NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
 
Ecological System Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected. View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Classification
Scientific Name: Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Maritime Forest
Unique Identifier: CES203.302

Search for Images on Google
Summary: This system encompasses a range of woody vegetation present on barrier islands, maritime shores and near-coastal strands, from Fisherman's Island, Virginia (the northern range limit of Quercus virginiana and the southernmost tip of the Delmava Peninsula) northward to the extent of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. It includes forests and shrublands whose structure and composition are influenced by proximity to marine environments, including both upland and wetland. Vegetation includes narrow bands of forests with often stunted trees with contorted branches and dense vine layers. A range of trees may be present depending upon actual location and degree of protection from most extreme maritime influences. Common trees include Prunus serotina, Pinus taeda, Ilex opaca, Quercus stellata, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana, Amelanchier canadensis, and Celtis occidentalis. These trees are also found in less extreme or non-maritime settings; this system is distinguished as much by the structure of the vegetation as its composition. Morella pensylvanica is a characteristic shrub, and Smilax rotundifolia and Vitis rotundifolia are characteristic vines. Morella cerifera is often present south of central New Jersey.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: In New York this concept includes Maritime Holly Forest, Maritime Post Oak Forest, Maritime Beech Forest, Maritime Red Cedar Forest (Edinger et al. 2002).

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES203.261 Central Atlantic Coastal Plain Maritime Forest
CES203.264 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Dune and Swale


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL006040 Pinus taeda - Quercus (falcata, nigra) / Morella cerifera / Vitis rotundifolia Forest
CEGL006043 Fagus grandifolia / Smilax rotundifolia Forest
CEGL006052 Pinus taeda / Hudsonia tomentosa Woodland
CEGL006117 Pinus rigida / Hudsonia tomentosa Woodland
CEGL006137 Pinus taeda / Morella cerifera / Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis Swamp Forest
CEGL006145 Prunus serotina - Sassafras albidum - Amelanchier canadensis - Quercus velutina / Smilax rotundifolia Forest
CEGL006156 Acer rubrum / Rhododendron viscosum - Clethra alnifolia Swamp Forest
CEGL006212 Juniperus virginiana / Morella pensylvanica Woodland
CEGL006295 Morella pensylvanica - Prunus maritima Shrubland
CEGL006315 Pinus rigida / Quercus ilicifolia / Morella pensylvanica Woodland
CEGL006319 Prunus serotina / Morella cerifera / Smilax rotundifolia Scrub Forest
CEGL006373 Quercus stellata - Quercus velutina / Morella pensylvanica / Deschampsia flexuosa Forest
CEGL006376 Ilex opaca / Morella pensylvanica Forest
CEGL006379 Amelanchier canadensis - Viburnum spp. - Morella pensylvanica Scrub Forest
CEGL006849 Pinus taeda / Morella cerifera / Spartina patens Tidal Woodland



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Coast  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Juniperus virginiana G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus taeda G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Ilex opaca G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Morella cerifera G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Morella pensylvanica G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Hudsonia tomentosa G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Vitis rotundifolia G5 Liana Herb (field)    
 
 


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: DE, MA, MD, NH, NJ, NY, VA
Global Range: This system ranges from Fisherman's Island, Virginia northward to Massachusetts along the extent of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
203-Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
58 Chesapeake Bay Lowlands Confident or certain
62 North Atlantic Coast Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
60 Chesapeake Bay Confident or certain
61 Northern Appalachia Never was there
65 Connecticut River Basin and Highlands Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4322
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1379
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2379

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 02Jan2015
Element Description Author(s): R. Evans, G. Fleming, P. Coulling, L.A. Sneddon, M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Backman, A. E. 1984. 1000-year record of fire-vegetation interactions in the northeastern United States: A comparison between coastal and inland regions. M.S. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

  • Busby, P. E., and G. Motzkin. 2009. Dwarf beech forests in coastal New England: Topographic and edaphic controls on variation in forest structure. American Midland Naturalist 162: 180-194. [http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/sites/harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/files/publications/pdfs/Busby_AmMidlNat_2009.pdf]

  • Clark, J. S. 1986b. Coastal forest tree populations in a changing environment, southeastern Long Island, New York. Ecological Monographs 56:259-277.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Elliman, T. 2005. Vascular flora and plant communities of the Boston Harbor Islands. Northeastern Naturalist 12:49-75.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Foster, D. R., and G. Motzkin. 1999. Historical influences on the landscape of Martha's Vineyard: Perspectives on the management of the Manuel F. Correllus State Forest. Harvard Forest Paper No. 23. Harvard University, Petersham, MA.

  • NYNHP [New York Natural Heritage Program]. 2013a. Online conservation guide for Successional Maritime Forest. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, NY. [http://www.acris.nynhp.org/guide.php?id=10000] (accessed September 25, 2013).

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019