NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
 
Ecological System Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected. View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Classification
Scientific Name: North Pacific Maritime Mesic-Wet Douglas-fir-Western Hemlock Forest
Unique Identifier: CES204.002
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate

Search for Images on Google
Summary: This ecological system is a significant component of the lowland and low montane forests of western Washington, northwestern Oregon, and southwestern British Columbia. It occurs throughout low-elevation western Washington, except on extremely dry sites and in the hypermaritime zone near the outer coast where it is rare. In Oregon, it occurs on the western slopes of the Cascades, around the margins of the Willamette Valley, and on the west side of the Coast Ranges, and is reduced to locally small patches in southwestern Oregon. In British Columbia, it occurs on the eastern (leeward) side of Vancouver Island, commonly and rarely on the windward side, and in the southern Coast Ranges. These forests occur on moist habitats and microhabitats, mainly lower slopes or valley landforms, within the Western Hemlock Zone of the Pacific Northwest. They differ from North Pacific Maritime Dry-Mesic Douglas-fir-Western Hemlock Forest (CES204.001) primarily in having more hydrophilic undergrowth species, moist to subirrigated soils, high abundance of shade- and moisture-tolerant canopy trees, as well as higher stand productivity, due to higher soil moisture and lower fire frequency. Climate is relatively mild and moist to wet. Mean annual precipitation is mostly 90-254 cm (35-100 inches) (but as low as 20 inches in the extreme rainshadow) predominantly as winter rain. Snowfall ranges from rare to regular (but consistent winter snowpacks are absent or minimal), and summers are relatively dry. Elevation ranges from sea level to 610 m (2000 feet) in northern Washington to 1067 m (3500 feet) in Oregon. Topography ranges from relatively flat glacial tillplains to steep mountainous terrain. This is an extensive forest in the lowlands on the west side of the Cascades. In some wetter climatic areas, it forms the matrix within which other systems occur as patches, especially riparian wetlands. In many rather drier climatic areas, it occurs as small to large patches within a matrix of North Pacific Maritime Dry-Mesic Douglas-fir-Western Hemlock Forest (CES204.001); in dry areas, it can occur adjacent to or in a mosaic with North Pacific Dry Douglas-fir-(Madrone) Forest and Woodland (CES204.845), and at higher elevations it intermingles with either North Pacific Dry-Mesic Silver Fir-Western Hemlock-Douglas-fir Forest (CES204.098) or North Pacific Mesic Western Hemlock-Silver Fir Forest (CES204.097).

Overstory canopy is dominated by Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla, and/or Thuja plicata, as well as Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in western Oregon, away from the coast. Pseudotsuga menziesii is usually at least present to more typically codominant or dominant. Acer macrophyllum and Alnus rubra (the latter primarily where there has been historic logging disturbance) are commonly found as canopy or subcanopy codominants, especially at lower elevations. In a natural landscape, small patches can be dominated in the canopy by these broadleaf trees for several decades after a severe fire. Polystichum munitum, Oxalis oregana, Rubus spectabilis, and Oplopanax horridus typify the poorly to well-developed herb and shrub layers. Gaultheria shallon, Mahonia nervosa, Rhododendron macrophyllum, and Vaccinium ovatum are often present but are generally not as abundant as the aforementioned indicators; except where Chamaecyparis lawsoniana is a canopy codominant, they may be the dominant understory. Acer circinatum is a very common codominant as a tall shrub. Forested stands with abundant Lysichiton americanus, an indicator of seasonally flooded or saturated soils, belong in North Pacific Hardwood-Conifer Swamp (CES204.090). Stands included are best represented on lower mountain slopes of the coastal ranges with high precipitation, long frost-free periods, and low fire frequencies. Young stands may lack Tsuga heterophylla or Thuja plicata, especially in the Puget Lowland. Tsuga heterophylla is generally the dominant regenerating tree species. Other common associates include Abies grandis, which can be a codominant especially in the Willamette Valley - Puget Trough - Georgia Basin ecoregion. Soils are moist to somewhat wet but not saturated for much of the year and are well-drained to somewhat poorly drained. Typical soils for Polystichum sites would be deep, fine- to moderately coarse-textured, and for Oplopanax sites, soils typically have an impermeable layer at a moderate depth. Both types of soils are well-watered from upslope sources, seeps, or hyperheic sources. This is in contrast to North Pacific Maritime Dry-Mesic Douglas-fir-Western Hemlock Forest (CES204.001), which occurs on well-drained soils, south-facing slopes, and dry ridges and slopes where soils remain mesic to dry for much of the year. Fire is (or was) the major natural disturbance in all but the wettest climatic areas. In the past (pre-1880), fires were less commonly high-severity, typically mixed-severity or moderate-severity, with natural return intervals of a few hundred to several hundred years. This system was formerly supported by occasional, stand-replacing fires. More frequent moderate-severity fires would generally not burn these moister microsites.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: Stands dominated or codominated with Chamaecyparis lawsoniana that are within 25 km (15 miles) of the coast are part of either California Coastal Redwood Forest (CES206.921) (extreme southern Oregon and northern California) or North Pacific Seasonal Sitka Spruce Forest (CES204.841) (central and northern coastal Oregon). Stands in these areas may or may not have redwood or Sitka spruce present. Stands away for the coast and not on serpentine soils are considered part of North Pacific Maritime Mesic-Wet Douglas-fir-Western Hemlock Forest (CES204.002).

