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Classification
Scientific Name: Florida Peninsula Inland Scrub
Unique Identifier: CES203.057

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Summary: This system appears in many forms, but generally consists of xeromorphic shrub vegetation (mostly evergreen oak species) with or without an emergent overstory of Pinus clausa. The shrubs can be very thick in places, but usually there are open patches. Ground cover is always sparse, and bare soil patches are typically evident. It is found on a sequence of sand ridges and ancient dune fields which are oriented essentially north-south in the Florida Peninsula. The appearance, floristics, and boundary of Florida scrub may contrast dramatically with the "high pine" or sandhill vegetation which is often adjacent, although lack of fire can blur these boundaries.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL003553 Pinus clausa / Ceratiola ericoides - Sabal etonia / Cladonia spp. Woodland
CEGL003555 Pinus clausa / Quercus inopina Woodland
CEGL003556 Pinus clausa / Quercus myrtifolia - Quercus geminata Woodland
CEGL003823 Quercus inopina - Quercus geminata - Quercus chapmanii Shrubland
CEGL003825 Quercus myrtifolia - Quercus geminata - Quercus chapmanii Shrubland
CEGL003863 Ceratiola ericoides - Quercus geminata - (Quercus inopina) - Serenoa repens / Cladonia spp. Shrubland
CEGL007074 Pinus clausa / Quercus geminata - Quercus myrtifolia - (Quercus laevis) / Garberia heterophylla Forest
CEGL007997 Carya floridana - Quercus myrtifolia - Quercus geminata Shrubland
CEGL008593 Quercus myrtifolia - Quercus geminata - Lyonia lucida - Lyonia ferruginea Shrubland



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Shrubland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Xeric  
F-Patch/High Intensity  
Needle-Leaved Tree  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Aphelocoma coerulescens
  (Florida Scrub Jay)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Donnellia commutata
  (Donnellia Moss)
G1G3  
Eccremidium floridanum
  (Florida Eccremidium Moss)
G1?  
Gopherus polyphemus
  (Gopher Tortoise)
G3  
Plestiodon reynoldsi
  (Sand Skink)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Pteroglossaspis ecristata
  (Giant Orchid)
G2G3  
Sceloporus woodi
  (Florida Scrub Lizard)
G2G3  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus chapmanii G4 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus geminata G5 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus myrtifolia G5 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus clausa G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Lyonia ferruginea G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Quercus inopina G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Serenoa repens G4 Palm shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ceratiola ericoides G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Licania michauxii G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Pteroglossaspis ecristata G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rhynchospora megalocarpa G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Donnellia commutata G2 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 
Eccremidium floridanum G1 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Aphelocoma coerulescens
  (Florida Scrub Jay)
G2 LT: Listed threatened    
Gopherus polyphemus
  (Gopher Tortoise)
G3      
Plestiodon reynoldsi
  (Sand Skink)
G2 LT: Listed threatened    
Sceloporus woodi
  (Florida Scrub Lizard)
G2G3      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: FL
Global Range: This system is endemic to the Florida Peninsula. It is most common in two discrete islands or patches, the Big Scrub of Ocala and the Lake Wales Ridge, which is now highly fragmented and mostly lost to agriculture and development (Weekley et al. 2008).

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
203-Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
55 Florida Peninsula Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
55 Southeastern Coastal Plain Confident or certain
56 Floridian Coastal Plain Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 5318
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1387
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2387

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jan2014
Element Description Author(s): R. Evans and C.W. Nordman

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Abrahamson, W. G. 1984. Post-fire recovery of the Florida Lake Wales Ridge vegetation. American Journal of Botany 71:9-21.

  • Breininger, D. R., V. L. Larson, R. Schaub, B. W. Duncan, P. A. Schmalzer, D. M. Oddy, R. B. Smith, F. Adrian, and H. Hill, Jr. 1996. A conservation strategy for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center / Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: An initial scientific basis for recovery. NASA-TM-111676. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 2010a. Guide to the natural communities of Florida: 2010 edition. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee, FL. 228 pp.

  • Harper, R. M. 1914. Geography and vegetation of northern Florida. Florida Geological Survey 6:163-391.

  • Harper, R. M. 1927. Natural resources of southern Florida. Pages 27-206 in: 18th Annual Report. Florida Geologic Survey, Tallahassee.

