClass.landCoverClassNameEn

String

English Display Name.

ecosystemGlobal.landCoverClass.landCoverClassNameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

ecosystemGlobal.landCoverClass.landCoverClassNameFr

String

French Display Name.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy

MacrogroupHierarchy

Macrogroup/System/Terrestrial Ecological System Hierarchy. Only populated for: MACROGROUP, GROUP, TERRESTRIAL_ECOLOGICAL_SYSTEM. Information about the Macrogroup

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.elementGlobalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[]

Set of RelatedEcologicalSystemForMacrogroup

Ecological Systems related to the Macrogroup.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].elcode

String

Unique Identifier

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemForMacrogroupId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relationshipRole

RelationshipRole domain value

Relationship.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupsForEcologicalSystem[]

Set of RelatedGroupForEcologicalSystem

Nested Groups related to an Ecological System.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupsForEcologicalSystem[].commonName

String

Common Name.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupsForEcologicalSystem[].elcode

String

Unique Identifier

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupsForEcologicalSystem[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupsForEcologicalSystem[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupsForEcologicalSystem[].relatedGroupForEcologicalSystemId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupsForEcologicalSystem[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupsForEcologicalSystem[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedEcologicalSystemsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupsForEcologicalSystem[].relationshipRole

RelationshipRole domain value

Relationship.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[]

Set of RelatedGroupForMacrogroup

Groups related to the Macrogroup.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].commonName

String

Common Name.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].elcode

String

Unique Identifier

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relatedGroupForMacrogroupId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relationshipRole

RelationshipRole domain value

Relationship.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemsForGroup[]

Set of RelatedEcologicalSystemForGroup

Nested Ecological Systems related to a Group.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemsForGroup[].elcode

String

Unique Identifier

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemsForGroup[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemsForGroup[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemsForGroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemForGroupId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemsForGroup[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemsForGroup[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

ecosystemGlobal.macrogroupHierarchy.relatedGroupsForMacrogroup[].relatedEcologicalSystemsForGroup[].relationshipRole

RelationshipRole domain value

Relationship.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[]

List of EcosystemCcvByCecEcoregion

Ecosystem Climate Change Vulnerability by CEC Ecoregion.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].areaKm2

Double

Area (Km^2).

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].cecEcoregionCode

String

CEC Ecoregion Code.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].cecEcoregionName

String

CEC Ecoregion Id.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].ecosystemCcvByCecEcoregionId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].adaptiveCapacity

CCVRating domain value

Resilience - Adaptive Capacity.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].exposure1981

CCVRating domain value

Exposure 1981-2014.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].exposure2040

CCVRating domain value

Exposure 2040-2069.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].resilience

CCVRating domain value

Resilience.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].sensitivity

CCVRating domain value

Resilience - Sensitivity.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].vulnerabilityIndex1981

CCVRating domain value

Vulnerability Index 1981-2014.

ecosystemGlobal.ccvByCecEcoregions[].vulnerabilityIndex2040

CCVRating domain value

Vulnerability Index 2040-2069.

ecosystemGlobal.spatialPattern[]

Set of SpatialPattern domain value

Spatial Pattern.

iucn

Iucn domain value

IUCN Red List Ecosystem Status

iucn.iucnCode

String

IUCN Code Value.

nameCategory

NameCategory domain value

Classification System

nameCategory.nameTypeCd

String

Name Type Code. Possible values: A (for animals), P (for plants), C (for Ecosystems, aka, Communities)

nameCategory.nameTypeDesc

String

Name Type Description.

rankMethodUsed

RankMethodUsed domain value

Rank Method Used.

biogeographicDivisions[]

Set of BiogeographicDivision

Biogeographic Divisions.

biogeographicDivisions[].biogeographicDivisionId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

biogeographicDivisions[].primaryDivision

Boolean

Primary.

biogeographicDivisions[].ecoDivision

EcoDivision domain value

Division Code and Name.

biogeographicDivisions[].ecoDivision.ecoDivisionNameEn

String

English Display Name.

