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Classification
Scientific Name: North-Central Interior Beech-Maple Forest
Unique Identifier: CES202.693
Classification Confidence: 1 - Strong

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Summary: This system is found primarily along the southern Great Lakes ranging from central Indiana to southern Ontario. It is typically found on flat to rolling uplands to steep slopes with rich loam soils over glacial till. This system is characterized by a dense tree canopy that forms a thick layer of humus and leaf litter leading to a dense and rich herbaceous layer. Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia comprise up to 80% of the canopy. Canopy associates can include Quercus rubra, Tilia americana, and Liriodendron tulipifera with Carpinus caroliniana and Ostrya virginiana common in the understory and subcanopy. The relative dominance of sugar maple compared to other tree species varies across the range of this system based on regional climate and microclimate. The herbaceous layer is very diverse and typically includes spring ephemerals. Some common species include Arisaema triphyllum, Osmorhiza claytonii, Polygonatum biflorum, and Trillium grandiflorum. The primary natural disturbance influencing this system includes wind-driven gap dynamics. Conversion to agriculture has significantly decreased the range of this system, and very few large stands remain intact.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: North-Central Interior Wet Flatwoods (CES202.700) may co-occur in close proximity to this system on clay-plain landscapes. This is on richer sites than the corresponding Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest (CES202.593).

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES201.564 Laurentian-Acadian Northern Hardwood Forest
CES202.593 Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest
CES202.696 North-Central Interior Maple-Basswood Forest
CES202.887 South-Central Interior Mesophytic Forest


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL005004 Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia - Betula spp. / Maianthemum canadense Forest
CEGL005013 Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum Glaciated Midwest Forest



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Glaciated  
Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Myotis sodalis
  (Indiana Myotis)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Nicrophorus americanus
  (American Burying Beetle)
G2G3 LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population
Pieris virginiensis
  (West Virginia White)
G3?  
Rubus variispinus
  (Vicksburg Blackberry)
G1?Q  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer saccharum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fagus grandifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fraxinus americana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus rubra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Carpinus caroliniana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Rubus variispinus G1 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Osmorhiza claytonii G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Polygonatum biflorum G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Trillium grandiflorum G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Diadophis punctatus
  (Ringneck Snake)
G5      
Erora laeta
  (Early Hairstreak)
GU      
Myotis sodalis
  (Indiana Myotis)
G2 LE: Listed endangered    
Nicrophorus americanus
  (American Burying Beetle)
G2G3 LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population    
Peromyscus leucopus
  (White-footed Deermouse)
G5      
Pieris virginiensis
  (West Virginia White)
G3?      
Plethodon cinereus
  (Redback Salamander)
G5      
Sciurus carolinensis
  (Eastern Gray Squirrel)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: IN, MI, NY, OH, PA
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: ON
Global Range: This system is located in the southern Great Lakes from central Indiana north into southern Ontario, and east to northwestern Pennsylvania and western New York.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
202-Central Interior and Appalachian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
36 Central Tallgrass Prairie Confident or certain
45 North Central Tillplain Confident or certain
47 Superior Mixed Forest Predicted or probable
48 Great Lakes Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
47 Appalachia Bluegrass Hills Confident or certain
49 Central Till Plains Confident or certain
51 Great Lakes Plains Confident or certain
52 Eastern Till Plains Confident or certain
60 Chesapeake Bay Never was there
61 Northern Appalachia Never was there
62 Allegheny Plateau Predicted or probable
63 Finger Lakes Confident or certain
64 Northeastern Highlands Never was there

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4119
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1313
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2313

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: Yes

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jan2014
Element Description Author(s): S. Menard, S.C. Gawler and J. Drake

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Barbour, M. G., and W. D. Billings, editors. 1988. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge University Press, New York. 434 pp.

  • Barnes, B. V. 1991. Deciduous forests of North America. Pages 219-344 in: E. Röhrig and B. Ulrich, editors. Ecosystems of the World 7: Temperate deciduous forests. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York.

  • Beaman, J. H. 1970. A botanical inventory of Sanford Natural Area. I. The environment. Michigan Botanist 9:116-139.

  • Brewer, R. 1980. A half-century of changes in the herb layer of a climax deciduous forest in Michigan. Journal of Ecology 68(3): 823-832.

  • Cain, S. A. 1935. Studies on virgin hardwood forest: III. Warren's Woods, a beech-maple climax forest in Berrien County, Michigan. Ecology 16(3):500-513.

  • Cohen, J. G. 2004. Natural community abstract for mesic southern forest. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 13 pp.

  • Comer, P. J., D. A. Albert, H. A. Wells, B. L. Hart, J. B. Raab, D. L. Price, D. M. Kashian, R. A. Corner, and D. W. Schuen. 1995a. Michigan's native landscape, as interpreted from the General Land Office Surveys 1816-1856. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 78 pp. plus digital map.

  • Comer, P. J., D. A. Albert, and M. Austin (cartography). 1998. Vegetation of Michigan circa 1800: An interpretation of the General Land Office Surveys 1816-1856. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 2-map set, scale: 1:500,000.

  • Comer, P. J., and D. A. Albert. 1997. Natural community crosswalk. Unpublished draft of February 20, 1997. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Curtis, J. T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin: An ordination of plant communities. Reprinted in 1987. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 pp.

  • Donnelly, G. T., and P. G. Murphy. 1987. Warren Woods as forest primeval: A comparison of forest composition with presettlement beech-sugar maple forests of Berrien County, Michigan. Michigan Botanist 26(1):17-24.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Horsley, S. B., S. L. Stout, and D. S. DeCalesta. 2003. White-tailed deer impacts on the vegetation dynamics of a northern hardwood forest. Ecological Applications 13(1):98-118.

  • Howell, C. A., W. D. Dijak, and F. R. Thompson. 2005. Landscape context and selection for forest edge by breeding Brown-Headed Cowbirds. Landscape Ecology 22:273-284.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • Palik, B. J., and P. G. Murphy. 1990. Disturbance versus edge effect in sugar maple/beech forest fragments. Forest Ecology and Management 32(2-4):187-202.

  • Parker, G. R. 1989. Old-growth forest of the central hardwood region. Natural Areas Journal 9(1):5-11.

  • Parker, G. R., D. J. Leopold, and J. K. Eichenberger. 1985. Tree dynamics in an old-growth, deciduous forest. Forest Ecology and Management 11:31-57.

  • Robertson, D. J., and M. C. Robertson. 1995. Eastern mixed mesophytic forest restoration. Restoration and Management Notes 13(1):64-70.

  • Rooney, T. P., and D. M. Waller. 2003. Direct and indirect effects of white-tailed deer in forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 181:165-176.

  • Witter, J. A., J. L. Stoyenoff, H. A. Petrillo, J. L. Yocum, and J. I. Cohen. 2005. Effects of beech bark disease on trees and ecosystems. In: Proceedings of the Beech Bark Disease Symposium 2004. General Technical Report NE-331. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA.


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