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Classification
Scientific Name: Atlantic Coastal Plain Upland Longleaf Pine Woodland
Unique Identifier: CES203.281
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate

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Summary: This system of upland Pinus palustris-dominated vegetation is found in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, where it ranges from southern Virginia (where it is nearly extirpated and of very limited extent) to northeastern Florida. This system does not include Pinus palustris stands found in the Fall-line Sandhills, which are accommodated by another ecological system. Examples and associations share the common feature of upland (non-wetland) moisture regimes and natural exposure to frequent fire. They occur on a variety of well- to excessively drained soils, and on the higher parts of upland-wetland mosaics. The vegetation is naturally dominated by Pinus palustris. Most associations have an understory of scrub oaks. The herb layer is generally well-developed and dominated by grasses, with legumes and composites. Aristida stricta primarily dominates in the northern part of its range, and Aristida beyrichiana in the southern part. Frequent, low-intensity fire is the dominant natural ecological force.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: This system is distinguished from Central Atlantic Coastal Plain Wet Longleaf Pine Savanna and Flatwoods (CES203.265) because of the ecological role of saturated wetland conditions in the latter. The two systems have much in common, including frequent fire and the same primary dominant tree and herb species. They often occur in the same landscapes. However, floristic differences are well marked, and no associations are shared. This system is distinguished from Atlantic Coastal Plain Fall-line Sandhills Longleaf Pine Woodland (CES203.254) based on the differences in landscape patterns and prevailing associations in the two regions. Dissected topography with much higher relief, predominance of interbedded sands and clays, and interspersion with seepage wetlands all characterize the Fall-line Sandhills, in contrast to the low relief, pure sands or loams, and mosaics containing other wetland types in the rest of the Coastal Plain. Some matrix associations in the Fall-line Sandhills, such as Pinus palustris / Quercus marilandica / Gaylussacia dumosa / Aristida stricta Woodland (CEGL003595) are nearly absent in the rest of the Coastal Plain, and there are systematic floristic differences. If this were to be split into a northern and southern component, the distinction would be justified based on differences in climate, flora, and some differences in ecological dynamics. Gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) are an important keystone species in the southern portion of the range. The dominant grass also changes at this approximate point, with Aristida beyrichiana dominating herb layers to the south.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES203.254 Atlantic Coastal Plain Fall-line Sandhills Longleaf Pine Woodland
CES203.265 Central Atlantic Coastal Plain Wet Longleaf Pine Savanna and Flatwoods


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL003569 Pinus palustris / Amorpha herbacea var. herbacea / Aristida stricta - Sorghastrum nutans Woodland
CEGL003570 Pinus palustris / Aristida stricta - Sorghastrum nutans - Anthaenantia villosa Woodland
CEGL003577 Pinus palustris / Quercus geminata - Quercus hemisphaerica / Osmanthus americanus Woodland
CEGL003578 Pinus palustris / Quercus incana / Aristida stricta - Sorghastrum nutans - Anthaenantia villosa Woodland
CEGL003584 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis / Stipulicida setacea - Selaginella acanthonota Woodland
CEGL003586 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis / Aristida stricta - Baptisia cinerea Woodland
CEGL003589 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis - Quercus geminata / Aristida stricta Woodland
CEGL003590 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis - Quercus geminata / Rhynchospora megalocarpa Woodland
CEGL003591 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis - Quercus incana / Gaylussacia dumosa / Aristida stricta Woodland
CEGL003592 Pinus palustris - Pinus taeda / Quercus laevis / Gaylussacia frondosa - Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
CEGL003595 Pinus palustris / Quercus marilandica / Gaylussacia dumosa / Aristida stricta Woodland
CEGL003664 Pinus palustris - Pinus taeda - Pinus serotina / Quercus pumila / Aristida stricta Woodland
CEGL004083 Pinus palustris / Quercus margarettae - Quercus incana / Schizachyrium scoparium Atlantic Woodland
CEGL004084 Pinus palustris / Quercus pumila - Gaylussacia dumosa / Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
CEGL004487 Pinus palustris / Quercus stellata / Quercus pumila / Sporobolus junceus Woodland
CEGL004488 Pinus palustris / Quercus hemisphaerica / Gaylussacia dumosa / Aristida beyrichiana - Dyschoriste oblongifolia Woodland
CEGL004489 Pinus palustris / Quercus marilandica - Quercus laevis / Aristida beyrichiana - Nolina georgiana Woodland
CEGL004492 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis - Quercus margarettae / Licania michauxii / Aristida beyrichiana Woodland
CEGL004689 Quercus laevis / (Andropogon virginicus, Aristida spp., Schizachyrium scoparium) Ruderal Woodland
CEGL004783 (Pinus palustris) / Bigelowia nuttallii - Phemeranthus teretifolius - Allium cuthbertii - Penstemon dissectus Altamaha Grit Grassland
CEGL007125 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis - Quercus geminata / Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
CEGL007126 Pinus palustris - Pinus serotina / Quercus laevis / Gaylussacia frondosa / Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
CEGL007127 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis / Chrysoma pauciflosculosa / Aristida purpurascens Woodland
CEGL007129 Pinus palustris / Quercus margarettae / Toxicodendron pubescens / Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
CEGL007511 Pinus palustris - Pinus (echinata, taeda) - Quercus (incana, laevis) Woodland
CEGL007738 Pinus palustris - (Pinus taeda) / Schizachyrium scoparium - Rhynchosia reniformis Woodland
CEGL007842 Pinus palustris / Quercus marilandica / Aristida beyrichiana - Tephrosia virginiana Woodland
CEGL007844 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis / Schizachyrium scoparium - Stipulicida setacea Woodland



