NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
 
Ecological System Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected. View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Classification
Scientific Name: Southern and Central Appalachian Cove Forest
Unique Identifier: CES202.373

Search for Images on Google
Summary: This system consists of mesophytic hardwood or hemlock-hardwood forests of sheltered topographic positions in the Southern Blue Ridge and central Appalachian Mountains. Examples are generally found on concave slopes that promote moist conditions. The system includes acidic and "rich" coves that may be distinguished by individual plant communities based on perceived differences in soil fertility and species richness (rich examples have higher diversity and density in the herbaceous layer). Both acidic and rich coves may occur in the same site, with the acidic coves potentially creeping out of the draw-up to at least midslope on well-protected north-facing slopes. Characteristic species in the canopy include Aesculus flava, Acer saccharum, Fraxinus americana, Tilia americana, Carya cordiformis, Liriodendron tulipifera, Halesia tetraptera, Tsuga canadensis, Fagus grandifolia, Magnolia acuminata, and Magnolia fraseri.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: This system is best distinguished from others in its range by the combination of sheltered topography, low elevation, and mesophytic flora with high species richness. Canopies can sometimes become depauperate after repeated logging. It does not include rich, mesophytic "cove" forests further west in the Cumberland Plateau and Interior Low Plateau, even though some of these approach or exceed Appalachian examples in their species composition and occur on similar sites. They are interpreted as variability within South-Central Interior Mesophytic Forest (CES202.887). In West Virginia and north, the Allegheny front is adopted as the divide between these two similar systems: examples to the west go to South-Central Interior Mesophytic Forest (CES202.887), and examples to the east go to this system.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES202.342 Southern Piedmont Mesic Forest
CES202.593 Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest
CES202.887 South-Central Interior Mesophytic Forest


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL004293 Impatiens (capensis, pallida) - Monarda didyma - Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata Herbaceous Seep
CEGL004296 Diphylleia cymosa - Saxifraga micranthidifolia - Laportea canadensis Forested Herbaceous Seep
CEGL004982 Betula alleghaniensis - Tilia americana var. heterophylla / Acer spicatum / Ribes cynosbati / Dryopteris marginalis Forest
CEGL006186 Liriodendron tulipifera - Quercus rubra - Fraxinus americana / Asimina triloba / Actaea racemosa Forest
CEGL006237 Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana - Tilia americana - Liriodendron tulipifera / Actaea racemosa Forest
CEGL006258 Caltha palustris - Impatiens capensis - Viola cucullata Seepage Meadow
CEGL006304 Liriodendron tulipifera - Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis - Quercus rubra / Polystichum acrostichoides Forest
CEGL006472 Tilia americana var. heterophylla - Aesculus flava - Acer saccharum / Cystopteris bulbifera - Asarum canadense Forest
CEGL007102 Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis / Rhododendron maximum - (Leucothoe fontanesiana) Forest
CEGL007136 Tsuga canadensis / Rhododendron maximum - (Clethra acuminata, Leucothoe fontanesiana) Forest
CEGL007220 Liriodendron tulipifera / (Cercis canadensis) / (Lindera benzoin) Ruderal Forest
CEGL007233 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis / Acer saccharum / Polystichum acrostichoides Forest
CEGL007291 Liriodendron tulipifera - Tilia americana var. heterophylla - (Aesculus flava) / Actaea racemosa Forest
CEGL007543 Liriodendron tulipifera - Betula lenta - Tsuga canadensis / Rhododendron maximum Forest
CEGL007693 Tsuga canadensis - Halesia tetraptera - Magnolia fraseri / Rhododendron maximum / Dryopteris intermedia Forest
CEGL007695 Aesculus flava - Acer saccharum - (Tilia americana var. heterophylla) / Hydrophyllum canadense - Solidago flexicaulis Forest
CEGL007710 Liriodendron tulipifera - Fraxinus americana - (Aesculus flava) / Actaea racemosa - Laportea canadensis Forest
CEGL007711 Tilia americana var. heterophylla - Fraxinus americana / Sanguinaria canadensis - (Aquilegia canadensis, Asplenium rhizophyllum) Forest
CEGL007878 Quercus rubra - Tilia americana var. heterophylla - (Halesia tetraptera var. monticola) / Collinsonia canadensis - Prosartes lanuginosa Forest
CEGL008407 Tsuga canadensis - (Fagus grandifolia, Tilia americana var. heterophylla) / Magnolia tripetala Forest
CEGL008412 Acer saccharum - Tilia americana / Asimina triloba / Jeffersonia diphylla - Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest
CEGL008510 Liriodendron tulipifera - Quercus rubra - Magnolia acuminata / Cornus florida Forest
CEGL008512 Tsuga canadensis - Quercus montana - Liriodendron tulipifera / Kalmia latifolia - (Rhododendron catawbiense) Forest



