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Classification
Scientific Name: Central Appalachian Stream and Riparian
Unique Identifier: CES202.609

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Summary: This riparian system ranges from southern New England to Virginia and West Virginia and occurs over a wide range of elevations. It develops on floodplains and shores along river channels that lack a broad flat floodplain due to steeper sideslopes, higher gradient, or both. It may include communities influenced by flooding, erosion, or groundwater seepage. The vegetation is often a mosaic of forest, woodland, shrubland, and herbaceous communities. Common trees include Betula nigra and Platanus occidentalis. Open, flood-scoured rivershore prairies feature Panicum virgatum and Andropogon gerardii, and Carex torta is typical of wetter areas near the channel.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: This is a high-gradient system, unlike the low-gradient system described in Central Appalachian River Floodplain (CES202.608). To the south in the Appalachians and interior, this system is replaced by South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian (CES202.706).

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES202.036 Cumberland Riverscour
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain
CES202.706 South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL003896 Platanus occidentalis - Betula nigra - Salix (caroliniana, nigra) Floodplain Forest
CEGL003901 Salix nigra Wet Shrubland
CEGL004031 Platanus occidentalis / Dichanthelium clandestinum - Festuca subverticillata Floodplain Forest
CEGL004033 Southern Appalachian Bedrock Riverscour Vegetation
CEGL004073 Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo - Juglans nigra / Asimina triloba / Mertensia virginica Floodplain Forest
CEGL004103 Carex torta Riverbed Vegetation
CEGL004286 Justicia americana Riverbed Vegetation
CEGL004331 Podostemum ceratophyllum Aquatic Vegetation
CEGL006004 Pinus strobus - Betula populifolia / Comptonia peregrina / Schizachyrium scoparium Scrub
CEGL006065 Salix nigra / Phalaris arundinacea - Apocynum cannabinum Wet Shrubland
CEGL006232 Hudsonia tomentosa - Paronychia argyrocoma Riverscour Dwarf-shrubland
CEGL006251 Alnus serrulata - Physocarpus opulifolius Wet Shrubland
CEGL006255 Liriodendron tulipifera - Platanus occidentalis - Betula lenta / Lindera benzoin / Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis Floodplain Forest
CEGL006283 Andropogon gerardii - Panicum virgatum - Baptisia australis Riverscour Wet Meadow
CEGL006284 Andropogon gerardii - Campanula rotundifolia - Solidago simplex Riverscour Sparse Vegetation
CEGL006391 Pinus rigida - Hudsonia tomentosa - Pityopsis falcata Sparse Vegetation
CEGL006406 Acer rubrum - Fraxinus (pennsylvanica, americana) / Lindera benzoin / Symplocarpus foetidus Swamp Forest
CEGL006447 Carex trichocarpa Rivershore Wet Meadow
CEGL006461 Leersia oryzoides - Sagittaria latifolia Wet Meadow
CEGL006476 Platanus occidentalis - Acer saccharinum - Fraxinus pennsylvanica / Boehmeria cylindrica - Carex emoryi Floodplain Forest
CEGL006477 Panicum virgatum - Andropogon gerardii Gravel Riverscour Wet Meadow
CEGL006478 Fraxinus americana / Andropogon gerardii - Sorghastrum nutans - Schizachyrium scoparium - Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Riverscour Wet Meadow
CEGL006480 Verbesina alternifolia - Elymus riparius - Solidago gigantea - (Teucrium canadense) Riverbar Wet Meadow
CEGL006481 Eupatorium serotinum - Polygonum (lapathifolium, punctatum, pensylvanicum) Riverbar Wet Meadow
CEGL006483 Eragrostis hypnoides - Ludwigia palustris - Lindernia dubia - Cyperus squarrosus Riverbar Wet Meadow
CEGL006492 Liriodendron tulipifera - Acer negundo - (Platanus occidentalis) / Carpinus caroliniana / Polygonum virginianum Floodplain Forest
CEGL006497 Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor / Carex tribuloides - Carex radiata - (Carex squarrosa) Wet Forest
CEGL006536 Carex torta - Apocynum cannabinum - Cyperus spp. Riverbed Vegetation
CEGL006554 Lysimachia ciliata - Apocynum cannabinum Sparse Riverbed Vegetation
CEGL006598 Rhododendron arborescens / Marshallia grandiflora - Triantha glutinosa - Platanthera flava var. herbiola Riverscour Wet Meadow
CEGL006624 Pinus virginiana - (Pinus rigida) - Nyssa sylvatica / Xanthorhiza simplicissima / Euphorbia corollata Forest
CEGL006969 Deschampsia cespitosa - Carex viridula Riverscour Wet Meadow
CEGL007056 Pinus rigida / Osmunda cinnamomea - Carex stricta - Eriophorum virginicum / Sphagnum spp. Swamp Woodland
CEGL007853 Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica / Ilex verticillata - Vaccinium fuscatum / Osmunda cinnamomea Seep Forest
CEGL008416 Acer rubrum - Fraxinus nigra - Betula alleghaniensis / Veratrum viride - Carex bromoides Seep Forest
CEGL008533 Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis / Veratrum viride - Carex scabrata - Oclemena acuminata Swamp Forest



