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Classification
Scientific Name: Northern Appalachian-Acadian Conifer-Hardwood Acidic Swamp
Unique Identifier: CES201.574

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Summary: These forested wetlands are found in temperate northeastern and north-central U.S., primarily in glaciated regions in the eastern Laurentian-Acadian region. They occur on mineral soils that are nutrient-poor; there may be an organic epipedon, but the substrate is generally not deep peat. These basin wetlands remain saturated for all or nearly all of the growing season, and may have standing water seasonally. There may be some seepage influence, especially near the periphery. Acer rubrum, Fraxinus spp., Picea rubens (rarely Picea mariana), and Abies balsamea are the most typical trees. The herbaceous and shrub layers tend to be fairly species-poor. Ilex mucronata (= Nemopanthus mucronatus) and Osmunda spp. are typical shrub and herb species.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: Acadian Sub-boreal Spruce Flat (CES201.562) is related but is more northern and occurs on imperfectly drained but not persistently saturated soils. Picea rubens in the East versus Picea mariana in the West and North may be helpful in distinguishing between this type and the more boreal acidic swamp, Eastern Boreal-Sub-boreal Conifer Acidic Swamp and Treed Poor Fen (CES103.724). This type is distributed in the Acadian and Northern Appalachian region of the U.S. and Canada, whereas Eastern Boreal-Sub-boreal Conifer Acidic Swamp and Treed Poor Fen (CES103.724) is found in the Upper Great Lakes region and into Canada. The attribution of CEGL006380 to this system is questionable given that it is a seepage wetland, not a basin swamp association, but is included because portions of these wetlands may have seepage influence.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES103.724 Eastern Boreal-Sub-boreal Conifer Acidic Swamp and Treed Poor Fen
CES201.562 Acadian Sub-boreal Spruce Flat
CES201.575 Laurentian-Acadian Alkaline Conifer-Hardwood Swamp
CES202.604 North-Central Appalachian Acidic Swamp
CES202.606 North-Central Interior and Appalachian Acidic Peatland


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL006119 Acer rubrum / Carex stricta - Onoclea sensibilis Wet Woodland
CEGL006198 Picea rubens - Acer rubrum / Ilex mucronata Swamp Forest
CEGL006220 Acer rubrum / Ilex mucronata - Vaccinium corymbosum Swamp Forest
CEGL006312 Picea rubens - Abies balsamea / Gaultheria hispidula / Osmunda cinnamomea / Sphagnum spp. Swamp Forest
CEGL006380 Betula alleghaniensis - Acer rubrum - (Tsuga canadensis, Abies balsamea) / Osmunda cinnamomea Swamp Forest



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Woody Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: No
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: Partially Isolated

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Extensive Wet Flat  
Picea (rubens, mariana) - Acer rubrum  
Acidic Water  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Isolated Wetland Partially Isolated
Mineral: W/ A-Horizon <10 cm  
Needle-Leaved Tree  
Broad-Leaved Deciduous Tree  
Mesotrophic Water  
Oligotrophic Water  
Saturated Soil  
Intermittent Flooding Intermittent interval, Irregular Flooding
Intermittent Flooding Intermittent interval, Spring Flooding
Moderate (100-500 yrs) Persistence  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Poa paludigena
  (Bog Bluegrass)
G3G4  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Picea rubens G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Ilex verticillata G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Nemopanthus mucronatus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides T5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Dryopteris cristata G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Onoclea sensibilis G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Osmunda cinnamomea G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Condylura cristata
  (Star-nosed Mole)
G5      
Feralia comstocki
  (Comstock's Sallow Moth)
G5      
Feralia jocosa
  (Jocose Sallow Moth)
G5      
Lithobates sylvaticus
  (Wood Frog)
G5      
Papaipema inquaesita
  (Sensitive Fern Borer Moth)
G5      
Papaipema speciosissima
  (Osmunda Borer Moth)
G4      
Sorex cinereus
  (Cinereus Shrew)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: CT, MA, ME, NH, NY, PA, VT
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: NB, ON
Global Range: This system occurs in New England and adjacent Canada west through New York. Occurrences in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania are at higher elevations and peripheral to the range.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
201-Laurentian-Acadian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
48 Great Lakes Confident or certain
60 High Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
61 Lower New England / Northern Piedmont Confident or certain
63 Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
41 Northern Lake Country Never was there
50 Central Great Lakes Uplands Never was there
51 Great Lakes Plains Never was there
63 Finger Lakes Confident or certain
64 Northeastern Highlands Confident or certain
65 Connecticut River Basin and Highlands Confident or certain
66 The North Woods Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9346

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 05May2008
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Golet, F. C., A. J. K. Calhoun, W. R. DeRagon, D. J. Lowry, and A. J. Gold. 1993. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated Northeast: A community profile. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 151 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.


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Data last updated: March 2019