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Broad-Leaved Tree  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Aconitum reclinatum
  (White Monkshood)
G3  
Actaea rubifolia
  (Appalachian Bugbane)
G3  
Aneides aeneus
  (Green Salamander)
G3G4  
Arabis patens
  (Spreading Rockcress)
G3  
Brachythecium rotaeanum
  (Rota's Feather Moss)
G3G4  
Bryoerythrophyllum ferruginascens
  (Rufous Beard Moss)
G3G4  
Calystegia catesbeiana
  (Catesby's False Bindweed)
G3  
Canis rufus
  (Red Wolf)
G1Q LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population
Cardamine clematitis
  (Small Mountain Bittercress)
G3  
Cardamine flagellifera
  (Blue Ridge Bittercress)
G3  
Carex manhartii
  (Manhart's Sedge)
G3G4  
Carex radfordii
  (Radford's Sedge)
G3  
Carex roanensis
  (Roan Mountain Sedge)
G2G3  
Clematis addisonii
  (Addison's Leatherflower)
G1?  
Collinsonia verticillata
  (Whorled Horsebalm)
G3G4  
Desmognathus aeneus
  (Seepage Salamander)
G3G4  
Desmognathus imitator
  (Imitator Salamander)
G3G4  
Desmognathus santeetlah
  (Santeetlah Dusky Salamander)
G3G4Q  
Desmognathus wrighti
  (Southern Pygmy Salamander)
G3  
Diervilla rivularis
  (Mountain Bush-honeysuckle)
G3  
Drepanolejeunea appalachiana
  (a liverwort)
G2?  
Entodon sullivantii
  (Sullivant's Entodon Moss)
G3G4  
Euphorbia purpurea
  (Glade Spurge)
G3  
Hydrastis canadensis
  (Goldenseal)
G3G4  
Hygrohypnum closteri
  (Closter's Brook-hypnum)
G3  
Lejeunea blomquistii
  (Blomquist Leafy Liverwort)
G1G2  
Lophocolea appalachiana
  (a liverwort)
G1G2Q  
Marsupella emarginata var. latiloba
  (a liverwort)
G5T1T2  
Megaceros aenigmaticus
  (a hornwort)
G3  
Melanoplus acrophilus acrophilus
  (a spur-throat grasshopper)
G2G3T2T3  
Melanoplus cherokee
  (Cherokee Melanoplus)
G1G3  
Melanoplus divergens
  (Divergent Melanoplus)
G2G3  
Melanoplus serrulatus
  (Serrulate Melanoplus)
G1G3  
Metzgeria fruticulosa
  (Bluish Veilwort)
G2Q  
Metzgeria uncigera
  (a liverwort)
G3  
Microtus chrotorrhinus carolinensis
  (Southern Rock Vole)
G4T3  
Nesticus sheari
  (a cave cobweb spider)
G2?  
Panax quinquefolius
  (American Ginseng)
G3G4  
Pieris virginiensis
  (West Virginia White)
G3?  
Plagiochila austinii
  (a liverwort)
G3  
Plagiochila caduciloba
  (Gorge Leafy Liverwort)
G3  
Plagiochila sharpii
  (Sharp's Leafy Liverwort)
G2G4  
Plagiochila virginica var. virginica
  (a liverwort)
G3T3  
Plagiomnium carolinianum
  (Mountain Wavy-leaf Moss)
G3  
Platyhypnidium pringlei
  (Pringle's Platyhypnidium Moss)
G2G3  
Plethodon aureolus
  (Tellico Salamander)
G2G3  
Plethodon hubrichti
  (Peaks of Otter Salamander)
G2G3  
Plethodon punctatus
  (White-spotted Salamander)
G3  
Plethodon welleri
  (Weller's Salamander)
G3  
Polymnia laevigata
  (Tennessee Leafcup)
G3  
Prosartes maculata
  (Nodding Mandarin)
G3G4  
Puma concolor couguar
  (Eastern Cougar)
G5TXQ  
Riccardia jugata
  (a liverwort)
G2  
Scutellaria pseudoserrata
  (Falseteeth Skullcap)
G3  
Scutellaria saxatilis
  (Rock Skullcap)
G3  
Silene ovata
  (Ovate Catchfly)
G3  
Sorex palustris punctulatus
  (Southern Water Shrew)
G5T3  
Speyeria diana
  (Diana Fritillary)
G3G4  
Thaspium pinnatifidum
  (Cutleaf Meadow-parsnip)
G2G3  
Trechus luculentus luculentus
  (Bright Ground Beetle)
GHTH  
Trillium lancifolium
  (Lanceleaf Wakerobin)
G3  
Trillium rugelii
  (Southern Nodding Trillium)
G3  
Trillium simile
  (Jeweled Wakerobin)
G3  
Triphora trianthophora
  (Nodding Pogonia)
G3G4  
Virginia valeriae pulchra
  (Mountain Earthsnake)
G5T3T4  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer saccharum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Betula lenta G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fagus grandifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fraxinus americana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Liriodendron tulipifera G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Magnolia acuminata G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Magnolia fraseri G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Prunus serotina G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tilia americana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tilia americana var. heterophylla T5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tsuga canadensis G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Aesculus flava G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Halesia tetraptera var. monticola T5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Actaea racemosa G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Thaspium pinnatifidum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex radfordii G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex roanensis G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Aristolochia macrophylla G5 Liana Herb (field)    
 