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Mixed Upland and Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Linear
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Lowland  
Riverine / Alluvial  
Very Short Disturbance Interval  
Flood Scouring  
Intermittent Flooding  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Sideslope  
Toeslope/Valley Bottom  
Temperate  
Mesotrophic Soil  
Udic  
Ustic  
Short (<5 yrs) Flooding Interval  
Short (50-100 yrs) Persistence  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Bryoerythrophyllum ferruginascens
  (Rufous Beard Moss)
G3G4  
Canis rufus
  (Red Wolf)
G1Q LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population
Catocala marmorata
  (Marbled Underwing)
G3G4  
Cicindela ancocisconensis
  (Appalachian Tiger Beetle)
G3  
Desmognathus aeneus
  (Seepage Salamander)
G3G4  
Desmognathus wrighti
  (Southern Pygmy Salamander)
G3  
Fissidens appalachensis
  (Appalachian Fissidens Moss)
G2G3  
Glyptemys insculpta
  (Wood Turtle)
G3  
Gymnoderma lineare
  (Rock Gnome Lichen)
G3 LE: Listed endangered
Hexastylis naniflora
  (Dwarf-flower Heartleaf)
G3 LT: Listed threatened
Hexastylis rhombiformis
  (French Broad Heartleaf)
G3  
Hexastylis shuttleworthii var. harperi
  (Harper's Heartleaf)
G4T3  
Isotria medeoloides
  (Small Whorled Pogonia)
G2? LT: Listed threatened
Jamesianthus alabamensis
  (Alabama Jamesianthus)
G3  
Lejeunea blomquistii
  (Blomquist Leafy Liverwort)
G1G2  
Lysimachia fraseri
  (Fraser's Loosestrife)
G3  
Marshallia grandiflora
  (Large-flowered Barbara's-buttons)
G3  
Megaceros aenigmaticus
  (a hornwort)
G3  
Melanoplus serrulatus
  (Serrulate Melanoplus)
G1G3  
Plethodon hubrichti
  (Peaks of Otter Salamander)
G2G3  
Plethodon punctatus
  (White-spotted Salamander)
G3  
Sagittaria secundifolia
  (Little River Arrowhead)
G1 LT: Listed threatened
Spiraea virginiana
  (Virginia Spiraea)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Trillium rugelii
  (Southern Nodding Trillium)
G3  
Waldsteinia lobata
  (Lobed Barren-strawberry)
G3  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer negundo G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Betula nigra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Platanus occidentalis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Spiraea virginiana G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Baptisia australis G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Hexastylis naniflora G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hexastylis rhombiformis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Isotria medeoloides G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Marshallia grandiflora G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sagittaria secundifolia G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Waldsteinia lobata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Andropogon gerardii G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex emoryi G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex torta G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Panicum virgatum G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Lejeunea blomquistii G1 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Megaceros aenigmaticus G3 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 
Fissidens appalachensis G2 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 
Gymnoderma lineare G3 Lichen Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Autochton cellus
  (Gold-banded Skipper)
G4      
Canis rufus
  (Red Wolf)
G1Q LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population    
Catocala marmorata
  (Marbled Underwing)
G3G4      
Cicindela ancocisconensis
  (Appalachian Tiger Beetle)
G3      
Condylura cristata
  (Star-nosed Mole)
G5      
Desmognathus aeneus
  (Seepage Salamander)
G3G4      
Desmognathus ochrophaeus
  (Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander)
G5      
Desmognathus wrighti
  (Southern Pygmy Salamander)
G3      
Glyptemys insculpta
  (Wood Turtle)
G3      
Lontra canadensis
  (North American River Otter)
G5      
Melanoplus serrulatus
  (Serrulate Melanoplus)
G1G3      
Myotis austroriparius
  (Southeastern Myotis)
G4      
Napaeozapus insignis
  (Woodland Jumping Mouse)
G5      
Nerodia sipedon
  (Northern Watersnake)
G5      
Parkesia noveboracensis
  (Northern Waterthrush)
G5      
Plethodon hubrichti
  (Peaks of Otter Salamander)
G2G3      
Plethodon punctatus
  (White-spotted Salamander)
G3      
Sorex cinereus
  (Cinereus Shrew)
G5      
Vison vison
  (American Mink)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: CT, DE, MA, MD, NH, NJpotentially occurs, NY, OH, PA, VA, VT, WV
Global Range: This system ranges from southern New England west to Lake Erie and south to Virginia and West Virginia. The James River in Virginia marks its southern extent.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
202-Central Interior and Appalachian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
49 Western Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
52 Piedmont Confident or certain
59 Central Appalachian Forest Confident or certain
60 High Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
61 Lower New England / Northern Piedmont Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
53 Appalachia Confident or certain
57 Southern Appalachia Never was there
60 Chesapeake Bay Confident or certain
61 Northern Appalachia Confident or certain
62 Allegheny Plateau Confident or certain
63 Finger Lakes Predicted or probable
64 Northeastern Highlands Predicted or probable
65 Connecticut River Basin and Highlands Confident or certain
66 The North Woods Never was there

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9331

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jan2014
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler, J. Teague and L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., C. Hedge, M. Kost, S. Thomas, L. Smart, R. Smyth, J. Drake, and S. Menard. 2011. Assessment of wetland ecosystem condition across landscape regions: A multi-metric approach. NatureServe, Arlington VA. plus appendices.

  • PNHP [Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program]. 2002. Classification, assessment and protection of forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna Drainage. U.S. EPA Wetlands Protection State Development Grant no. CD-993731. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry, Ecological Services Section. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg, PA.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011j. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Sugar Maple - Mixed Hardwood Floodplain Forest Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=30017] (accessed January 31, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011m. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Sycamore Floodplain Forest Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16025] (accessed January 31, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]

  • Zimmerman, E., and G. Podniesinski. 2008. Classification, assessment and protection of floodplain wetlands of the Ohio Drainage. U.S. EPA Wetlands Protection State Development Grant no. CD-973081-01-0. Report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Office of Conservation Science. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, Pittsburgh, PA.


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