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES204.001 North Pacific Maritime Dry-Mesic Douglas-fir-Western Hemlock Forest


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL000042 Abies lowiana - Chamaecyparis lawsoniana / Quercus sadleriana / Leucothoe davisiae - Rhododendron macrophyllum Forest
CEGL000089 Thuja plicata / Linnaea borealis Forest
CEGL000287 Abies grandis - Tsuga heterophylla / Polystichum munitum Forest
CEGL000417 Pseudotsuga menziesii / Acer circinatum Forest
CEGL000483 Thuja plicata - Tsuga heterophylla / Oxalis oregana Forest
CEGL000486 Thuja plicata - Tsuga heterophylla / Whipplea modesta Forest
CEGL000497 Tsuga heterophylla - (Pseudotsuga menziesii) / Oplopanax horridus / Polystichum munitum Forest
CEGL000560 Acer macrophyllum / Acer circinatum Forest
CEGL000638 Alnus rubra / Polystichum munitum Forest
CEGL002843 Tsuga heterophylla - (Thuja plicata, Pseudotsuga menziesii) / Polystichum munitum - Blechnum spicant Forest
CEGL002848 Thuja plicata - Pseudotsuga menziesii - Abies grandis / Mahonia nervosa / Polystichum munitum Forest
CEGL005534 Pseudotsuga menziesii - (Alnus rubra, Tsuga heterophylla) / Rubus spectabilis Forest
CEGL005535 Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla / Achlys triphylla Forest
CEGL005536 Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla / Gaultheria shallon / Polystichum munitum Forest
CEGL005540 Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla / Holodiscus discolor / Polystichum munitum Forest
CEGL005542 Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla / (Acer circinatum) / Polystichum munitum Forest
CEGL005543 Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla / Mahonia nervosa - Polystichum munitum Forest
CEGL005547 Pseudotsuga menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla / Vaccinium alaskaense / Xerophyllum tenax Forest
CEGL005559 Tsuga heterophylla / Polystichum munitum - Blechnum spicant Forest
CEGL005572 Tsuga heterophylla - (Pseudotsuga menziesii) / Vaccinium alaskaense / Cornus unalaschkensis Forest
CEGL005573 Tsuga heterophylla - (Pseudotsuga menziesii) / Vaccinium alaskaense / Polystichum munitum Forest
CEGL005574 Tsuga heterophylla - (Pseudotsuga menziesii) / Vaccinium alaskaense - Mahonia nervosa - (Gaultheria shallon) Forest
CEGL005575 Tsuga heterophylla - Pseudotsuga menziesii - Abies amabilis / Vaccinium parvifolium / Achlys triphylla Forest
CEGL005576 Tsuga heterophylla - (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata) / Polystichum munitum - Athyrium filix-femina Forest



