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Classification
Scientific Name: Florida Longleaf Pine Sandhill
Unique Identifier: CES203.284

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Summary: This system represents stands of Pinus palustris on excessively well-drained, sandy soils in the Outer Coastal Plain and adjacent Inner Coastal Plain of Florida. This includes the "high pine islands" of central Florida, as well as vegetation of extensive areas of sand in the Florida Panhandle, north of the Cody Scarp, including at Eglin Air Force Base (with greater than 100,000 hectares of this ecological system). In central Florida on the Ocala National Forest, these stands are found in relation with sand pine scrub vegetation. This system is represented by larger patches of Pinus palustris sandhills, generally ranging from 60 to 4000 hectares in size and larger. In addition to the largest extent at Eglin Air Force Base, examples also occur on the Ocala National Forest, the southern end of the Lake Wales Ridge, the Brooksville Ridge, and in other parts of the Florida Peninsula. Fire is absolutely essential to maintain this system, without which it may be almost completely replaced by scrub vegetation, hardwood trees, Pinus taeda, or other non-Pinus palustris-dominated vegetation.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL003583 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis / Licania michauxii / Pityopsis aspera Woodland
CEGL003587 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis / Schizachyrium scoparium - Rhynchosia cytisoides Woodland
CEGL003604 Pinus palustris - Pinus clausa / Quercus laevis / Sporobolus junceus Ruderal Woodland
CEGL004946 Bigelowia nuttallii - Schizachyrium scoparium - Eurybia hemispherica Florida Sandstone Grassland
CEGL007132 Pinus palustris / Quercus laevis / Aristida beyrichiana - Tephrosia chrysophylla Woodland
CEGL007133 Pinus palustris / Quercus geminata / Conradina canescens / Aristida beyrichiana Woodland
CEGL008586 Pinus palustris / Quercus (incana, margarettae) / Aristida beyrichiana - Asimina angustifolia Woodland



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Xeric  
Very Short Disturbance Interval  
Needle-Leaved Tree  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Angelica dentata
  (Coastal Plain Angelica)
G2G3  
Archidium minus
  (Small Archidium Moss)
G2?  
Aristida mohrii
  (Mohr's Three-awn Grass)
G1  
Arnoglossum floridanum
  (Florida Indian-plantain)
G3  
Campylopus carolinae
  (Savanna Campylopus)
G2  
Clinopodium dentatum
  (Toothed Savory)
G3  
Clitoria fragrans
  (Sweet-scented Pigeonwings)
G3 LT: Listed threatened
Copris gopheri
  (Gopher Tortoise Copris Beetle)
G2  
Crataegus lacrimata
  (Pensacola Hawthorn)
G3  
Drymarchon couperi
  (Eastern Indigo Snake)
G3Q LT: Listed threatened
Eccremidium floridanum
  (Florida Eccremidium Moss)
G1?  
Gopherus polyphemus
  (Gopher Tortoise)
G3  
Lampropeltis extenuata
  (Short-tailed Kingsnake)
G3  
Linum sulcatum var. harperi
  (Harper's Grooved-yellow Flax)
G5T2  
Lithobates capito
  (Carolina Gopher Frog)
G3  
Notophthalmus perstriatus
  (Striped Newt)
G2G3 C: Candidate
Paronychia rugelii
  (Rugel's Nailwort)
G2?  
Paronychia rugelii var. interior
  (Rugel's Nailwort)
G2?T2?Q  
Paronychia rugelii var. rugelii
  (Rugel's Nailwort)
G2?T2?  
Phyllophaga skelleyi
  (Skelley's June Beetle)
G2  
Picoides borealis
  (Red-cockaded Woodpecker)
G3 LE: Listed endangered
Pinguicula ionantha
  (Violet-flowered Butterwort)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Pityopsis flexuosa
  (Zigzag Silk-grass)
G3  
Podomys floridanus
  (Florida Deermouse)
G3  
Pteroglossaspis ecristata
  (Giant Orchid)
G2G3  
Sceloporus woodi
  (Florida Scrub Lizard)
G2G3  
Tephrosia mohrii
  (Pineland Hoary-pea)
G3  
Trichostema suffrutescens
  (Florida Scrub Bluecurls)
G1G2  
Warea amplexifolia
  (Wide-leaf Warea)
G1 LE: Listed endangered

