NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
 
Ecological System Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected. View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Classification
Scientific Name: Central Appalachian Pine-Oak Rocky Woodland
Unique Identifier: CES202.600

Search for Images on Google
Summary: This system encompasses open or patchily wooded hilltops and outcrops or rocky slopes in the Central Appalachians, High Allegheny Plateau, and Lower New England / Northern Piedmont. It occurs mostly at lower elevations, but occasionally up to 1220 m (4000 feet) in West Virginia. The substrate rock is generally granitic or of other acidic lithology, although near the northern limit of its range in New England, examples can also occur on intermediate, base-rich, or mafic bedrock including traprock. The vegetation is patchy, with woodland as well as open portions. Pinus rigida (and within its range Pinus virginiana) is diagnostic and often mixed with xerophytic Quercus spp. and sprouts of Castanea dentata. In New England, some examples lack pine and feature Juniperus virginiana or Ostrya virginiana as important codominants with oak. Some areas have a fairly well-developed heath shrub layer, others a graminoid layer, the latter particularly common under oaks or other deciduous trees. Conditions are dry and for the most part nutrient-poor, and at many, if not most, sites, a history of fire is evident. In the Central Appalachians ecoregion, this system is rarely found on sandy soils rather than rock.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: The northern extent of this system in central New England may overlap with Northern Appalachian-Acadian Rocky Heath Outcrop (CES201.571), which has Picea spp. prominent. The southern extent overlaps with Southern Appalachian Montane Pine Forest and Woodland (CES202.331), which is characterized by Pinus pungens. The present type may have some Pinus pungens (from southern Pennsylvania south) but generally has other pines as well. This type is differentiated from the similar Central Appalachian Dry Oak-Pine Forest (CES202.591) by its mosaic nature of wooded and open patches, as opposed to being merely a "thin forest." New England dry-rich forest/woodlands (e.g., those on traprock ridges) are also housed here, expanding the concept beyond pitch pine diagnostics. Pike Knob, West Virginia, with its disjunct red pine woodlands, is put into this system.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES201.571 Northern Appalachian-Acadian Rocky Heath Outcrop
CES202.331 Southern Appalachian Montane Pine Forest and Woodland
CES202.591 Central Appalachian Dry Oak-Pine Forest
CES202.598 Appalachian Shale Barrens


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL003939 Kalmia latifolia - Gaylussacia baccata - Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) - Menziesia pilosa Shrubland
CEGL003958 Vaccinium (angustifolium, myrtilloides, pallidum) Central Appalachian Dwarf-shrubland
CEGL004996 Pinus (pungens, rigida) - Quercus montana / (Quercus ilicifolia) / Gaylussacia baccata Woodland
CEGL005094 Vaccinium angustifolium - Sorbus americana / Sibbaldiopsis tridentata Dwarf-shrubland
CEGL006002 Juniperus virginiana - Fraxinus americana / Danthonia spicata - Poa compressa Woodland
CEGL006074 Quercus montana / Rhus spp. / Deschampsia flexuosa Woodland
CEGL006079 Pinus rigida / Gaylussacia baccata Scrub
CEGL006108 Pinus resinosa / Menziesia pilosa / Polypodium appalachianum Forest
CEGL006116 Pinus rigida / (Quercus ilicifolia) / Aronia melanocarpa / Deschampsia flexuosa Woodland
CEGL006121 Quercus ilicifolia - Prunus pumila Shrubland
CEGL006134 Quercus rubra - (Quercus montana) / Vaccinium spp. / Deschampsia flexuosa Woodland
CEGL006154 Pinus rigida / Corema conradii Woodland
CEGL006301 Quercus rubra - Carya (glabra, ovata) / Ostrya virginiana / Carex lucorum Forest
CEGL006535 Penstemon hirsutus Sparse Vegetation
CEGL006544 Schizachyrium scoparium - Danthonia spicata - Carex pensylvanica / Cladonia spp. Grassland
CEGL006557 Pinus rigida - Quercus coccinea / Vaccinium angustifolium Woodland
CEGL007119 Pinus virginiana - Pinus (rigida, echinata) - (Quercus montana) / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
CEGL008508 Aronia melanocarpa - Gaylussacia baccata / Carex pensylvanica Shrubland
CEGL008526 Quercus montana / Quercus ilicifolia / Danthonia spicata Woodland
CEGL008540 Quercus montana - Pinus virginiana - (Pinus pungens) / Schizachyrium scoparium - Dichanthelium depauperatum Woodland



