NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
 
Ecological System Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected. View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Classification
Scientific Name: Laurentian-Acadian Alkaline Conifer-Hardwood Swamp
Unique Identifier: CES201.575

Search for Images on Google
Summary: These forested wetlands are found across northern New England and the upper Midwest and eastern to south-central Canada in basins or floodplains where higher pH and/or nutrient levels are associated with a rich flora. The substrate is typically mineral soil, but there may be some peat; often, there is an organic epipedon over mineral soil. Thuja occidentalis is a diagnostic canopy species and may dominate the canopy or be mixed with other conifers or with deciduous trees, most commonly Acer rubrum or Fraxinus nigra but also Tsuga canadensis, Larix laricina, and Betula alleghaniensis. Some examples can be almost entirely deciduous and dominated by Fraxinus nigra. Cornus sericea is a common shrub. The herb layer tends to be more diverse than in acidic swamps. Small open fenny areas may occur within the wetland. Seepage may influence parts of the wetland, but the hydrology is dominated by the basin setting.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: This system encompasses both wet forests (on saturated mineral soils) and forest rich peatlands. Areas dominated by Fraxinus nigra and found throughout the Laurentian area in Minnesota and north of Green Bay in Wisconsin are included in this system.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES201.574 Northern Appalachian-Acadian Conifer-Hardwood Acidic Swamp
CES201.585 Laurentian-Acadian Alkaline Fen
CES202.605 North-Central Interior and Appalachian Rich Swamp


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL002071 Acer rubrum - Fraxinus spp. - Betula papyrifera / Cornus canadensis Swamp Forest
CEGL002105 Fraxinus nigra - Mixed Hardwoods - Conifers / Cornus sericea / Carex spp. Swamp Forest
CEGL002450 Thuja occidentalis - Betula alleghaniensis Forest
CEGL002455 Larix laricina - Thuja occidentalis Swamp Forest
CEGL002456 Thuja occidentalis - (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea) / Alnus incana Swamp Forest
CEGL002471 Larix laricina / Alnus incana Swamp Forest
CEGL005003 Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis Swamp Forest
CEGL005036 Populus tremuloides - Populus balsamifera - Mixed Hardwoods Lowland Wet Forest
CEGL005165 Thuja occidentalis - Fraxinus nigra Swamp Forest
CEGL006007 Thuja occidentalis / Sphagnum (girgensohnii, warnstorfii) Swamp Forest
CEGL006199 Thuja occidentalis - Acer rubrum / Cornus sericea Swamp Forest



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Woody Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: No
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Depressional  
Thuja occidentalis - Fraxinus nigra  
Mesotrophic Water  
Circumneutral Water  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Mineral: W/ A-Horizon >10 cm  
Mineral: W/ A-Horizon <10 cm  
Needle-Leaved Tree  
Broad-Leaved Deciduous Tree  
Saturated Soil  
Moderate (100-500 yrs) Persistence  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Appalachia arcana
  (Michigan Bog Grasshopper)
G2G3  
Brychius hungerfordi
  (Hungerford's Crawling Water Beetle)
G1 LE: Listed endangered
Caloplaca parvula
  (a lichen)
G1G2  
Clonophis kirtlandii
  (Kirtland's Snake)
G2  
Frullania selwyniana
  (Selwyn's Scalewort)
G2G3  
Lithophane thujae
  (Northern White Cedar Lithophane)
G3G4  
Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis
  (Michigan Monkeyflower)
G5T1 LE: Listed endangered
Poa paludigena
  (Bog Bluegrass)
G3G4  
Polemonium occidentale ssp. lacustre
  (Western Jacob's-ladder)
G5?T2Q  
Somatochlora hineana
  (Hine's Emerald)
G2G3 LE: Listed endangered
Stenelmis douglasensis
  (Douglas Stenelmis Riffle Beetle)
G1G3  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fraxinus nigra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Larix laricina G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Thuja occidentalis G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cornus sericea G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rhamnus alnifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Cypripedium parviflorum G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Mimulus glabratus var. michiganensis T1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Polemonium occidentale ssp. lacustre T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sarracenia purpurea var. purpurea T4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Tiarella cordifolia G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Isoetes lacustris G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Frullania selwyniana G2 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Caloplaca parvula G1 Lichen Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Appalachia arcana
  (Michigan Bog Grasshopper)
G2G3      
Brychius hungerfordi
  (Hungerford's Crawling Water Beetle)
G1 LE: Listed endangered    
Clonophis kirtlandii
  (Kirtland's Snake)
G2      
Condylura cristata
  (Star-nosed Mole)
G5      
Feralia comstocki
  (Comstock's Sallow Moth)
G5      
Feralia jocosa
  (Jocose Sallow Moth)
G5      
Lithobates sylvaticus
  (Wood Frog)
G5      
Lithophane thujae
  (Northern White Cedar Lithophane)
G3G4      
Somatochlora hineana
  (Hine's Emerald)
G2G3 LE: Listed endangered    
Sorex cinereus
  (Cinereus Shrew)
G5      
Stenelmis douglasensis
  (Douglas Stenelmis Riffle Beetle)
G1G3      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: CT, ME, MI, MN, NH, NY, VT, WI
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: ON
Global Range: Scattered locations from New England and adjacent Canada west to the Great Lakes and northern Minnesota.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
201-Laurentian-Acadian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
47 Superior Mixed Forest Confident or certain
48 Great Lakes Confident or certain
60 High Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
61 Lower New England / Northern Piedmont Confident or certain
63 Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Confident or certain
64 St. Lawrence-Champlain Valley Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
40 Northern Great Plains Confident or certain
41 Northern Lake Country Confident or certain
50 Central Great Lakes Uplands Confident or certain
51 Great Lakes Plains Confident or certain
60 Chesapeake Bay Never was there
61 Northern Appalachia Never was there
63 Finger Lakes Confident or certain
64 Northeastern Highlands Confident or certain
65 Connecticut River Basin and Highlands Confident or certain
66 The North Woods Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9345
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1481
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2481