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Matrix
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Very Short Disturbance Interval  
Needle-Leaved Tree  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Agrimonia incisa
  (Incised Groovebur)
G3  
Agrotis carolina
  (Pyxie Moth)
G2G3Q  
Allium sp. 1
  (Savanna Onion)
G1G2  
Ambystoma cingulatum
  (Frosted Flatwoods Salamander)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Amorpha georgiana var. georgiana
  (Georgia Leadplant)
G3T2  
Aristida mohrii
  (Mohr's Three-awn Grass)
G1  
Atrytone arogos arogos
  (Eastern Arogos Skipper)
G3T1T2  
Balduina atropurpurea
  (Purple Balduina)
G2  
Berlandiera subacaulis
  (Florida Greeneyes)
G3  
Bruchia fusca
  (Bruchia Moss)
G1?  
Calopogon multiflorus
  (Many-flower Grass-pink)
G2G3  
Calydorea coelestina
  (Bartram's Ixia)
G2G3  
Cambarus truncatus
  (Oconee Burrowing Crayfish)
G2  
Campylopus carolinae
  (Savanna Campylopus)
G2  
Carex lutea
  (Golden Sedge)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Catocala grisatra
  (Grisatra Underwing)
G1G3  
Cephalozia connivens var. bifida
  (a liverwort)
G5T1Q  
Cirsium lecontei
  (Le Conte's Thistle)
G3  
Cordulegaster sayi
  (Say's Spiketail)
G3  
Coreopsis integrifolia
  (Ciliate-leaf Tickseed)
G1G2  
Ctenium floridanum
  (Florida Orange-grass)
G2  
Cuscuta harperi
  (Harper's Dodder)
G2G3  
Dicerandra radfordiana
  (Radford's Dicerandra)
G1Q  
Dichanthelium cryptanthum
  (Hidden-flower Witchgrass)
G3G4Q  
Drymarchon couperi
  (Eastern Indigo Snake)
G3Q LT: Listed threatened
Elliottia racemosa
  (Georgia Plume)
G2?  
Eotettix pusillus
  (Little Eastern Grasshopper)
G2G3  
Eupatorium paludicola
  (Bay Boneset)
G2  
Eurybia mirabilis
  (Dwarf Aster)
G3  
Gabara sp. 1
  (North Carolina Gabara Moth)
G1G3  
Gentiana autumnalis
  (Pine Barren Gentian)
G3  
Hartwrightia floridana
  (Florida Hartwrightia)
G2  
Heterodon simus
  (Southern Hog-nosed Snake)
G2  
Hymenocallis pygmaea
  (Waccamaw River Spiderlily)
G2Q  
Hypericum erythraeae
  (Georgia St. John's-wort)
G2  
Lampropeltis getula sticticeps
  (Outer Banks Kingsnake)
G5T2Q  
Lilium pyrophilum
  (Sandhills Lily)
G2  
Lindera melissifolia
  (Pondberry)
G3 LE: Listed endangered
Lindera subcoriacea
  (Bog Spicebush)
G3  
Linum sulcatum var. harperi
  (Harper's Grooved-yellow Flax)
G5T2  
Lobelia boykinii
  (Boykin's Lobelia)
G2G3  
Macbridea caroliniana
  (Carolina Birds-in-a-nest)
G2G3  
Marshallia ramosa
  (Southern Marshallia)
G2G3  
Matelea alabamensis
  (Alabama Anglepod)
G2  
Melanoplus attenuatus
  (Slender-bodied Spur-throat Grasshopper)
G2G3  
Melanoplus querneus
  (Larger Sandhill Grasshopper)
G2G3  
Melanoplus stegocercus
  (Stegocercus Short-wing Grasshopper)
G1G3  
Monotropsis odorata
  (Sweet Pinesap)
G3  
Notophthalmus perstriatus
  (Striped Newt)
G2G3 C: Candidate
Orbexilum lupinellum
  (Lupine Scurfpea)
G3G4  
Orbexilum virgatum
  (Pineland Scurfpea)
G1  
Oxypolis canbyi
  (Canby's Dropwort)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Packera crawfordii
  (Bog Ragwort)
G2G3  
Penstemon dissectus
  (Dissected Beardtongue)
G2  
Picoides borealis
  (Red-cockaded Woodpecker)
G3 LE: Listed endangered
Plethodon savannah
  (Savannah Slimy Salamander)
G2G3  
Portulaca umbraticola ssp. coronata
  (Wingpod Purslane)
G5T2  
Pseudobranchus striatus striatus
  (Broad-striped Dwarf Siren)
G5T1T3  
Pteroglossaspis ecristata
  (Giant Orchid)
G2G3  
Rhus michauxii
  (Michaux's Sumac)
G2G3 LE: Listed endangered
Rhynchospora pleiantha
  (Brown Beakrush)
G2G3  
Rhynchospora punctata
  (Dotted Beakrush)
G1?  
Rudbeckia heliopsidis
  (Sun-facing Coneflower)
G2  
Ruellia pedunculata ssp. pinetorum
  (Stalked Wild Petunia)
G5T3T4  
Schwalbea americana
  (Chaffseed)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Scleria bellii
  (Smooth-seeded Hairy Nutrush)
G2G3  
Scutellaria altamaha
  (Pineland Skullcap)
G2G3  
Scutellaria ocmulgee
  (Ocmulgee Skullcap)
G2  
Solidago villosicarpa
  (Coastal Goldenrod)
G1  
Sporobolus teretifolius
  (Wireleaf Dropseed)
G2  
Stylisma pickeringii var. pickeringii
  (Pickering's Morning-glory)
G4T3  
Thalictrum cooleyi
  (Cooley's Meadowrue)
G1 LE: Listed endangered
Tridens carolinianus
  (Carolina Fluffgrass)
G3G4  
Tridens flavus var. chapmanii
  (Chapman's Redtop)
G5T3  
Trillium pusillum var. pusillum
  (Least Trillium)
G3T2Q  
Triodopsis soelneri
  (Cape Fear Threetooth)
G2  
Verbesina heterophylla
  (Diverseleaf Crownbeard)
G2  
Zephyranthes simpsonii
  (Rain Lily)
G2G3  
Zephyranthes sp. 1
  (Carolinas Atamasco Lily)
G1G2Q  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus incana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus laevis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus margarettiae G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus hemisphaerica G5 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus palustris G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Elliottia racemosa G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Lindera melissifolia G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Lindera subcoriacea G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Gaylussacia dumosa G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Amorpha georgiana var. georgiana T2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Rhus michauxii G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Vaccinium tenellum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Allium sp. 1 G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Balduina atropurpurea