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Classification
Scientific Name: Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest
Unique Identifier: CES202.593

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Summary: This forested system of the eastern U.S. ranges from central New England west to Lake Erie and south to the higher elevations of Virginia and West Virginia. It is one of the matrix forest types in the northern part of the Central Interior and Appalachian Division. Northern hardwoods such as Acer saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis, and Fagus grandifolia are characteristic, either forming a deciduous canopy or mixed with Tsuga canadensis (or in some cases Pinus strobus). Other common and sometimes dominant trees include Quercus spp. (most commonly Quercus rubra), Liriodendron tulipifera, Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, and Betula lenta. It is of more limited extent and more ecologically constrained in the southern part of its range in northern parts of Virginia and West Virginia.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: Northward this system is replaced by Laurentian-Acadian Pine-Hemlock-Hardwood Forest (CES201.563) and Laurentian-Acadian Northern Hardwood Forest (CES201.564), but the systems overlap on the Allegheny Plateau and in central New England. USFS ecological province lines provide a general delimiter, with areas in Provinces 211 and M211 mostly falling into the Laurentian-Acadian systems, and areas in Provinces 221 and M221 falling into this Appalachian system. The range of Liriodendron tulipifera is a good approximator for the northern limit of this system's range.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES201.563 Laurentian-Acadian Pine-Hemlock-Hardwood Forest
CES201.564 Laurentian-Acadian Northern Hardwood Forest
CES202.029 Southern Appalachian Northern Hardwood Forest
CES202.373 Southern and Central Appalachian Cove Forest
CES202.693 North-Central Interior Beech-Maple Forest
CES202.887 South-Central Interior Mesophytic Forest


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL003819 Rhododendron maximum Montane Ruderal Thicket
CEGL005005 Acer saccharum - Pinus strobus / Acer pensylvanicum Forest
CEGL005043 Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum / (Hamamelis virginiana, Kalmia latifolia) Forest
CEGL006019 Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis / Acer pensylvanicum / Polystichum acrostichoides Forest
CEGL006029 Picea rubens - Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia / Dryopteris intermedia Forest
CEGL006045 Acer saccharum - Betula alleghaniensis - Prunus serotina Forest
CEGL006046 Acer saccharum - Quercus rubra / Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa Forest
CEGL006088 Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia - Quercus rubra Forest
CEGL006125 Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera Forest
CEGL006193 Chrysosplenium americanum Seepage Meadow
CEGL006206 Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis - Prunus serotina / Rhododendron maximum Forest
CEGL006211 Acer saccharum - (Fraxinus americana) / Arisaema triphyllum Forest
CEGL006241 Quercus bicolor / Vaccinium corymbosum / Carex stipata Wet Forest
CEGL006296 Fagus grandifolia - Betula lenta - Liriodendron tulipifera - Acer saccharum Forest
CEGL006328 Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis Lower New England-Northern Piedmont Forest
CEGL006454 Quercus (rubra, velutina, alba) - Betula lenta - (Pinus strobus) Forest
CEGL006474 Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia - Quercus (montana, alba) Forest
CEGL006566 Quercus rubra - Tsuga canadensis - Liriodendron tulipifera / Hamamelis virginiana Forest
CEGL006577 Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana - Juglans cinerea / Staphylea trifolia / Adlumia fungosa Forest
CEGL006597 Carex scabrata - Viola cucullata / Plagiomnium ciliare Seepage Meadow
CEGL006631 Acer saccharum - Betula alleghaniensis - Fagus grandifolia / Viburnum lantanoides Forest
CEGL006632 Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia - Fraxinus americana / Arisaema triphyllum Forest
CEGL006633 Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia / Viburnum acerifolium Forest
CEGL006635 Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum / Viburnum acerifolium - Lindera benzoin Forest
CEGL006638 Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis - Acer saccharum / Dryopteris intermedia Forest
CEGL006639 Tsuga canadensis - Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia / Dryopteris intermedia Forest
CEGL007861 Betula alleghaniensis - (Tsuga canadensis) / Rhododendron maximum / (Leucothoe fontanesiana) Forest
CEGL008426 Thuja occidentalis - Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis / Carex eburnea Cliff Woodland
CEGL008502 Betula alleghaniensis - Quercus rubra / Acer spicatum / Dryopteris intermedia - Oclemena acuminata Forest
CEGL008504 Betula alleghaniensis / Sorbus americana - Acer spicatum / Polypodium appalachianum Forest
CEGL008513 Tsuga canadensis - (Betula alleghaniensis, Quercus rubra) / Ilex montana / Rhododendron catawbiense Forest
CEGL008533 Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis / Veratrum viride - Carex scabrata - Oclemena acuminata Swamp Forest



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Matrix
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Mesotrophic Soil  
Needle-Leaved Tree  
Broad-Leaved Deciduous Tree  
Pinus spp. - Tsuga canadensis  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Lowland  
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Sideslope  
Toeslope/Valley Bottom  
Temperate  
Acidic Soil  
Shallow Soil  
Deep Soil  
Mineral: W/ A-Horizon >10 cm  
Ustic  
Long Disturbance Interval  
Moderate (100-500 yrs) Persistence  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Aneides aeneus
  (Green Salamander)
G3G4  
Bryocrumia vivicolor
  (Bryocrumia Moss)
G1G2  
Buckleya distichophylla
  (Piratebush)
G3  
Canis rufus
  (Red Wolf)
G1Q LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population
Carex brysonii
  (Bryson's Sedge)
G1  
Cephaloziella spinicaulis
  (a liverwort)
G3G4  
Cheilolejeunea evansii
  (Evans' Cheilolejeunea)
G1G2  
Clematis addisonii
  (Addison's Leatherflower)
G1?  
