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Classification
Scientific Name: Laurentian-Acadian Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp
Unique Identifier: CES201.582

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Summary: This system encompasses shrub swamps and wet meadows on mineral soils of the Northeast and upper Midwest. They are often associated with lakes and ponds, but are also found along streams, where the water level does not fluctuate greatly. They are commonly flooded for part of the growing season but often do not have standing water throughout the season. The size of occurrences ranges from small pockets to extensive acreages. The system can have a patchwork of shrub and graminoid dominance; typical species include Salix spp., Cornus amomum, Alnus incana, Spiraea alba, Calamagrostis canadensis, tall Carex spp., and Juncus effusus. Trees are generally absent and, if present, are scattered.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: Compared to North-Central Interior Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp (CES202.701), this system is more often dominated by Alnus spp. rather than the Cornus spp. dominance of the latter.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES201.594 Laurentian-Acadian Freshwater Marsh
CES202.701 North-Central Interior Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL002186 Cornus sericea - Salix spp. - (Rosa palustris) Shrub Swamp
CEGL002190 Cephalanthus occidentalis / Carex spp. Midwest Shrub Swamp
CEGL002256 Carex lacustris Midwest Wet Meadow
CEGL002257 Carex utriculata - Carex lacustris - (Carex vesicaria, Carex stricta) Wet Meadow
CEGL002258 Carex stricta - Carex spp. Wet Meadow
CEGL004112 Juncus effusus Marsh
CEGL005082 Alnus serrulata / Calamagrostis canadensis Shrub Swamp
CEGL005258 Equisetum fluviatile - (Eleocharis palustris) Marsh
CEGL005448 Calamagrostis canadensis - Carex spp. Laurentian & Northeast Wet Meadow
CEGL006170 Carex tetanica - Carex prairea - Eleocharis erythropoda - Lysimachia quadriflora Fen
CEGL006245 Typha latifolia - Caltha palustris Marsh
CEGL006349 Scirpus cyperinus Wet Meadow
CEGL006412 Carex stricta - Carex vesicaria Wet Meadow
CEGL006512 Myrica gale - Spiraea alba - Chamaedaphne calyculata Fen
CEGL006519 Calamagrostis canadensis - Scirpus spp. - Dulichium arundinaceum Wet Meadow



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Herbaceous Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: No
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Depressional Lakeshore
Riverine / Alluvial  
Broad-Leaved Shrub  
Graminoid  
Shallow (<15 cm) Water  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Herbaceous  
Extensive Wet Flat  
Depressional Pond
Muck  
Circumneutral Water  
Acidic Water  
Moderate (100-500 yrs) Persistence  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Appalachia arcana
  (Michigan Bog Grasshopper)
G2G3  
Brychius hungerfordi
  (Hungerford's Crawling Water Beetle)
G1 LE: Listed endangered
Calephelis muticum
  (Swamp Metalmark)
G3  
Clonophis kirtlandii
  (Kirtland's Snake)
G2  
Grus americana
  (Whooping Crane)
G1 LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population
Ophiogomphus susbehcha
  (St. Croix Snaketail)
G2  
Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea
  (Fassett's Locoweed)
G5T1T2 LT: Listed threatened
Platanthera leucophaea
  (Eastern Prairie White-fringed Orchid)
G2G3 LT: Listed threatened
Polemonium vanbruntiae
  (Bog Jacob's-ladder)
G3G4  
Schoenoplectus hallii
  (Hall's Bulrush)
G2G3  
Scirpus ancistrochaetus
  (Northeastern Bulrush)
G3 LE: Listed endangered
Somatochlora hineana
  (Hine's Emerald)
G2G3 LE: Listed endangered

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Alnus incana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ilex verticillata G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Spiraea alba G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea T1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Platanthera leucophaea G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex lacustris G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex stricta G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex vesicaria G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Scirpus cyperinus G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Appalachia arcana
  (Michigan Bog Grasshopper)
G2G3      
Brychius hungerfordi
  (Hungerford's Crawling Water Beetle)
G1 LE: Listed endangered    
Calephelis muticum
  (Swamp Metalmark)
G3      
Clonophis kirtlandii
  (Kirtland's Snake)
G2      
Dryophytes versicolor
  (Gray Treefrog)
G5      
Grus americana
  (Whooping Crane)
G1 LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population    
Hemileuca lucina
  (New England Buckmoth)
G4?      
Lithobates sylvaticus
  (Wood Frog)
G5      
Ophiogomphus susbehcha
  (St. Croix Snaketail)
G2      
Pseudacris crucifer
  (Spring Peeper)
G5      
Somatochlora hineana
  (Hine's Emerald)
G2G3 LE: Listed endangered    


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: MA, ME, MI, MN, NH, NY, RI, VT, WI
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: NB, ON, QC
Global Range: This system is found in New England and northern New York west across the upper Great Lakes to Minnesota, and adjacent Canada, mostly north of the glacial boundary.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
201-Laurentian-Acadian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
47 Superior Mixed Forest Confident or certain
48 Great Lakes Confident or certain
49 Western Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
59 Central Appalachian Forest Confident or certain
60 High Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
61 Lower New England / Northern Piedmont Confident or certain
63 Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Confident or certain
64 St. Lawrence-Champlain Valley Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
41 Northern Lake Country Confident or certain
49 Central Till Plains Possible
50 Central Great Lakes Uplands Confident or certain
51 Great Lakes Plains Confident or certain
52 Eastern Till Plains Possible
60 Chesapeake Bay Confident or certain
61 Northern Appalachia Confident or certain
62 Allegheny Plateau Predicted or probable
63 Finger Lakes Confident or certain
64 Northeastern Highlands Confident or certain
65 Connecticut River Basin and Highlands Confident or certain
66 The North Woods Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9406

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 20Aug2015
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler, D. Faber-Langendoen, E. Largay

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • WDNR [Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources]. 2015. The ecological landscapes of Wisconsin: An assessment of ecological resources and a guide to planning sustainable management. PUB-SS-1131 2015. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. [http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/landscapes/Book.html]


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