  • Hokit, D. G., B. M. Smith, and L. C. Branch. 1999. Effects of landscape structure in Florida scrub: A population perspective. Ecological Applications 9(1):124-134.

  • Johnson, A. F. 1982. Some demographic characteristics of the Florida rosemary, Ceratiola ericoides Michx. The American Midland Naturalist 108:170-174.

  • Kurz, H. 1942. Florida dunes and scrub, vegetation and geology. Florida Department of Conservation, Geologic Survey. Geologic Survey Bulletin No. 23. Tallahassee. 154 pp.

  • Laessle, A. M. 1958. The origin and successional relationship of sandhill vegetation and sand pine scrub. Ecological Monographs 28:361-387.

  • Laessle, A. M. 1968. Relationship of sand pine scrub to former shore lines. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science 30:269-286.

  • Lugo, A. E., and C. P. Zucca. 1983. Comparison of litter fall and turnover in two Florida ecosystems. Florida Scientist 46:101-110.

  • MacAllister, B. A., and M. G. Harper. 1998. Management of Florida scrub for threatened and endangered species. USACERL Technical Report 99/19. US Army Corps of Engineers - Construction Engineering Research Laboratories. [http://www.cecer.army.mil/TechReports/tra_scrb.lln/tra_scrb.lln.post.pdf]

  • Menges, E. S. 1994. Fog temporarily increases water potential in Florida scrub oaks. Florida Scientist 57:65-74.

  • Menges, E. S. 1999. Ecology and conservation of Florida scrub. Pages 7-23 in: R. C. Anderson, J. S. Fralish, and J. M. Baskin, editors. 1999. Savanna, barren, and rock outcrops plant communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  • Menges, E. S. 2007. Integrating demography and fire management: An example from Florida scrub. Australian Journal of Botany 55:261-272.

  • Menges, E. S., P. J. McIntyre, M. S. Finer, E. Goss, and R. Yahr. 1999. Microhabitat of the narrow Florida scrub endemic Dicerandra christmanii, with comparisons to its congener D. frutescens. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 126:24-31.

  • Menges, E. S., W. G. Abrahamson, K. T. Givens, N. P. Gallo, and J. N. Layne. 1993. Twenty years of vegetation change in five long-unburned Florida plant communities. Journal of Vegetation Science 4:375-386

  • Menges, E. S., and D. R. Gordon. 2010. Should mechanical treatments and herbicides be used as fire surrogates to manage Florida's uplands? A review. Florida Scientist 73(2):147-174.

  • Menges, E. S., and P. F. Quintana-Ascencio. 2004. Population viability with fire in Eryngium cuneifolium: Deciphering a decade of demographic data. Ecological Monographs 74:79-99.

  • Monk, C. D. 1966. An ecological significance of evergreenness. Ecology 47:504-505.

  • Mulvania, M. 1931. Ecological survey of a Florida scrub. Ecology 12:528-540.

  • Myers, L. H. 1987. Montana BLM riparian inventory and monitoring. Riparian Technical Bulletin No. 1. Bureau of Land Management, Billings.

  • Myers, R. L. 1990a. Scrub and high pine. Pages 150-193 in: R. L. Myers and J. L. Ewel, editors. Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando.

  • Schmalzer, P. A., and C. R. Hinkle. 1992b. Recovery of oak-saw palmetto scrub after fire. Castanea 57:158-173.

  • Schmalzer, P. A., and C. R. Hinkle. 1996. Biomass and nutrients in aboveground vegetation and soils of Florida oak-saw palmetto scrub. Castanea 61:168-193.

  • Vignoles, C. B. 1823. Observations upon the Floridas. E. Bliss & E. White, New York.

  • Weekley, C. W., E. S. Menges, and R. L. Pickert. 2008. An ecological map of Florida's Lake Wales Ridge: A new boundary delineation and an assessment of post-Columbian habitat loss. Florida Scientist 71:45-64. [http://www.archbold-station.org/station/documents/publicationspdf/Weekley,etal.-2008-FlaSci-LWRboundary.pdf] [http://www.archbold-station.org/station/html/research/plant/plantlkwrmap.html]

  • Weekley, C. W., and E. S. Menges. 2003. Species and vegetation responses to prescribed fire in a long-unburned, endemic-rich Lake Wales Ridge scrub. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 130:265-282.


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