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Classification
Scientific Name: Inter-Mountain Basins Montane Sagebrush Steppe
Unique Identifier: CES304.785
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate

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Summary: This ecological system includes sagebrush communities occurring at foothills (in Wyoming) to montane and subalpine elevations across the western U.S. from 1000 m in eastern Oregon and Washington to over 3000 m in the Southern Rockies. In Montana, it occurs on isolated mountains in the north-central portion of the state and possibly along the Boulder River south of Absarokee and at higher elevations. In British Columbia, it occurs between 450 and 1650 m in the southern Fraser Plateau and the Thompson and Okanagan basins. Climate is cool, semi-arid to subhumid. This system primarily occurs on deep-soiled to stony flats, ridges, nearly flat ridgetops, and mountain slopes. In general, this system is found on fine-textured soils, some source of subsurface moisture or more mesic sites, zones of higher precipitation, and areas of snow accumulation. Across its range, this is a compositionally diverse system. It is composed primarily of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula, and related taxa such as Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis (= Artemisia spiciformis). Purshia tridentata may codominate or even dominate some stands. Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula-dominated shrublands commonly occur within this system on rocky or windblown sites. Other common shrubs include Symphoricarpos spp., Amelanchier spp., Ericameria nauseosa, Peraphyllum ramosissimum, Ribes cereum, and Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis may be present to codominant if the stand is clearly montane as indicated by montane indicator species such as Festuca idahoensis, Leucopoa kingii, or Danthonia intermedia. Most stands have an abundant perennial herbaceous layer (over 25% cover, in many cases over 50% cover), but this system also includes Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana shrublands. Common graminoids include Danthonia intermedia, Festuca arizonica, Festuca idahoensis, Hesperostipa comata, Poa fendleriana, Elymus trachycaulus, Bromus carinatus, Poa secunda, Leucopoa kingii, Deschampsia caespitosa, Calamagrostis rubescens, and Pseudoroegneria spicata. Species of Achnatherum are common, including Achnatherum nelsonii ssp. dorei, Achnatherum nelsonii ssp. nelsonii, Achnatherum hymenoides, and others. In many areas, wildfires can maintain an open herbaceous-rich steppe condition, although at most sites, shrub cover can be unusually high for a steppe system (>40%), with the moisture providing equally high grass and forb cover.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: In Wyoming and Montana, Artemisia tripartita ssp. tripartita associations are part of this system, occurring at higher elevations than Inter-Mountain Basins Big Sagebrush Steppe (CES304.778). Farther west, they are included in that system, but perhaps this should be reviewed by ecologists familiar with the Columbia Basin region.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES304.778 Inter-Mountain Basins Big Sagebrush Steppe


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL001013 Artemisia tridentata Upperzone Community Shrubland
CEGL001020 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Balsamorhiza sagittata Shrubland
CEGL001021 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Bromus carinatus Shrubland
CEGL001023 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Festuca idahoensis - Bromus carinatus Shrubland
CEGL001024 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Festuca thurberi Shrubland
CEGL001025 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Leucopoa kingii Shrubland
CEGL001026 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Leucopoa kingii - Koeleria macrantha Shrubland
CEGL001027 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Leymus cinereus Shrubland
CEGL001028 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Pascopyrum smithii Shrubland
CEGL001029 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Poa secunda Shrubland
CEGL001030 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Pseudoroegneria spicata Shrubland
CEGL001031 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Pseudoroegneria spicata - Poa fendleriana Shrubland
CEGL001032 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana - Purshia tridentata / Pseudoroegneria spicata Shrubland
CEGL001033 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Achnatherum occidentale Shrubland
CEGL001034 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana - Symphoricarpos oreophilus / Elymus trachycaulus ssp. trachycaulus Shrubland
CEGL001035 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana - Symphoricarpos oreophilus / Bromus carinatus Shrubland
CEGL001036 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana - Symphoricarpos oreophilus / Festuca idahoensis Shrubland
CEGL001037 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana - Symphoricarpos oreophilus / Poa secunda Shrubland
CEGL001038 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana - Symphoricarpos oreophilus / Pseudoroegneria spicata Shrubland
CEGL001039 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana - Symphoricarpos oreophilus / Hesperostipa comata Shrubland
CEGL001047 Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis / Pascopyrum smithii Shrub Grassland
CEGL001048 Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis - Peraphyllum ramosissimum / Festuca idahoensis Shrubland
CEGL001409 Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula / Festuca idahoensis Shrub Grassland
CEGL001410 Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula / Leymus salinus ssp. salmonis Shrub Grassland
CEGL001411 Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula / Poa secunda Shrub Grassland
CEGL001412 Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula / Pseudoroegneria spicata Shrub Grassland
CEGL001413 Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula / Achnatherum thurberianum Shrub Grassland
CEGL001423 Artemisia nova / Poa secunda Shrubland
CEGL001424 Artemisia nova / Pseudoroegneria spicata Shrubland
CEGL001518 Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula - Purshia tridentata / Pseudoroegneria spicata - Festuca idahoensis Shrub Grassland
CEGL001519 Artemisia arbuscula ssp. thermopola / Festuca idahoensis Shrub Grassland
CEGL001530 Artemisia tridentata / Festuca idahoensis Shrub Grassland
CEGL001531 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Festuca campestris Shrub Grassland
CEGL001532 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Carex geyeri Shrub Grassland
CEGL001533 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Festuca idahoensis Shrub Grassland
CEGL002339 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Poa (pratensis, compressa) Ruderal Shrub Grassland
CEGL002528 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Poa pratensis Ruderal Shrubland
CEGL002694 Arctostaphylos patula - Artemisia tridentata (ssp. vaseyana, ssp. wyomingensis) Shrubland
CEGL002698 Artemisia nova / Poa fendleriana Shrubland
CEGL002770 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Phlox condensata Shrubland
CEGL002806 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Achnatherum pinetorum Shrubland
CEGL002811 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Achnatherum lettermanii Shrubland
CEGL002812 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Poa fendleriana Shrubland
CEGL002820 Amelanchier utahensis - Artemisia tridentata (ssp. vaseyana, ssp. wyomingensis) Shrubland
CEGL002931 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Hesperostipa comata Shrubland
CEGL002989 Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis / Bromus carinatus Shrubland
CEGL002990 Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis / Carex geyeri Shrubland
CEGL003476 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Monardella odoratissima Shrubland
CEGL003482 Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula / Leptodactylon pungens Shrubland
CEGL003483 Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula / Eriogonum microthecum Shrubland
CEGL008651 Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Carex exserta Shrubland
CEGL008652 Artemisia rothrockii / Monardella odoratissima Shrubland