 
Drepanolejeunea appalachiana G2 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Lejeunea blomquistii G1 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Lophocolea appalachiana G1 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Megaceros aenigmaticus G3 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Plagiochila caduciloba G3 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Riccardia jugata G2 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Platyhypnidium pringlei G2 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Ambystoma talpoideum
  (Mole Salamander)
G5      
Aneides aeneus
  (Green Salamander)
G3G4      
Anolis carolinensis
  (Green Anole)
G5      
Autochton cellus
  (Gold-banded Skipper)
G4      
Canis rufus
  (Red Wolf)
G1Q LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population    
Cardellina canadensis
  (Canada Warbler)
G5      
Celastrina nigra
  (Dusky Azure)
G4      
Contopus virens
  (Eastern Wood-Pewee)
G5      
Desmognathus aeneus
  (Seepage Salamander)
G3G4      
Desmognathus carolinensis
  (Carolina Mountain Dusky Salamander)
G4      
Desmognathus imitator
  (Imitator Salamander)
G3G4      
Desmognathus ochrophaeus
  (Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander)
G5      
Desmognathus santeetlah
  (Santeetlah Dusky Salamander)
G3G4Q      
Desmognathus wrighti
  (Southern Pygmy Salamander)
G3      
Diadophis punctatus
  (Ringneck Snake)
G5      
Eurycea longicauda
  (Longtail Salamander)
G5      
Geothlypis formosa
  (Kentucky Warbler)
G5      
Macaria subcessaria
  (Barred Itame)
G5      
Melanoplus acrophilus acrophilus
  (a spur-throat grasshopper)
G2G3T2T3      
Melanoplus cherokee
  (Cherokee Melanoplus)
G1G3      
Melanoplus divergens
  (Divergent Melanoplus)
G2G3      
Melanoplus serrulatus
  (Serrulate Melanoplus)
G1G3      
Mesomphix rugeli
  (Wrinkled Button)
G4      
Microtus chrotorrhinus carolinensis
  (Southern Rock Vole)
G4T3      
Microtus pinetorum
  (Woodland Vole)
G5      
Myodes gapperi
  (Southern Red-backed Vole)
G5      
Nesticus sheari
  (a cave cobweb spider)
G2?      
Pantherophis obsoletus
  (Eastern Ratsnake)
G5      
Parascalops breweri
  (Hairy-tailed Mole)
G5      
Pheucticus ludovicianus
  (Rose-breasted Grosbeak)
G5      
Pieris virginiensis
  (West Virginia White)
G3?      
Plestiodon anthracinus anthracinus
  (Northern Coal Skink)
G5T5      
Plethodon aureolus
  (Tellico Salamander)
G2G3      
Plethodon dorsalis
  (Northern Zigzag Salamander)
G5      
Plethodon glutinosus
  (Slimy Salamander)
G5      
Plethodon hubrichti
  (Peaks of Otter Salamander)
G2G3      
Plethodon punctatus
  (White-spotted Salamander)
G3      
Plethodon teyahalee
  (Southern Appalachian Salamander)
G4      
Plethodon ventralis
  (Southern Zigzag Salamander)
G4      
Plethodon wehrlei
  (Wehrle's Salamander)
G4      
Plethodon welleri
  (Weller's Salamander)
G3      
Plethodon yonahlossee
  (Yonahlossee Salamander)
G4      
Psectrotarsia hebardi
  (Hebard's Noctuid Moth)
GU      
Pseudacris brachyphona
  (Mountain Chorus Frog)
G5      
Puma concolor couguar
  (Eastern Cougar)
G5TXQ      
Sciurus carolinensis
  (Eastern Gray Squirrel)
G5      
Setophaga cerulea
  (Cerulean Warbler)
G4      
Setophaga citrina
  (Hooded Warbler)
G5      
Sorex palustris punctulatus
  (Southern Water Shrew)
G5T3      
Speyeria diana
  (Diana Fritillary)
G3G4      
Synanthedon castaneae
  (Chestnut Clearwing Moth)
G3G5      
Synaptomys cooperi
  (Southern Bog Lemming)
G5      
Trechus luculentus luculentus
  (Bright Ground Beetle)
GHTH      
Vireo flavifrons
  (Yellow-throated Vireo)
G5      
Virginia valeriae pulchra
  (Mountain Earthsnake)
G5T3T4      
Virginia valeriae valeriae
  (Eastern Earthsnake)
G5T5      
Vitrinizonites latissimus
  (Glassy Grapeskin)
G4      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: GA, KY, MD, NC, SC, TN, VA, WV
Global Range: This system occurs in the southern and central Appalachian Mountains, ranging into the Cumberland Mountains of Kentucky and Tennessee. This range is more-or-less consistent with the "Oak-Chestnut" forest region of Braun (1950) and Greller (1988), versus the "Mixed Mesophytic" and "Western Mesophytic" forest regions to the west. In West Virginia and north, the Allegheny front is the boundary between this and South-Central Interior Mesophytic Forest (CES202.887).