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jan2014
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler and J. Drake

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Comer, P. J., D. A. Albert, H. A. Wells, B. L. Hart, J. B. Raab, D. L. Price, D. M. Kashian, R. A. Corner, and D. W. Schuen. 1995a. Michigan's native landscape, as interpreted from the General Land Office Surveys 1816-1856. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 78 pp. plus digital map.

  • Comer, P. J., D. A. Albert, and M. Austin (cartography). 1998. Vegetation of Michigan circa 1800: An interpretation of the General Land Office Surveys 1816-1856. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 2-map set, scale: 1:500,000.

  • Comer, P. J., and D. A. Albert. 1997. Natural community crosswalk. Unpublished draft of February 20, 1997. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • DeSantis, R. D., W. K. Moser, R. J. Huggett, R. Li, D. N. Wear, and P. D. Miles. 2012. Modeling the effects of emerald ash borer on forest composition in the Midwest and Northeast United States. General Technical Report NRS-112. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. 23 p.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., C. Hedge, M. Kost, S. Thomas, L. Smart, R. Smyth, J. Drake, and S. Menard. 2011. Assessment of wetland ecosystem condition across landscape regions: A multi-metric approach. NatureServe, Arlington VA. plus appendices.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Herms, D. A., W. Klooster, K. S. Knight, K. J. K. Gandhi, C. P. Herms, A. Smith, D. McCullough, and J. Cardina. 2010. Ash regeneration in the wake of emerald ash borer: Will it restore ash or sustain the outbreak? Pages 17-18 in: D. Lance, J. Buck, D. Binion, R. Reardon, and V. Mastro, editors. Emerald ash borer research and technology development meeting. FHTET-2010-01. USDA Forest Service and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

  • Johnson, W. F., and R. G. Booker. 1983. Northern white-cedar. Pages 105-108 in: R. M. Burns, technical compiler. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States. Agricultural Handbook 445. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 191 pp.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Rooney, T. P. 2001. Deer impacts on forest ecosystems: A North American perspective. Forestry 74(3):201-208.

  • Rooney, T. P., S. L. Solheim, and D. M. Waller. 2002. Factors affecting the regeneration of northern white cedar in lowland forests of the Upper Great Lakes region, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 163:119-130.

  • Schwintzer, C. R. 1981. Vegetation and nutrient status of northern Michigan bogs and conifer swamps with a comparison to fens. Canadian Journal of Botany 59:842-853.

  • Schwintzer, C. R., and T. J. Tomberlin. 1982. Chemical and physical characteristics of shallow ground waters in northern Michigan bogs, swamps, and fens. American Journal of Botany 69:1231-1239.

  • Slaughter, B. S., J. G. Cohen, and M. A. Kost. 2007. Natural community abstract for hardwood-conifer swamp. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 20 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • WDNR [Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources]. 2015. The ecological landscapes of Wisconsin: An assessment of ecological resources and a guide to planning sustainable management. PUB-SS-1131 2015. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. [http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/landscapes/Book.html]

  • Ward, K., M. Ostry, R. Venette, B. Palik, M. Hansen, and M. Hatfield. 2006. Assessment of black ash (Fraxinus nigra) decline in Minnesota. Pages 115-120 in: Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium. 2006 October 16-19. Monterey, CA. General Technical Report WO-79. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 408 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019