NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
 
Ecological System Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected. View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Classification
Scientific Name: Laurentian-Acadian Northern Hardwood Forest
Unique Identifier: CES201.564

Search for Images on Google
Summary: These northern hardwood forests range across New England and adjacent Canada, south to New York and possibly northern Pennsylvania and west to Minnesota. They occur in various dry-mesic to wet-mesic settings at low to moderate elevations, generally less than 610 m (2000 feet), throughout the Laurentian-Acadian Division. Acer saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis, and Fagus grandifolia are the dominant trees (the latter only east of northern Wisconsin). Tsuga canadensis or, in the Northeast, Picea rubens are common minor canopy associates. Ostrya virginiana is frequent but not dominant. Oak is a minor component and absent from northern regions. Successional stands may be dominated by Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera, Acer rubrum, Fraxinus americana, Prunus serotina, sometimes with scattered Pinus strobus. Soils range from moderately nutrient-poor to quite enriched, with associated shifts in the herb flora. This system can include large expanses of rich forest in areas of limestone or similar bedrock, as well as forests that are relatively poor floristically in areas of granitic (or similar) bedrock or acidic till. Blowdowns or snow and ice loading, with subsequent gap regeneration, are the most frequent form of natural disturbance.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: An east-west separation between the Laurentian and Acadian regions was considered, but the hardwoods component is essentially similar (though beech drops out in the most western part of this system). It appears to be more of a gradient, with beech and hobblebush dropping out and fire frequency probably a little greater in the western portion. A possible split at Lake Michigan could be considered if one could make a better case than just beech. Hemlock-hardwood inclusions in the East may be part of this system where the matrix and surroundings are predominantly hardwood, but where hemlock and pine are prevalent, as in ravines or cool slopes, Laurentian-Acadian Pine-Hemlock-Hardwood Forest (CES201.563) is the appropriate system. A clearer set of floristic and ecological criteria is needed to sort out the southern limits of this Laurentian-Acadian type in relation to related vegetation to the south. For example, currently, we do not report this system in 211F and 211G, the High Allegheny Plateau [see instead Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest (CES202.593)], but stands in cooler microclimates of these regions may have a strong resemblance to Laurentian-Acadian types.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES201.563 Laurentian-Acadian Pine-Hemlock-Hardwood Forest
CES201.565 Acadian Low-Elevation Spruce-Fir-Hardwood Forest
CES202.593 Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest
CES202.693 North-Central Interior Beech-Maple Forest