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
202-Central Interior and Appalachian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
50 Cumberlands and Southern Ridge and Valley Confident or certain
51 Southern Blue Ridge Confident or certain
52 Piedmont Confident or certain
59 Central Appalachian Forest Confident or certain
61 Lower New England / Northern Piedmont Predicted or probable

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
48 Cumberland Highlands Never was there
53 Appalachia Confident or certain
54 Southern Piedmont Never was there
57 Southern Appalachia Confident or certain
59 Northeastern Piedmont Never was there
60 Chesapeake Bay Never was there
61 Northern Appalachia Confident or certain
62 Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
64 Northeastern Highlands Never was there

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4124
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1318
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2318

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 28Apr2016
Element Description Author(s): M. Schafale, M. Pyne, R. White, R. Evans, S.C. Gawler, L.A. Sneddon, C.W. Nordman

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Abrams, M. D., D. A. Orwig, and T. E. Demeo. 1995. Dendroecological analysis of successional dynamics for a presettlement-origin white-pine-mixed-oak forest in the Southern Appalachians, USA. Journal of Ecology 83(1):123-133.

  • Beatley, J. C. 1959. The primeval forests of a periglacial area in the Allegheny Plateau. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey New Series 1:1-182.

  • Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Hafner Press, New York. 596 pp.

  • Brown, J. K., and J. K. Smith, editors. 2000. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-42-Volume 2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 257 pp. [http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr042_2.html]

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Delcourt, P. A., H. R. Delcourt, C. R. Ison, W. E. Sharp, and K. J. Gremillion. 1998. Prehistoric human use of fire, the eastern agricultural complex and Appalachian oak-chestnut forests: Paleoecology of Cliff Palace Pond, Kentucky. American Antiquity 63:263-278.

  • DuMond, D. M. 1970. Floristic and vegetational survey of the Chattooga River Gorge. Castanea 35:201-244.

  • Dyer, J. M. 2001. Using witness trees to assess forest change in southeastern Ohio. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:1708-1718.

  • Edwards, L., J. Ambrose, and K. Kirkman. 2013. The natural communities of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. 675 pp.