biogeographicDivisions[].ecoDivision.ecoDivisionNameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

biogeographicDivisions[].ecoDivision.ecoDivisionNameFr

String

French Display Name.

biogeographicDivisions[].occurrenceStatus

OccurrenceStatus domain value

OccurrenceStatus domain value.

communityAnimals[]

List of CommunityAnimal

Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System.

communityAnimals[].characteristic

Boolean

Characteristic.

communityAnimals[].communityAnimalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

communityAnimals[].exotic

Boolean

Exotic.

communityAnimals[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

communityAnimals[].grank

String

NatureServe Global Status

communityAnimals[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

communityAnimals[].primaryCommonName

String

Common Name.

communityAnimals[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

communityAnimals[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

communityAnimals[].usesa

Usesa domain value

USESA Status

communityAnimals[].usesa.usesaCode

String

USESA Code Value.

communityAtRiskSpecies[]

List of CommunityAtRiskSpecies

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System.

communityAtRiskSpecies[].communityAtRiskSpeciesId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

communityAtRiskSpecies[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

communityAtRiskSpecies[].grank

String

NatureServe Global Status

communityAtRiskSpecies[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

communityAtRiskSpecies[].primaryCommonName

String

Common Name.

communityAtRiskSpecies[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

communityAtRiskSpecies[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

communityAtRiskSpecies[].usesa

Usesa domain value

USESA Status

communityAtRiskSpecies[].usesa.usesaCode

String

USESA Code Value.

communityCcvs[]

Set of CommunityCcv

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment.

communityCcvs[].adaptiveCapacity

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Resilience - Adaptive Capacity.

communityCcvs[].beginYear

Integer

Begin Year.

communityCcvs[].communityCcvId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

communityCcvs[].endYear

Integer

End Year.

communityCcvs[].exposureSummary

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Exposure.

communityCcvs[].sensitivity

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Resilience - Sensitivity.

communityCcvs[].vulnerability

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Overall Vulnerability.

communityCompositions[]

SortedSet of CommunityComposition

Floristics.

communityCompositions[].communityCompositionId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

communityCompositions[].constancyPercent

String; May contain HTML markup

Constancy %.

communityCompositions[].coverClassPercent

String; May contain HTML markup

Avg. % Cover.

communityCompositions[].differential

Boolean

Differential.

communityCompositions[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

communityCompositions[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

communityCompositions[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

communityCompositions[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

communityCompositions[].stratum

Stratum domain value

Stratum.

communityCompositions[].stratum.displayOrder

Integer

Display Order.

communityStructures[]

SortedSet of CommunityStructure

Vegetation Structure.

communityStructures[].communityStructureId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

communityStructures[].heightClass

HeightClass domain value

Height.

communityStructures[].percentCoverStruct

PercentCoverStruct domain value

Avg. % Cover.

communityStructures[].stratum

Stratum domain value

Stratum.

communityStructures[].stratum.displayOrder

Integer

Display Order.

componentAssociations[]

List of ComponentAssociation

Component Associations. Only populated for: GROUP.

componentAssociations[].componentAssociationId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

componentAssociations[].elcode

String

Unique Identifier

componentAssociations[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

componentAssociations[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

componentAssociations[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

componentAssociations[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

elementNationals[]

Set of ElementNational

National Data. Information about the taxon’s presence in various nations.

elementNationals[].elementNationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].nrank

String

NatureServe National Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].nrankReviewYear

Integer

National Rank Review Year.

elementNationals[].roundedNRank

String

Rounded NatureServe National Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].classifConfidence

ClassifConfidence domain value

ClassifConfidence domain value.

elementNationals[].nation

Nation domain value

Nation.

elementNationals[].nation.isoCode

String

Nation ISO Country Code.

elementNationals[].nation.nameEn

String

English Display Name.

elementNationals[].nation.nameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

elementNationals[].nation.nameFr

String

French Display Name.

elementNationals[].nation.region

String

Region.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[]

Set of ElementSubnational

Subnational Data. Information about the taxon’s presence in various subnations.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].elementSubnationalId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].roundedSRank

