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Classification
Scientific Name: North-Central Interior Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp
Unique Identifier: CES202.701
Classification Confidence: 1 - Strong
Image 21965
© Don Faber-Langendoen
Summary: This system is found throughout the northern Midwest ranging into southern Canada. It is typically found on glacial potholes, river valleys, ponds, channels in glacial outwash, and on lakeplains. This system contains a deep to shallow area of freshwater marsh dominated by emergent species surrounded by a zone of wet meadow. The emergent marsh zone within this system contains hydric soils flooded by water ranging from several centimeters to over 1 meter for most of the growing season. Emergent marsh species such as Typha spp. and Schoenoplectus spp. dominate the core of this system. Wet meadows can surround the emergent marsh core along wet mineral soils or shallow peat with the water table typically just below the surface for most of the growing season. The vegetation in this zone of the system is dominated by sedges (Carex spp.) and grasses such as Calamagrostis canadensis. This system also can contain a zone of wet prairie species such as Spartina pectinata. Shrub swamps can also be associated with the wet meadows within this system. Typical shrub species include Cornus spp., Salix spp., and/or Cephalanthus occidentalis. Trees are generally absent and, if present, are scattered. Fire originating in adjacent uplands, as well as hydrology, can influence this system. In the absence of fire, drought and/or ditching can increase the proportion of shrubs compared to the wet meadow or prairie species.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: If examples of these associations are found within a medium to large floodplain, they should be considered part of North-Central Interior Floodplain (CES202.694). The freshwater marsh component was removed from this system to create a new system, North-Central Interior Freshwater Marsh (CES202.899).

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES201.582 Laurentian-Acadian Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp
CES202.053 Cumberland Wet-Mesic Meadow and Savanna


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL002027 Spartina pectinata - Calamagrostis stricta - Carex spp. Wet Meadow
CEGL002186 Cornus sericea - Salix spp. - (Rosa palustris) Shrub Swamp
CEGL002187 Cornus sericea - Salix (bebbiana, discolor, petiolaris) / Calamagrostis stricta Shrub Swamp
CEGL002190 Cephalanthus occidentalis / Carex spp. Midwest Shrub Swamp
CEGL002220 Carex atherodes Wet Meadow
CEGL002224 Spartina pectinata - Carex spp. - Calamagrostis canadensis - Lythrum alatum - (Oxypolis rigidior) Wet Meadow
CEGL002256 Carex lacustris Midwest Wet Meadow
CEGL002257 Carex utriculata - Carex lacustris - (Carex vesicaria, Carex stricta) Wet Meadow
CEGL002258 Carex stricta - Carex spp. Wet Meadow
CEGL002262 Carex aquatilis - Carex spp. Wet Meadow
CEGL002392 Carex crinita - Osmunda spp. / Physocarpus opulifolius Acidic Herbaceous Seep
CEGL005069 Spiraea tomentosa - Salix humilis / Andropogon gerardii - Panicum virgatum Wet Shrubland
CEGL005178 Spartina pectinata - Carex spp. - Calamagrostis canadensis Sand Wet Meadow
CEGL005449 Calamagrostis canadensis North-Central Wet Meadow



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Woody Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Small patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: No
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: Partially Isolated

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Depressional Lakeshore
Broad-Leaved Shrub  
Graminoid  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Herbaceous  
Depressional Pond
Isolated Wetland Partially Isolated
Muck  
Circumneutral Water  
Acidic Water  
Shallow (<15 cm) Water  
Moderate (100-500 yrs) Persistence  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Calephelis muticum
  (Swamp Metalmark)
G3  
Clonophis kirtlandii
  (Kirtland's Snake)
G2  
Grus americana
  (Whooping Crane)
G1 LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population
Platanthera leucophaea
  (Eastern Prairie White-fringed Orchid)
G2G3 LT: Listed threatened
Schoenoplectus hallii
  (Hall's Bulrush)
G2G3  
Scirpus ancistrochaetus
  (Northeastern Bulrush)
G3 LE: Listed endangered
Valeriana edulis var. ciliata
  (Hairy Valerian)
G5T3  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Cephalanthus occidentalis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Cornus sericea G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Salix petiolaris G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Platanthera leucophaea G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex aquatilis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex lacustris G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Spartina pectinata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Anaxyrus americanus
  (American Toad)
G5      
Calephelis muticum
  (Swamp Metalmark)
G3      
Clonophis kirtlandii
  (Kirtland's Snake)
G2      
Grus americana
  (Whooping Crane)
G1 LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population    
Notophthalmus viridescens
  (Eastern Newt)
G5      
Pseudacris crucifer
  (Spring Peeper)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MO, ND, OH, SD, WI
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: ON
Global Range: This system is found in the northern Midwest and southern Canada.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
201-Laurentian-Acadian C: Confident or certain
202-Central Interior and Appalachian C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
35 Northern Tallgrass Prairie Confident or certain
36 Central Tallgrass Prairie Confident or certain
45 North Central Tillplain Confident or certain
46 Prairie-Forest Border Confident or certain
47 Superior Mixed Forest Confident or certain
48 Great Lakes Confident or certain
49 Western Allegheny Plateau Possible

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
39 Prairie Coteau Lands Confident or certain
40 Northern Great Plains Confident or certain
41 Northern Lake Country Confident or certain
42 Western Till Plains Confident or certain
43 Till Plains Confident or certain
44 Ozark Highlands Predicted or probable
49 Central Till Plains Confident or certain
50 Central Great Lakes Uplands Confident or certain
51 Great Lakes Plains Confident or certain
52 Eastern Till Plains Confident or certain
62 Allegheny Plateau Predicted or probable

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9185

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 18Jul2006
Element Description Author(s): S. Menard and J. Drake

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Comer, P. J., and D. A. Albert. 1997. Natural community crosswalk. Unpublished draft of February 20, 1997. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Nelson, P. 2010. The terrestrial natural communities of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Natural Areas Committee, Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • WDNR [Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources]. 2015. The ecological landscapes of Wisconsin: An assessment of ecological resources and a guide to planning sustainable management. PUB-SS-1131 2015. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. [http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/landscapes/Book.html]


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Data last updated: March 2019