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Steppe/Savanna
Spatial Pattern: Matrix
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Montane Upper Montane
Montane Montane
Montane Lower Montane
Woody-Herbaceous  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Mountainside  
Mountain valley  
Plateau  
Sideslope  
Toeslope/Valley Bottom  
Temperate Temperate Continental
Long Disturbance Interval  
F-Patch/Medium Intensity  
Broad-Leaved Evergreen Shrub  
Graminoid  
Bunch grasses  
Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Achnatherum hendersonii
  (Henderson's Ricegrass)
G3  
Acrolophitus pulchellus
  (Idaho Point-headed Grasshopper)
G1G3  
Arabis bodiensis
  (Bodie Hills Rockcress)
G2  
Arabis fecunda
  (Sapphire Rockcress)
G2  
Arabis pusilla
  (Fremont County Rockcress)
G1 C: Candidate
Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis
  (Spiked Big Sagebrush)
G5T3T4  
Astragalus convallarius var. margaretiae
  (Margaret's Rushy Milkvetch)
G5T2  
Astragalus jejunus var. jejunus
  (Starveling Milkvetch)
G3T3  
Astragalus oophorus var. lavinii
  (Lavin's Egg Milkvetch)
G4T2  
Astragalus osterhoutii
  (Osterhout's Milkvetch)
G1 LE: Listed endangered
Astragalus pseudiodanthus
  (Tonopah Milkvetch)
G3Q  
Botrychium paradoxum
  (Peculiar Moonwort)
G3G4  
Centrocercus minimus
  (Gunnison Sage-Grouse)
G2G3 LT: Listed threatened
Centrocercus urophasianus
  (Greater Sage-Grouse)
G3G4  
Cryptantha roosiorum
  (Bristle-cone Cryptantha)
G2  
Cusickiella quadricostata
  (Bodie Hills Cusickiella)
G2  
Eriogonum microthecum var. schoolcraftii
  (Slender Buckwheat)
G5T3  
Eriogonum ochrocephalum var. alexandrae
  (Alexander's Buckwheat)
G5T2T3  
Ipomopsis congesta ssp. crebrifolia
  (Compact Gilia)
G5T3T4  
Ivesia pityocharis
  (Pine Nut Ivesia)
G2  
Ivesia sericoleuca
  (Plumas Ivesia)
G2  
Lathyrus grimesii
  (Grime's Vetchling)
G2  
Lesquerella fremontii
  (Fremont's Bladderpod)
G2  
Lesquerella lesicii
  (Pryor Mountains Bladderpod)
G2  
Lomatium attenuatum
  (Taper-tip Desert-parsley)
G3  
Lomatium ochocense
  (Ochoco Desert-parsley)
G2  
Oreohelix sp. 1
  (Chelan Mountainsnail)
G2  
Penstemon acaulis
  (Stemless Beardtongue)
G2  
Penstemon acaulis
  (Stemless Beardtongue)
G3Q  
Penstemon lemhiensis
  (Lemhi Beardtongue)
G3  
Phacelia cronquistiana
  (Cronquist's Phacelia)
G1  
Phacelia monoensis
  (Mono County Phacelia)
G3  
Plagiobothrys glomeratus
  (Clustered Popcorn-flower)
G2G3  
Pyrrocoma carthamoides var. subsquarrosa
  (Large-flower Goldenweed)
G4G5T3  
Pyrrocoma insecticruris
  (Camas Goldenweed)
G3  
Pyrrocoma lucida
  (Sticky Haplopappus)
G3  
Sisyrinchium pallidum
  (Pale Blue-eyed-grass)
G3  
Sphaeromeria simplex
  (Laramie False Sagebrush)
G2  
Thelesperma pubescens
  (Uinta Greenthread)
G2  
Thelypodium howellii ssp. howellii
  (Howell's Thelypody)
G2T2  
Townsendia microcephala
  (Cedar Mountain Easter-daisy)
G1  
Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus
  (Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse)
G4T3  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Amelanchier alnifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Peraphyllum ramosissimum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis T3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana T4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis T5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Purshia tridentata G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Eriogonum microthecum var. schoolcraftii T3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Symphoricarpos oreophilus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Artemisia arbuscula ssp. arbuscula T4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula T4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Ceanothus prostratus G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Arabis bodiensis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Arabis fecunda G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Arabis pusilla G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Astragalus convallarius var. margaretiae T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Astragalus jejunus var. jejunus T3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Astragalus oophorus var. lavinii T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Astragalus osterhoutii G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Astragalus pseudiodanthus G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Balsamorhiza macrophylla G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Balsamorhiza sagittata G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Cryptantha roosiorum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Cryptantha sericea G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Cusickiella quadricostata G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Eriogonum caespitosum G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Eriogonum ochrocephalum var. alexandrae T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Gentiana prostrata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Ipomopsis congesta ssp. crebrifolia T3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Ivesia pityocharis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Ivesia sericoleuca G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lathyrus grimesii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lesquerella fremontii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lesquerella lesicii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lomatium attenuatum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lomatium ochocense G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Penstemon acaulis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Penstemon acaulis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Penstemon lemhiensis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Phacelia cronquistiana G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Phacelia