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Matrix, Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Temperate Temperate Oceanic
Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga menziesii  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Montane  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Batrachoseps wrightorum
  (Oregon Slender Salamander)
G3  
Botrychium ascendens
  (Upward-lobed Moonwort)
G3  
Botrychium pedunculosum
  (Stalked Moonwort)
G3G4  
Cardamine pattersonii
  (Saddle Mountain Bittercress)
G2  
Cryptomastix hendersoni
  (Columbia Oregonian)
G1G2Q  
Deroceras hesperium
  (Evening Fieldslug)
G2Q  
Destuntzia fusca
  (a fungus)
G2  
Dodecatheon austrofrigidum
  (Southerly Frigid Shootingstar)
G2  
Endogone oregonensis
  (a fungus)
G2G3  
Entosphenus minimus
  (Miller Lake Lamprey)
G3  
Erigeron howellii
  (Howell's Fleabane)
G2  
Erythronium elegans
  (Coast Range Fawnlily)
G2  
Gliabates oregonius
  (Salamander Slug)
GHQ  
Hemphillia burringtoni
  (Keeled Jumping-slug)
G1G2  
Hemphillia pantherina
  (Panther Jumping-slug)
G1  
Hesperarion mariae
  (Tillamook Westernslug)
G3  
Icaricia saepiolus littoralis
  (Coastal Greenish Blue)
G5T1T3  
Lilium occidentale
  (Western Lily)
G1G2 LE: Listed endangered
Monadenia fidelis flava
  (Pacific Sideband)
G4G5T1T2  
Monadenia fidelis ssp. 2
  (Umpqua Sideband)
G4G5T1  
Neothremma andersoni
  (Columbia Gorge Neothremman Caddisfly)
G1  
Odocoileus virginianus leucurus
  (Columbian White-tailed Deer)
G5T3Q  
Penstemon barrettiae
  (Barrett's Beardtongue)
G2  
Phaeocollybia californica
  (a fungus)
G3  
Phaeocollybia dissiliens
  (a fungus)
G2G3  
Phaeocollybia oregonensis
  (a fungus)
G2?  
Phaeocollybia radicata
  (a fungus)
G2  
Pristiloma johnsoni
  (Broadwhorl Tightcoil Snail)
G3  
Pristiloma pilsbryi
  (Crowned Tightcoil)
G1  
Prophysaon vanattae pop. 1
  (Scarletback Taildropper var. pardalis)
G4G5T2  
Pseudaleuria quinaultiana
  (a fungus)
G2  
Pterostichus rothi
  (Blind Carabid Beetle)
G2?  
Ramaria rubribrunnescens
  (a fungus)
G2G3  
Rana pretiosa
  (Oregon Spotted Frog)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Rhizopogon atroviolaceus
  (a fungus)
G2G3  
Rhizopogon brunneiniger
  (a fungus)
G2G3  
Rhizopogon exiguus
  (a fungus)
G2G3  
Russula castellanoi
  (a fungus)
G1G2  
Russula idahoensis
  (a fungus)
G2G3  
Sidalcea hirtipes
  (Bristly-stem Sidalcea)
G2  
Sidalcea nelsoniana
  (Nelson's Sidalcea)
G2G3 LT: Listed threatened
Sisyrinchium sarmentosum
  (Pale Blue-eyed-grass)
G2  
Speyeria zerene hippolyta
  (Oregon Silverspot)
G5T1 LT, XN: Listed threatened, nonessential experimental population
Tricholomopsis fulvescens
  (a fungus)
G2G3  
Trillium parviflorum
  (Small-flowered Trillium)
G2G3  
Trilobopsis loricata
  (Scaly Chaparral)
G2G3  
Tuber pacificum
  (a fungus)
G2  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer macrophyllum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pseudotsuga menziesii G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Thuja plicata G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tsuga heterophylla G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Alnus rubra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Oplopanax horridus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rubus spectabilis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Cardamine pattersonii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Dodecatheon austrofrigidum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Erigeron howellii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Erythronium elegans G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lilium occidentale G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Oxalis oregana G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Penstemon barrettiae G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sidalcea hirtipes G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sidalcea nelsoniana G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sisyrinchium sarmentosum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trillium parviflorum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium ascendens G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium pedunculosum G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Bryoria pikei G5 Lichen Nonvascular      
 