G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Calopogon multiflorus G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Cirsium lecontei G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Coreopsis integrifolia G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Cuscuta harperi G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Dicerandra radfordiana G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Eupatorium paludicola G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Eurybia mirabilis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hartwrightia floridana G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hymenocallis pygmaea G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hypericum erythraeae G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lilium pyrophilum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Linum sulcatum var. harperi T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lobelia boykinii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Macbridea caroliniana G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Marshallia ramosa G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Matelea alabamensis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Orbexilum virgatum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Oxypolis canbyi G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Packera crawfordii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Penstemon dissectus G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pityopsis graminifolia G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Portulaca umbraticola ssp. coronata T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pteroglossaspis ecristata G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rudbeckia heliopsidis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Schwalbea americana G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Scutellaria altamaha G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Scutellaria ocmulgee G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago villosicarpa G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Thalictrum cooleyi G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trillium pusillum var. pusillum T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Verbesina heterophylla G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Zephyranthes simpsonii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Zephyranthes sp. 1 G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pteridium aquilinum var. pseudocaudatum T5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Aristida mohrii G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Aristida stricta G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex lutea G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Ctenium floridanum G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Dichanthelium cryptanthum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Rhynchospora pleiantha G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Rhynchospora punctata G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Scleria bellii G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Sporobolus teretifolius G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Cephalozia connivens var. bifida T1 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Bruchia fusca G1 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 
Campylopus carolinae G2 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Agrotis carolina
  (Pyxie Moth)
G2G3Q      
Ambystoma cingulatum
  (Frosted Flatwoods Salamander)
G2 LT: Listed threatened    
Atrytone arogos arogos
  (Eastern Arogos Skipper)
G3T1T2      
Cambarus truncatus
  (Oconee Burrowing Crayfish)
G2      
Catocala grisatra
  (Grisatra Underwing)
G1G3      
Coluber flagellum
  (Coachwhip)
G5      
Cordulegaster sayi
  (Say's Spiketail)
G3      
Drymarchon couperi
  (Eastern Indigo Snake)
G3Q LT: Listed threatened    
Eotettix pusillus
  (Little Eastern Grasshopper)
G2G3      
Gabara sp. 1
  (North Carolina Gabara Moth)
G1G3      
Heterodon platirhinos
  (Eastern Hog-nosed Snake)
G5      
Heterodon simus
  (Southern Hog-nosed Snake)
G2      
Lampropeltis getula sticticeps
  (Outer Banks Kingsnake)
G5T2Q      
Melanoplus attenuatus
  (Slender-bodied Spur-throat Grasshopper)
G2G3      
Melanoplus querneus
  (Larger Sandhill Grasshopper)
G2G3      
Melanoplus stegocercus
  (Stegocercus Short-wing Grasshopper)
G1G3      
Notophthalmus perstriatus
  (Striped Newt)
G2G3 C: Candidate    
Picoides borealis
  (Red-cockaded Woodpecker)
G3 LE: Listed endangered    
Plethodon savannah
  (Savannah Slimy Salamander)
G2G3      
Pseudobranchus striatus striatus
  (Broad-striped Dwarf Siren)
G5T1T3      
Sceloporus undulatus
  (Eastern Fence Lizard)
G5      
Terrapene carolina
  (Eastern Box Turtle)
G5      
Triodopsis soelneri
  (Cape Fear Threetooth)
G2      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: FL, GA, NC, SC, VA
Global Range: This system is found in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (exclusive of the Fall-line Sandhills) from southern Virginia to northeastern Florida.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
203-Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
56 South Atlantic Coastal Plain Confident or certain
57 Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
55 Southeastern Coastal Plain Confident or certain
58 Eastern Coastal Plain Confident or certain
60 Chesapeake Bay Confident or certain
61 Northern Appalachia Never was there