Desmognathus wrighti
  (Southern Pygmy Salamander)
G3  
Diplophyllum obtusatum
  (Blunted Earwort)
G2?  
Drepanolejeunea appalachiana
  (a liverwort)
G2?  
Fissidens appalachensis
  (Appalachian Fissidens Moss)
G2G3  
Frullania appalachiana
  (a liverwort)
G1?  
Hexastylis contracta
  (Southern Heartleaf)
G3  
Homaliadelphus sharpii
  (Sharp's Homaliadelphus Moss)
G3?  
Hymenophyllum tayloriae
  (Taylor's Filmy Fern)
G2  
Lejeunea blomquistii
  (Blomquist Leafy Liverwort)
G1G2  
Lophocolea appalachiana
  (a liverwort)
G1G2Q  
Marsupella emarginata var. latiloba
  (a liverwort)
G5T1T2  
Metzgeria fruticulosa
  (Bluish Veilwort)
G2Q  
Microtus chrotorrhinus carolinensis
  (Southern Rock Vole)
G4T3  
Nardia lescurii
  (a liverwort)
G3?  
Neotoma magister
  (Allegheny Woodrat)
G3G4  
Plagiochila austinii
  (a liverwort)
G3  
Plagiochila caduciloba
  (Gorge Leafy Liverwort)
G3  
Plagiochila sullivantii var. spinigera
  (a liverwort)
G2T1  
Plagiochila sullivantii var. sullivantii
  (a liverwort)
G2T2  
Plagiochila virginica var. caroliniana
  (a liverwort)
G3T2  
Platyhypnidium pringlei
  (Pringle's Platyhypnidium Moss)
G2G3  
Plethodon aureolus
  (Tellico Salamander)
G2G3  
Plethodon hubrichti
  (Peaks of Otter Salamander)
G2G3  
Plethodon punctatus
  (White-spotted Salamander)
G3  
Plethodon welleri
  (Weller's Salamander)
G3  
Puma concolor couguar
  (Eastern Cougar)
G5TXQ  
Riccardia jugata
  (a liverwort)
G2  
Schlotheimia lancifolia
  (Highlands Moss)
G2  
Shortia galacifolia var. brevistyla
  (Northern Shortia)
G3T2  
Shortia galacifolia var. galacifolia
  (Southern Shortia)
G3T2T3  
Sorex palustris punctulatus
  (Southern Water Shrew)
G5T3  
Stygobromus sp. 17
  (Massanutten Spring Amphipod)
G2  
Tetrodontium brownianum
  (Brown's Four-toothed Moss)
G3G4  
Trillium persistens
  (Persistent Trillium)
G1G2 LE: Listed endangered
Triphora trianthophora
  (Nodding Pogonia)
G3G4  
Tsuga caroliniana
  (Carolina Hemlock)
G3  
Virginia valeriae pulchra
  (Mountain Earthsnake)
G5T3T4  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer saccharum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Betula alleghaniensis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Betula lenta G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fagus grandifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Liriodendron tulipifera G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Prunus serotina G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus alba G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus rubra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tsuga canadensis G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Buckleya distichophylla G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rhododendron maximum G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Shortia galacifolia var. brevistyla T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Shortia galacifolia var. galacifolia T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trillium persistens G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hymenophyllum tayloriae G2 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex brysonii G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Cheilolejeunea evansii G1 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Drepanolejeunea appalachiana G2 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Lejeunea blomquistii G1 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Lophocolea appalachiana G1 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Plagiochila caduciloba G3 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Plagiochila sullivantii var. spinigera T1 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Plagiochila sullivantii var. sullivantii T2 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Riccardia jugata G2 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Bryocrumia vivicolor G1 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 
Fissidens appalachensis G2 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 
Platyhypnidium pringlei G2 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 