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Shrubland (Shrub-dominated)  
Woody-Herbaceous  
Ridge/Summit/Upper Slope  
Acidic Soil  
Pinus (strobus, rigida, echinata, virginiana) - Quercus prinus  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Lowland  
Temperate  
Oligotrophic Soil  
Shallow Soil  
Ustic  
Consolidated  
F-Patch/Medium Intensity  
Needle-Leaved Tree  
Broad-Leaved Deciduous Tree  
Moderate (100-500 yrs) Persistence  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Arabis serotina
  (Shale Barren Rockcress)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Canis rufus
  (Red Wolf)
G1Q LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population
Carex polymorpha
  (Variable Sedge)
G3  
Catocala herodias gerhardi
  (Herodias or Pine Barrens Underwing)
G3T3  
Gaylussacia brachycera
  (Box Huckleberry)
G3  
Malaxis bayardii
  (Bayard's Malaxis)
G1G2  
Packera millefolia
  (Blue Ridge Ragwort)
G3  
Puma concolor couguar
  (Eastern Cougar)
G5TXQ  
Pyrgus wyandot
  (Appalachian Grizzled Skipper)
G1G2Q  
Taenidia montana
  (Mountain Parsley)
G3  
Vaccinium hirsutum
  (Hairy Blueberry)
G3  
Virginia valeriae pulchra
  (Mountain Earthsnake)
G5T3T4  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus ilicifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus prinus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Juniperus virginiana G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus echinata G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus rigida G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus strobus G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus virginiana G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Vaccinium angustifolium G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Malaxis bayardii G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Packera millefolia G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Danthonia spicata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Deschampsia flexuosa G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Agkistrodon contortrix
  (Copperhead)
G5      
Anolis carolinensis
  (Green Anole)
G5      
Callophrys polios
  (Hoary Elfin)
G5      
Canis rufus
  (Red Wolf)
G1Q LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population    
Catocala herodias gerhardi
  (Herodias or Pine Barrens Underwing)
G3T3      
Cemophora coccinea copei
  (Northern Scarletsnake)
G5T5      
Coluber constrictor
  (North American Racer)
G5      
Crotalus horridus
  (Timber Rattlesnake)
G4      
Euchloe olympia
  (Olympia Marble)
G5      
Glaucomys volans
  (Southern Flying Squirrel)
G5      
Heterodon platirhinos
  (Eastern Hog-nosed Snake)
G5      
Lampropeltis elapsoides
  (Scarlet Kingsnake)
G5      
Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum
  (Eastern Milksnake)
G5T5      
Mustela nivalis
  (Least Weasel)
G5      
Pantherophis guttatus
  (Red Cornsnake)
G5      
Pantherophis obsoletus
  (Eastern Ratsnake)
G5      
Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus
  (Northern Pinesnake)
G4T4      
Plestiodon fasciatus
  (Five-lined Skink)
G5      
Plestiodon inexpectatus
  (Southeastern Five-lined Skink)
G5      
Puma concolor couguar
  (Eastern Cougar)
G5TXQ      
Pyrgus wyandot
  (Appalachian Grizzled Skipper)
G1G2Q      
Sceloporus undulatus
  (Eastern Fence Lizard)
G5      
Sciurus carolinensis
  (Eastern Gray Squirrel)
G5      
Setophaga discolor
  (Prairie Warbler)
G5      
Setophaga dominica
  (Yellow-throated Warbler)
G5      
Sitta pusilla
  (Brown-headed Nuthatch)
G4      
Tamias striatus
  (Eastern Chipmunk)
G5      
Tantilla coronata
  (Southeastern Crowned Snake)
G5      
Virginia valeriae pulchra
  (Mountain Earthsnake)
G5T3T4      
Virginia valeriae valeriae
  (Eastern Earthsnake)
G5T5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: CT, KY, MA, MDpotentially occurs, ME, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, VA, VT, WV
Global Range: This system occurs from central New England south to Virginia and West Virginia, with peripheral occurrences in southeastern Ohio and easternmost Kentucky.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
202-Central Interior and Appalachian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
49 Western Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
50 Cumberlands and Southern Ridge and Valley Confident or certain
52 Piedmont Confident or certain
59 Central Appalachian Forest Confident or certain
60 High Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
61 Lower New England / Northern Piedmont Confident or certain
64 St. Lawrence-Champlain Valley Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
53 Appalachia Confident or certain
57 Southern Appalachia Predicted or probable
59 Northeastern Piedmont Never was there
60 Chesapeake Bay Confident or certain
61 Northern Appalachia Confident or certain
62 Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
63 Finger Lakes Confident or certain
64 Northeastern Highlands Confident or certain
65 Connecticut River Basin and Highlands Confident or certain
66 The North Woods Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4320
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1377
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2377

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 23Jan2012
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler and L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Hubbard, R. M., J. M. Vose, B. D. Clinton, K. J. Elliott, and J. D. Knoepp. 2004. Stand restoration burning in oak-pine forests in the southern Appalachians: Effects on aboveground biomass and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Forest Ecology and Management 190:311-321.

  • Landfire [Landfire National Vegetation Dynamics Database]. 2007a. Landfire National Vegetation Dynamics Models. Landfire Project, USDA Forest Service, U.S. Department of Interior. (January - last update) [http://www.LANDFIRE.gov/index.php] (accessed 8 February 2007).

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • Sperduto, D. D. 2005. Natural community systems of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau and The Nature Conservancy, Concord. 133 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2007. Pine-oak / heath woodlands. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage]


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2018
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2018