String

Rounded NatureServe Subnational Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].srank

String

NatureServe Subnational Conservation Status Rank.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation

Subnation domain value

State/Province.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.dnationId

Integer

Nation ID. The ID of the nation in which the subnation resides.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.nameEn

String

English Display Name.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.nameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.nameFr

String

French Display Name.

elementNationals[].elementSubnationals[].subnation.subnationCode

String

Subnation Code. As defined within Biotics.

functionalSpeciesGroups[]

SortedSet of FunctionalSpeciesGroup

Functional Species Groups.

functionalSpeciesGroups[].comments

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Comments.

functionalSpeciesGroups[].functionalSpeciesGroupId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

functionalSpeciesGroups[].species

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Species.

functionalSpeciesGroups[].diversityRating

FunctionalGroupRating domain value

Diversity Rating.

functionalSpeciesGroups[].functionalGroup

FunctionalGroup domain value

Functional Group.

lowerLevelTypes[]

List of LowerLevelType

Lower Level Types.

lowerLevelTypes[].elcode

String

Unique Identifier

lowerLevelTypes[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

lowerLevelTypes[].lowerLevelTypeId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

lowerLevelTypes[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

lowerLevelTypes[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

lowerLevelTypes[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

otherCommonNames[]

List of CommonName

Other Common Names.

otherCommonNames[].id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

otherCommonNames[].language

String

ISO Language Code.

otherCommonNames[].name

Long String; Not null; May contain HTML markup

Name.

references[]

List of Reference

References.

references[].citation

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Full Citation.

references[].id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

references[].lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

references[].referenceCode

String

Reference Code.

references[].shortCitationAuthor

String

Short Citation Author.

references[].shortCitationYear

Integer

Short Citation Year.

relatedConcepts[]

SortedSet of RelatedConcept

Related Concepts from Other Classifications.

relatedConcepts[].otherCommunityName

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Related Concept Name.

relatedConcepts[].relatedConceptId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

relatedConcepts[].reference

Reference

Reference.

relatedConcepts[].reference.citation

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Full Citation.

relatedConcepts[].reference.id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

relatedConcepts[].reference.lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

relatedConcepts[].reference.referenceCode

String

Reference Code.

relatedConcepts[].reference.shortCitationAuthor

String

Short Citation Author.

relatedConcepts[].reference.shortCitationYear

Integer

Short Citation Year.

relatedConcepts[].relationshipRole

RelationshipRole domain value

Relationship.

similarAssociations[]

List of SimilarAssociation

Similar Types.

similarAssociations[].elcode

String

Unique Identifier

similarAssociations[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Scientific Name.

similarAssociations[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

similarAssociations[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

similarAssociations[].similarAssociationId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

similarAssociations[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

subnationalCommunityUnits[]

SortedSet of SubnationalCommunityUnit

Related State/Provincial Vegetation Types.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].formattedScientificName

String; May contain HTML markup

Concept Name

subnationalCommunityUnits[].nsxUrl

String

Relative URL to view taxon.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].scientificName

String

The scientific name with all HTML formatting removed.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].subnationalCommunityUnitId

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].uniqueId

String

NatureServe Unique Identifier.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].elementRelConfidence

ElementRelConfidence domain value

Confidence.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].elementRelType

ElementRelType domain value

Relationship to Standard.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].reference

Reference

Reference.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].reference.citation

Long String; May contain HTML markup

Full Citation.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].reference.id

Integer; Not null

Primary Key for Row.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].reference.lastModified

Timestamp (UTC)

Last Modified.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].reference.referenceCode

String

Reference Code.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].reference.shortCitationAuthor

String

Short Citation Author.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].reference.shortCitationYear

Integer

Short Citation Year.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].subnation

Subnation domain value

State/Province.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].subnation.dnationId

Integer

Nation ID.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].subnation.nameEn

String

English Display Name.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].subnation.nameEs

String

Spanish Display Name.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].subnation.nameFr

String

French Display Name.

subnationalCommunityUnits[].subnation.subnationCode

String

Subnation Code.