Schlotheimia lancifolia G2 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Accipiter striatus
  (Sharp-shinned Hawk)
G5      
Ambystoma talpoideum
  (Mole Salamander)
G5      
Aneides aeneus
  (Green Salamander)
G3G4      
Canis rufus
  (Red Wolf)
G1Q LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population    
Crotalus horridus
  (Timber Rattlesnake)
G4      
Desmognathus ochrophaeus
  (Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander)
G5      
Desmognathus wrighti
  (Southern Pygmy Salamander)
G3      
Eurycea longicauda
  (Longtail Salamander)
G5      
Feralia comstocki
  (Comstock's Sallow Moth)
G5      
Feralia major
  (Major Sallow Moth)
G5      
Glaucomys volans
  (Southern Flying Squirrel)
G5      
Hylocichla mustelina
  (Wood Thrush)
G4      
Limnothlypis swainsonii
  (Swainson's Warbler)
G4      
Macaria fissinotata
  (Hemlock Angle Moth)
G4      
Microtus chrotorrhinus carolinensis
  (Southern Rock Vole)
G4T3      
Neotoma floridana haematoreia
  (Southern Appalachian Woodrat)
G5T4Q      
Neotoma magister
  (Allegheny Woodrat)
G3G4      
Parascalops breweri
  (Hairy-tailed Mole)
G5      
Plestiodon anthracinus anthracinus
  (Northern Coal Skink)
G5T5      
Plestiodon fasciatus
  (Five-lined Skink)
G5      
Plethodon aureolus
  (Tellico Salamander)
G2G3      
Plethodon cinereus
  (Redback Salamander)
G5      
Plethodon hubrichti
  (Peaks of Otter Salamander)
G2G3      
Plethodon punctatus
  (White-spotted Salamander)
G3      
Plethodon ventralis
  (Southern Zigzag Salamander)
G4      
Plethodon wehrlei
  (Wehrle's Salamander)
G4      
Plethodon welleri
  (Weller's Salamander)
G3      
Plethodon yonahlossee
  (Yonahlossee Salamander)
G4      
Psectrotarsia hebardi
  (Hebard's Noctuid Moth)
GU      
Pseudacris brachyphona
  (Mountain Chorus Frog)
G5      
Puma concolor couguar
  (Eastern Cougar)
G5TXQ      
Sciurus carolinensis
  (Eastern Gray Squirrel)
G5      
Setophaga caerulescens
  (Black-throated Blue Warbler)
G5      
Setophaga fusca
  (Blackburnian Warbler)
G5      
Setophaga virens
  (Black-throated Green Warbler)
G5      
Sitta canadensis
  (Red-breasted Nuthatch)
G5      
Sorex dispar
  (Long-tailed Shrew)
G4      
Sorex palustris punctulatus
  (Southern Water Shrew)
G5T3      
Stygobromus sp. 17
  (Massanutten Spring Amphipod)
G2      
Synanthedon castaneae
  (Chestnut Clearwing Moth)
G3G5      
Synaptomys cooperi
  (Southern Bog Lemming)
G5      
Tamias striatus
  (Eastern Chipmunk)
G5      
Virginia valeriae pulchra
  (Mountain Earthsnake)
G5T3T4      
Virginia valeriae valeriae
  (Eastern Earthsnake)
G5T5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: CT, KYpotentially occurs, MA, MD, NH, NJ, NY, OHpotentially occurs, PA, VA, WV
Global Range: This system is found from southern New Hampshire south to Virginia and West Virginia, and possibly in adjacent Kentucky.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
202-Central Interior and Appalachian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
48 Great Lakes Confident or certain
49 Western Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
52 Piedmont Confident or certain
59 Central Appalachian Forest Confident or certain
60 High Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
61 Lower New England / Northern Piedmont Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
48 Cumberland Highlands Never was there
53 Appalachia Confident or certain
54 Southern Piedmont Never was there
57 Southern Appalachia Never was there
59 Northeastern Piedmont Never was there
60 Chesapeake Bay Confident or certain
61 Northern Appalachia Confident or certain
62 Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
63 Finger Lakes Confident or certain
64 Northeastern Highlands Confident or certain
65 Connecticut River Basin and Highlands Confident or certain
66 The North Woods Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4313
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1370
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2370

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jan2014
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler, R. White, R. Evans, M. Pyne, L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2018