monoensis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Plagiobothrys glomeratus G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pyrrocoma carthamoides var. subsquarrosa T3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pyrrocoma insecticruris G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pyrrocoma lucida G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sisyrinchium pallidum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sphaeralcea munroana G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sphaeromeria simplex G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Stephanomeria spinosa G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Thelesperma pubescens G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Thelypodium howellii ssp. howellii T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Townsendia microcephala G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium paradoxum G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Achnatherum hendersonii G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Achnatherum thurberianum G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Danthonia parryi G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Festuca arizonica G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Festuca idahoensis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Festuca thurberi G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Hesperostipa comata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Poa curta G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Poa fendleriana G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Poa secunda G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Pseudoroegneria spicata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Acrolophitus pulchellus
  (Idaho Point-headed Grasshopper)
G1G3      
Asio flammeus
  (Short-eared Owl)
G5      
Athene cunicularia hypugaea
  (Western Burrowing Owl)
G4T4      
Athene cunicularia
  (Burrowing Owl)
G4      
Brachylagus idahoensis
  (Pygmy Rabbit)
G4      
Centrocercus minimus
  (Gunnison Sage-Grouse)
G2G3 LT: Listed threatened    
Centrocercus urophasianus
  (Greater Sage-Grouse)
G3G4      
Empidonax wrightii
  (Gray Flycatcher)
G5      
Heterodon nasicus
  (Plains Hog-nosed Snake)
G5      
Lampropeltis pyromelana
  (Sonoran Mountain Kingsnake)
G4      
Lanius ludovicianus
  (Loggerhead Shrike)
G4      
Lemmiscus curtatus
  (Sagebrush Vole)
G5      
Numenius americanus
  (Long-billed Curlew)
G5      
Oreohelix sp. 1
  (Chelan Mountainsnail)
G2      
Oreoscoptes montanus
  (Sage Thrasher)
G4      
Oreothlypis virginiae
  (Virginia's Warbler)
G5      
Phrynosoma douglasii
  (Pygmy Horned Lizard)
G5      
Phrynosoma hernandesi
  (Short-horned Lizard)
G5      
Pipilo chlorurus
  (Green-tailed Towhee)
G5      
Pituophis catenifer
  (Gophersnake)
G5      
Rhinocheilus lecontei
  (Long-nosed Snake)
G5      
Sceloporus graciosus
  (Sagebrush Lizard)
G5      
Selasphorus rufus
  (Rufous Hummingbird)
G5      
Sorex merriami
  (Merriam's Shrew)
G4      
Spizella breweri
  (Brewer's Sparrow)
G5      
Spizella passerina
  (Chipping Sparrow)
G5      
Thamnophis elegans
  (Terrestrial Gartersnake)
G5      
Thomomys idahoensis
  (Idaho Pocket Gopher)
G4      
Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus
  (Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse)
G4T3      
Tympanuchus phasianellus
  (Sharp-tailed Grouse)
G5      
Tyrannus tyrannus
  (Eastern Kingbird)
G5      
Vireo vicinior
  (Gray Vireo)
G5      
Zonotrichia leucophrys
  (White-crowned Sparrow)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: AZpotentially occurs, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: BC
Global Range: This system is found at montane and subalpine elevations across the western U.S. from 1000 m in eastern Oregon and Washington to over 3000 m in the Southern Rockies. In British Columbia, it occurs in the southern Fraser Plateau and the Thompson and Okanagan basins. This system occurs in mapzone 20 on the Rocky Mountain island ranges and on the western edge with mapzone 19.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
304-Inter-Mountain Basins C: Confident or certain
306-Rocky Mountain C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
12 Sierra Nevada Confident or certain
18 Utah High Plateaus Confident or certain
19 Colorado Plateau Confident or certain
20 Southern Rocky Mountains Confident or certain
26 Northern Great Plains Steppe Confident or certain
6 Columbia Plateau Confident or certain
68 Okanagan Confident or certain
7 Canadian Rocky Mountains Confident or certain
8 Middle Rockies - Blue Mountains Confident or certain
9 Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Northern Cascades Confident or certain
3 Northern California Coastal Range Possible
4 Southern California Coastal Range Predicted or probable
6 Sierra Nevada Mountain Range Confident or certain
7 Cascade Mountain Range Confident or certain
8 Grande Coulee Basin of the Columbia Plateau Confident or certain
9 Blue Mountain Region Confident or certain
10 Northwestern Rocky Mountains Confident or certain
12 Western Great Basin Confident or certain
13 Death Valley Basin Predicted or probable
16 Utah High Plateaus Confident or certain
17 Eastern Great Basin Confident or certain
18 Snake River Plain Confident or certain
19 Northern Rocky Mountains Confident or certain
20 Missouri River Plateau Confident or certain
21 Middle Rocky Mountains Confident or certain
22 Wyoming Basin Confident or certain
23 Colorado Plateau Confident or certain
24 Navajo Plateau Possible
25 Rio Grande Basin Confident or certain
26 Chihuahuan Desert Never was there
27 Great Plains Tablelands Possible
28 Southern Rocky Mountains Confident or certain
29 Wyoming Highlands Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 5455
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1126
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2126