  • Evans, M., B. Yahn, and M. Hines. 2009. Natural communities of Kentucky 2009. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY. 22 pp.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Frost, C. C. 1998. Presettlement fire frequency regimes of the United States: A first approximation. Pages 70-81 in: T. L. Pruden and L. A. Brennan, editors. Fire in ecosystem management: Shifting the paradigm from suppression to prescription. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference Proceedings, No. 20. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.

  • Gettman, R. W. 1974. A floristic survey of Sumter National Forest--The Andrew Pickens Division. M.S. thesis, Clemson University, Clemson, SC. 131 pp.

  • Guyette, R. P., D. C. Dey, and M. C. Stambaugh. 2003. Fire and human history of a barren-forest mosaic in southern Indiana. American Midland Naturalist 149:21-34.

  • Hutchins, R. B., R. L. Blevins, J. D. Hill and E. H. White. 1976. The influence of soils and microclimate on vegetation of forested slopes in eastern Kentucky. Soil Science 121:234-241.

  • Iverson, L. R., M. E. Dale, C. T. Scott and A. Prasad. 1997. A GIS-derived integrated moisture index to predict forest composition and productivity of Ohio forests, USA. Landscape Ecology 12:331-348.

  • Küchler, A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. American Geographic Society Special Publication 36. New York, NY. 116 pp.

  • Landfire [Landfire National Vegetation Dynamics Database]. 2007a. Landfire National Vegetation Dynamics Models. Landfire Project, USDA Forest Service, U.S. Department of Interior. (January - last update) [http://www.LANDFIRE.gov/index.php] (accessed 8 February 2007).

  • McCarthy, B. C., C. A. Hammer, G. L. Kauffman, and P. D. Cantino. 1987. Vegetation patterns and structure of an old-growth forest in southeastern Ohio. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 114:33-45.

  • McCarthy, B. C., C. J. Small, and D. L. Rubino. 2001. Composition, structure and dynamics of Dysart Woods, an old-growth mixed mesophytic forest of southeastern Ohio. Forest Ecology and Management 140:193-213.

  • McNab, W. H., and P. E. Avers, compilers. 1994. Ecological subregions of the United States: Section descriptions. Administrative Publication WO-WSA-5. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 267 pp.

  • Morris, S. J., and R. E. J. Boerner. 1998. Landscape patterns of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in southern Ohio hardwood forests. Landscape Ecology 13:215-224.

  • Muller, R. N. 1982. Vegetation patterns in the mixed mesophytic forest of eastern Kentucky. Ecology 63:1901-1917.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 1994. Classification of vegetation in Ellicott Rock Wilderness, Southeastern Blue Ridge Escarpment. M.S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 91 pp.

  • Rentch, J. S., M. A. Fajvan, and R. R. Hicks, Jr. 2003. Spatial and temporal disturbance characteristics of oak-dominated old-growth stands in the central hardwood forest region. Forest Science 49:778-789.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schmidt, K. M., J. P. Menakis, C. C. Hardy, W. J., Hann, and D. L. Bunnell. 2002. Development of coarse-scale spatial data for wildland fire and fuel management. General Technical Report GTR-RMRS-87. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO. 41 pp. plus CD.

  • Simon, S. A. 2011. Ecological zones in the Southern Blue Ridge: Third approximation. Unpublished report submitted to the National Forests in North Carolina, Asheville, NC. 77 pp.

  • Simon, S. A. 2015. Ecological zones in the Southern Blue Ridge escarpment: 4th approximation. Unpublished report. 53 pp. [https://www.conservationgateway.org/ConservationByGeography/NorthAmerica/UnitedStates/sbr/Documents/SBR_Escarpment_4thApprox_SteveSimon.pdf]

  • Tobe, J. D., J. E. Fairey, III, and L. L. Gaddy. 1992. Vascular flora of the Chauga River Gorge, Oconee County, South Carolina. Castanea 57:77-109.

  • Ulrey, C. J. 1999. Classification of the vegetation of the Southern Appalachians. Final report. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Research Station, Bent Creek Experimental Forest, Asheville, NC. 90 pp.

  • Wade, D. D., B. L. Brock, P. H. Brose, J. B. Grace, G. A. Hoch, and W. A. Patterson, III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. Pages 53-96 in: J. K. Brown and J. K. Smith, editors. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 257 pp. [http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr042_2.html]


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2018
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2018