 
Destuntzia fusca G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Endogone oregonensis G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Phaeocollybia californica G3 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Phaeocollybia dissiliens G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Phaeocollybia oregonensis G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Phaeocollybia radicata G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Pseudaleuria quinaultiana G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Ramaria rubribrunnescens G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Rhizopogon atroviolaceus G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Rhizopogon brunneiniger G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Rhizopogon exiguus G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Russula castellanoi G1 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Russula idahoensis G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Tricholomopsis fulvescens G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 
Tuber pacificum G2 Non-plant Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Batrachoseps wrightorum
  (Oregon Slender Salamander)
G3      
Cryptomastix hendersoni
  (Columbia Oregonian)
G1G2Q      
Deroceras hesperium
  (Evening Fieldslug)
G2Q      
Ensatina eschscholtzii
  (Ensatina)
G5      
Entosphenus minimus
  (Miller Lake Lamprey)
G3      
Gliabates oregonius
  (Salamander Slug)
GHQ      
Hemphillia burringtoni
  (Keeled Jumping-slug)
G1G2      
Hemphillia pantherina
  (Panther Jumping-slug)
G1      
Hesperarion mariae
  (Tillamook Westernslug)
G3      
Icaricia saepiolus littoralis
  (Coastal Greenish Blue)
G5T1T3      
Monadenia fidelis flava
  (Pacific Sideband)
G4G5T1T2      
Monadenia fidelis ssp. 2
  (Umpqua Sideband)
G4G5T1      
Neothremma andersoni
  (Columbia Gorge Neothremman Caddisfly)
G1      
Odocoileus virginianus leucurus
  (Columbian White-tailed Deer)
G5T3Q      
Peromyscus maniculatus
  (North American Deermouse)
G5      
Pristiloma johnsoni
  (Broadwhorl Tightcoil Snail)
G3      
Pristiloma pilsbryi
  (Crowned Tightcoil)
G1      
Prophysaon vanattae pop. 1
  (Scarletback Taildropper var. pardalis)
G4G5T2      
Pterostichus rothi
  (Blind Carabid Beetle)
G2?      
Rana pretiosa
  (Oregon Spotted Frog)
G2 LT: Listed threatened    
Sorex trowbridgii
  (Trowbridge's Shrew)
G5      
Speyeria zerene hippolyta
  (Oregon Silverspot)
G5T1 LT, XN: Listed threatened, nonessential experimental population    
Tamiasciurus douglasii
  (Douglas' Squirrel)
G5      
Trilobopsis loricata
  (Scaly Chaparral)
G2G3      
Vireo huttoni
  (Hutton's Vireo)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: OR, WA
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: BC
Global Range: This system is a significant component of the lowland and low montane forests of western Washington, northwestern Oregon, and southwestern British Columbia. This system may also occur as very small patches in northern California, in the northern Coast Ranges.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
204-North American Pacific Maritime C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Pacific Northwest Coast Confident or certain
3 North Cascades Confident or certain
5 Klamath Mountains Confident or certain
69 S.E. Alaska - B.C. Coastal Forest and Mountains Confident or certain
81 West Cascades Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Northern Cascades Confident or certain
2 Oregon Coastal Range Confident or certain
3 Northern California Coastal Range Possible
7 Cascade Mountain Range Confident or certain
9 Blue Mountain Region Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4226
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1039
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2039

West Landfire Legend: Yes
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 23Jan2006
Element Description Author(s): G. Kittel, C. Chappell and M.S. Reid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • BCMF [British Columbia Ministry of Forests]. 2006. BEC Master Site Series Database. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC. [http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hre/becweb/resources/codes-standards/standards-becdb.html]

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Steen, O. A., and R. A. Coupé. 1997. A field guide to forest site identification and interpretation for the Cariboo Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 39. Parts 1 and 2. British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program, Victoria, BC.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019