West Landfire Legend: Yes
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 29Aug2015
Element Description Author(s): R. Crawford, M.S. Reid and K.A. Schulz

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Barbour, M. G., T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. A. Schoenherr, editors. 2007a. Terrestrial vegetation of California, third edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • Barbour, M. G., and W. D. Billings, editors. 1988. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge University Press, New York. 434 pp.

  • Barnett, J. K., and J. A. Crawford. 1994. Pre-laying nutrition of sage grouse hens in Oregon. Journal of Range Management 47:114-118.

  • Belnap, J. 2001. Chapter 19: Factors influencing nitrogen fixation and nitrogen release in biological soil crusts. Pages 241-261 in: J. Belnap and O. L. Lange, editors. Biological soil crusts: Structure, function, and management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

  • Belnap, J., J. Kaltenecker, R. Rosentreter, J. Williams, S. Leonard, and D. Eldridge. 2001. Biological soil crusts: Ecology and management. Technical Report 1730-2. USDI Bureau of Land Management. 110 pp.

  • Brown, D. E., editor. 1982a. Biotic communities of the American Southwest-United States and Mexico. Desert Plants Special Issue 4(1-4):1-342.

  • Bunting, S. C. 1990. Prescribed fire effects in sagebrush-grasslands and pinyon-juniper woodlands. Pages 176-181 in: M. E. Alexander and G. F. Bisgrove, technical coordinators. The art and science of fire management: Proceedings of the 1st Interior West Fire Council annual meeting and workshop; 1988 October 24-27; Kananaskis Village, AB. Information Report NOR-X-309. Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB.

  • Bunting, S. C., B. M. Kilgore, and C. L. Bushey. 1987. Guidelines for prescribed burning sagebrush-grass rangelands in the northern Great Basin. General Technical Report INT-231. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 33 pp.

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