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL002385 Symplocarpus foetidus - Mixed Forbs Seep
CEGL002449 Thuja occidentalis / Abies balsamea - Acer spicatum Forest
CEGL002450 Thuja occidentalis - Betula alleghaniensis Forest
CEGL002457 Acer saccharum - Betula alleghaniensis - Tilia americana Forest
CEGL002458 Acer saccharum - Tilia americana / Ostrya virginiana / Lonicera canadensis Forest
CEGL002464 Betula papyrifera - Acer saccharum / Mixed Hardwoods Forest
CEGL002467 Populus tremuloides - Betula papyrifera - (Acer rubrum, Fraxinus nigra) Forest
CEGL005004 Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia - Betula spp. / Maianthemum canadense Forest
CEGL005243 Boreal Glaciere Talus Sparse Vegetation
CEGL006129 Tsuga canadensis - (Betula alleghaniensis) - Picea rubens / Cornus canadensis Forest
CEGL006211 Acer saccharum - (Fraxinus americana) / Arisaema triphyllum Forest
CEGL006303 Populus (tremuloides, grandidentata) - Betula (populifolia, papyrifera) Ruderal Woodland
CEGL006409 Onoclea sensibilis - (Adiantum pedatum) - Impatiens capensis - Carex plantaginea Seepage Meadow
CEGL006631 Acer saccharum - Betula alleghaniensis - Fagus grandifolia / Viburnum lantanoides Forest
CEGL006632 Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia - Fraxinus americana / Arisaema triphyllum Forest
CEGL006636 Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana / Acer spicatum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest
CEGL006637 Acer saccharum - Tilia americana / Acer pensylvanicum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Matrix
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Montane  
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Eutrophic Soil  
Mesotrophic Soil  
Broad-Leaved Tree  
Acer saccharum - Betula spp.  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Lowland  
Ridge/Summit/Upper Slope  
Sideslope  
Glaciated  
Circumneutral Soil  
Acidic Soil  
Shallow Soil  
Deep Soil  
Mineral: W/ A-Horizon >10 cm  
Loam Soil Texture  
Udic  
Long Disturbance Interval  
W-Patch/Medium Intensity  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Botrychium lineare
  (Narrowleaf Grapefern)
G3  
Botrychium michiganense
  (Michigan Moonwort)
G3  
Catinella gelida
  (Frigid Ambersnail)
G1Q  
Frullania selwyniana
  (Selwyn's Scalewort)
G2G3  
Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis
  (Michigan Monkeyflower)
G5T1 LE: Listed endangered
Myotis sodalis
  (Indiana Myotis)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Nicrophorus americanus
  (American Burying Beetle)
G2G3 LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population
Ophiogomphus smithi
  (Sioux Snaketail)
G2G3  
Rubus variispinus
  (Vicksburg Blackberry)
G1?Q  
Schoenoplectus hallii
  (Hall's Bulrush)
G2G3  
Stenelmis douglasensis
  (Douglas Stenelmis Riffle Beetle)
G1G3  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Acer saccharum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Betula alleghaniensis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Betula papyrifera G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fagus grandifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fraxinus americana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Populus tremuloides G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Prunus serotina G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tilia americana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Viburnum lantanoides G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Corylus cornuta G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rubus variispinus G1 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis T1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium lineare G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium michiganense G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Dryopteris carthusiana G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Frullania selwyniana G2 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Bonasa umbellus
  (Ruffed Grouse)
G5      
Catinella gelida
  (Frigid Ambersnail)
G1Q      
Erora laeta
  (Early Hairstreak)
GU      
Myodes gapperi
  (Southern Red-backed Vole)
G5      
Myotis sodalis
  (Indiana Myotis)
G2 LE: Listed endangered    
Nicrophorus americanus
  (American Burying Beetle)
G2G3 LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population    
Ophiogomphus smithi
  (Sioux Snaketail)
G2G3      
Plethodon cinereus
  (Redback Salamander)
G5      
Sciurus carolinensis
  (Eastern Gray Squirrel)
G5      
Sorex fumeus
  (Smoky Shrew)
G5      
Stenelmis douglasensis
  (Douglas Stenelmis Riffle Beetle)
G1G3      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: MA, ME, MI, MN, NH, NY, PApotentially occurs, VT, WI
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: NB, NS, ON, QC
Global Range: This system occurs in northern New England and northern New York west across the upper Great Lakes to northern Minnesota, and adjacent Canada; occasional southwards.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
201-Laurentian-Acadian C: Confident or certain
202-Central Interior and Appalachian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
47 Superior Mixed Forest Confident or certain
48 Great Lakes Confident or certain
60 High Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
61 Lower New England / Northern Piedmont Confident or certain
63 Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Confident or certain
64 St. Lawrence-Champlain Valley Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
41 Northern Lake Country Confident or certain
50 Central Great Lakes Uplands Confident or certain
51 Great Lakes Plains Confident or certain
63 Finger Lakes Confident or certain
64 Northeastern Highlands Confident or certain
65 Connecticut River Basin and Highlands Confident or certain
66 The North Woods Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4108
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1302
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2302

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 04Feb2009
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Comer, P. J., D. A. Albert, H. A. Wells, B. L. Hart, J. B. Raab, D. L. Price, D. M. Kashian, R. A. Corner, and D. W. Schuen. 1995a. Michigan's native landscape, as interpreted from the General Land Office Surveys 1816-1856. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 78 pp. plus digital map.

  • Comer, P. J., D. A. Albert, and M. Austin (cartography). 1998. Vegetation of Michigan circa 1800: An interpretation of the General Land Office Surveys 1816-1856. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 2-map set, scale: 1:500,000.

  • Comer, P. J., and D. A. Albert. 1997. Natural community crosswalk. Unpublished draft of February 20, 1997. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • WDNR [Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources]. 2015. The ecological landscapes of Wisconsin: An assessment of ecological resources and a guide to planning sustainable management. PUB-SS-1131 2015. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. [http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/landscapes/Book.html]


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019