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4250
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1347
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2347

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 23Apr2015
Element Description Author(s): R. Evans, M. Pyne and C. Nordman

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
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  • Capinera, J. L., R. D. Scott, and T. J. Walker. 2004. Field guide to grasshoppers, katydids and crickets of the United States. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 249 pp.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Dakin, M. E., and K. L. Hays. 1970. A synopsis of Orthoptera (sensu lato) of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 404. 118 pp.

  • Engeman, R. M., A. Stevens, J. Allen, J. Dunlap, M. Daniel, D. Teague, and B. Constantin. 2007. Feral swine management for conservation of an imperiled wetland habitat: Florida's vanishing seepage slopes. Biological Conservation 134:440-446.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 2010a. Guide to the natural communities of Florida: 2010 edition. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee, FL. 228 pp.

  • NatureServe. 2011a. Metrics for rapid assessment of the ecological integrity of longleaf pine-dominated communities in the southeastern United States. Report conducted by NatureServe for USDA Forest Service, Region 8. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Oswalt, C. M., J. A. Cooper, D. G. Brockway, H. W. Brooks, J. L. Walker, K. F. Connor, S. N. Oswalt, and R. C. Conner. 2012. History and current condition of longleaf pine in the southern United States. General Technical Report SRS-166. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC. 51 pp. [http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/42259]

  • Rehn, J. A., and M. Hebard. 1916. Studies in the Dermaptera and Orthoptera of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Region of the southeastern United States. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1916: 87-214.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schuster, R. M. 1974. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America east of the Hundredth Meridian. Volume III. Columbia University, New York.

  • Squitier, J. M., and J. L. Capinera. 2002. Habitat associations of Florida grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Florida Entomologist 85: 235-244.

  • Van Lear, D. H., W. D. Carroll, P. R. Kapeluck, and R. Johnson. 2005. History and restoration of the longleaf pine-grassland ecosystem: Implications for species at risk. Forest Ecology and Management 211:150-165.

  • Wahlenberg, W. G. 1946. Longleaf pine, its use, ecology, regeneration, protection, growth and management. Charles Lathrop Pack Forestry Foundation, Washington, DC. 429 pp.


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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2018