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus laevis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus myrtifolia G5 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus palustris G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Licania michauxii G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Angelica dentata G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Croton argyranthemus G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Linum sulcatum var. harperi T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Paronychia rugelii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Paronychia rugelii var. interior T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Paronychia rugelii var. rugelii T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pteroglossaspis ecristata G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pteridium aquilinum G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Andropogon gyrans G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Aristida beyrichiana G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Aristida mohrii G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Schizachyrium scoparium G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Archidium minus G2 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 
Campylopus carolinae G2 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 
Eccremidium floridanum G1 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Copris gopheri
  (Gopher Tortoise Copris Beetle)
G2      
Drymarchon couperi
  (Eastern Indigo Snake)
G3Q LT: Listed threatened    
Gopherus polyphemus
  (Gopher Tortoise)
G3      
Lampropeltis extenuata
  (Short-tailed Kingsnake)
G3      
Lithobates capito
  (Carolina Gopher Frog)
G3      
Notophthalmus perstriatus
  (Striped Newt)
G2G3 C: Candidate    
Phyllophaga skelleyi
  (Skelley's June Beetle)
G2      
Picoides borealis
  (Red-cockaded Woodpecker)
G3 LE: Listed endangered    
Plestiodon egregius
  (Mole Skink)
G5      
Podomys floridanus
  (Florida Deermouse)
G3      
Sceloporus undulatus
  (Eastern Fence Lizard)
G5      
Sceloporus woodi
  (Florida Scrub Lizard)
G2G3      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: FL
Global Range: This ecological system is found in the Outer Coastal Plain and adjacent Inner Coastal Plain of Florida, including the central Florida Peninsula (Ocala National Forest, Brooksville Ridge, southern end of the Lake Wales Ridge) (Abrahamson et al. 1984) and the Florida Panhandle, mainly north of the Cody Scarp (e.g., Eglin Air Force Base).

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
203-Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
53 East Gulf Coastal Plain Confident or certain
55 Florida Peninsula Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
46 Northern Gulf Plains Never was there
55 Southeastern Coastal Plain Confident or certain
56 Floridian Coastal Plain Confident or certain
99 Southern Gulf Plains Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4259
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1356
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2356

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 21May2014
Element Description Author(s): R. Evans, C. Nordman, M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Abrahamson, W. G., A. F. Johnson, J. N. Layne, and P. A. Peroni. 1984. Vegetation of the Archbold Biological Station, Florida: An example of the southern Lake Wales Ridge. Florida Scientist 47:209-250.

  • Brewer, S. 2008. Declines in plant species richness and endemic plant species in longleaf pine savannas invaded by Imperata cylindrica. Biological Invasions 10:1257-1264.

  • Carr, S. C., K. M. Robertson, and R. K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75(2):153-189.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 2010a. Guide to the natural communities of Florida: 2010 edition. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee, FL. 228 pp.

  • Kalisz, P. J. 1982. The longleaf pine islands of the Ocala National Forest: A soil study. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville. 126 pp.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. No date. Entisols map. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. [http://soils.usda.gov/technical/classification/orders/entisols_map.html]. (accessed 27 June 2006).

  • NatureServe. 2011a. Metrics for rapid assessment of the ecological integrity of longleaf pine-dominated communities in the southeastern United States. Report conducted by NatureServe for USDA Forest Service, Region 8. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Oswalt, C. M., J. A. Cooper, D. G. Brockway, H. W. Brooks, J. L. Walker, K. F. Connor, S. N. Oswalt, and R. C. Conner. 2012. History and current condition of longleaf pine in the southern United States. General Technical Report SRS-166. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC. 51 pp. [http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/42259]

  • Outcalt, Ken. Personal communication. Research Plant Ecologist, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC. [koutcalt@fs.fed.us] 706-559-4309.

  • Wahlenberg, W. G. 1946. Longleaf pine, its use, ecology, regeneration, protection, growth and management. Charles Lathrop Pack Forestry Foundation, Washington, DC. 429 pp.


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