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Classification
Scientific Name: Rocky Mountain Lower Montane-Foothill Riparian Woodland and Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CES306.821
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate

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Summary: This ecological system is found throughout the Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau regions within a broad elevational range from approximately 900 to 2800 m. This system often occurs as a mosaic of multiple communities that are tree-dominated with a diverse shrub component. It is dependent on a natural hydrologic regime, especially annual to episodic flooding. Occurrences are found within the flood zone of rivers, on islands, sand or cobble bars, and immediate streambanks. It can form large, wide occurrences on mid-channel islands in larger rivers or narrow bands on small, rocky canyon tributaries and well-drained benches. It is also typically found in backwater channels and other perennially wet but less scoured sites, such as floodplains swales and irrigation ditches. In some locations, occurrences extend into moderately high intermountain basins where the adjacent vegetation is sage steppe. Dominant trees may include Acer negundo, Populus angustifolia, Populus deltoides, Populus fremontii, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea pungens, Salix amygdaloides, or Juniperus scopulorum. Dominant shrubs include Acer glabrum, Alnus incana, Betula occidentalis, Cornus sericea, Crataegus rivularis, Forestiera pubescens, Prunus virginiana, Rhus trilobata, Salix monticola, Salix drummondiana, Salix exigua, Salix irrorata, Salix lucida, Shepherdia argentea, or Symphoricarpos spp. Exotic trees of Elaeagnus angustifolia and Tamarix spp. are common in some stands. Generally, the upland vegetation surrounding this riparian system is different and ranges from grasslands to forests. In the Wyoming Basins, the high-elevation Populus angustifolia-dominated rivers are included here, including along the North Platte, Sweetwater, and Laramie rivers. In these situations, Populus angustifolia is extending down into the sage steppe zone of the basins.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: This system is physiognomically diverse; because of relatively rapid spatial and temporal shifts in structure and composition, it was too complex to split into different, structurally defined systems (e.g., a shrubland system and a woodland system). This riparian system has been applied to the Green, Yampa, and Colorado rivers (upstream of the Grand Canyon) on the Colorado Plateau. Within and below the Grand Canyon is classified as North American Warm Desert Riparian Woodland and Shrubland (CES302.753). More research is needed to determine if creating a Colorado Plateau riparian woodland and shrubland system is ecologically justified.

Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL000625 Acer negundo / Cornus sericea Riparian Forest
CEGL000626 Acer negundo / Equisetum arvense Riparian Forest
CEGL000627 Acer negundo - Populus angustifolia / Cornus sericea Riparian Forest
CEGL000628 Acer negundo / Prunus virginiana Floodplain Forest
CEGL000646 Populus angustifolia / Acer grandidentatum Riparian Forest
CEGL000648 Populus angustifolia / Betula occidentalis Riparian Woodland
CEGL000650 Populus angustifolia / Lonicera involucrata Riparian Forest
CEGL000651 Populus angustifolia / Prunus virginiana Riparian Woodland
CEGL000652 Populus angustifolia / Rhus trilobata Riparian Woodland
CEGL000653 Populus angustifolia / Rosa woodsii Riparian Forest
CEGL000654 Populus angustifolia / Salix exigua Riparian Woodland
CEGL000655 Populus angustifolia / Salix ligulifolia - Shepherdia argentea Riparian Woodland
CEGL000656 Populus angustifolia - Populus deltoides - Salix amygdaloides Riparian Forest
CEGL000659 Populus deltoides - (Salix amygdaloides) / Salix (exigua, interior) Floodplain Woodland
CEGL000660 Populus deltoides / Symphoricarpos occidentalis Floodplain Woodland
CEGL000662 Populus fremontii / Acer negundo Riparian Forest
CEGL000666 Populus fremontii / Salix exigua Riparian Forest
CEGL000746 Juniperus scopulorum / Cornus sericea Riparian Woodland
CEGL000853 Pinus ponderosa / Cornus sericea Riparian Woodland
CEGL000855 Pinus ponderosa / Crataegus douglasii Riparian Woodland
CEGL000858 Pinus ponderosa / Juglans major Flooded Woodland
CEGL000899 Pseudotsuga menziesii / Cornus sericea Riparian Woodland
CEGL000934 Populus angustifolia - Picea pungens / Alnus incana Riparian Woodland
CEGL000935 Populus angustifolia - Pinus ponderosa Riparian Woodland
CEGL000936 Acer negundo / Betula occidentalis Riparian Woodland
CEGL000939 Populus deltoides (ssp. wislizeni, ssp. monilifera) / Distichlis spicata Riparian Woodland
CEGL000940 Populus deltoides ssp. wislizeni / Rhus trilobata Riparian Woodland
CEGL000943 Populus fremontii / Salix geyeriana Riparian Woodland
CEGL000944 Populus fremontii - Salix gooddingii Riparian Woodland
CEGL000947 Salix amygdaloides Riparian Woodland
CEGL001084 Betula occidentalis / Purshia tridentata / Hesperostipa comata Wet Shrubland
CEGL001121 Rhus trilobata Moist Wet Shrubland
CEGL001128 Shepherdia argentea Wet Shrubland
CEGL001168 Forestiera pubescens Wet Shrubland
CEGL001194 Salix eastwoodiae Wet Shrubland
CEGL001195 Salix eastwoodiae / Carex aquatilis Wet Shrubland
CEGL001196 Salix eastwoodiae / Carex utriculata Wet Shrubland
CEGL001197 Salix exigua Riparian Wet Shrubland
CEGL001198 Salix exigua / Elymus x pseudorepens Wet Shrubland
CEGL001199 Salix exigua / Agrostis stolonifera Ruderal Wet Shrubland
CEGL001201 Salix exigua / Equisetum arvense Wet Shrubland
CEGL001202 Salix exigua / Mesic Forbs Wet Shrubland
CEGL001203 Salix exigua / Mesic Graminoids Western Wet Shrubland
CEGL001204 Salix exigua - Salix lucida ssp. caudata Wet Shrubland
CEGL001214 Salix irrorata Wet Shrubland
CEGL001216 Salix lasiolepis / Barren Ground Wet Shrubland
CEGL001217 Salix lasiolepis / Rosa woodsii / Mixed Herbs Wet Shrubland
CEGL001218 Salix ligulifolia Wet Shrubland
CEGL001474 Phalaris arundinacea Western Marsh
CEGL001475 Phragmites australis Western Ruderal Wet Meadow
CEGL001476 Spartina pectinata Western Wet Meadow
CEGL001481 Leymus cinereus - Distichlis spicata Alkaline Wet Meadow
CEGL001558 Agrostis (gigantea, stolonifera) Ruderal Marsh
CEGL001588 Spartina gracilis Wet Meadow
CEGL001770 Distichlis spicata Alkaline Wet Meadow
CEGL001809 Carex pellita Wet Meadow
CEGL001833 Eleocharis palustris Marsh
CEGL001838 Juncus balticus Wet Meadow
CEGL002241 Equisetum laevigatum Wet Meadow
CEGL002336 Populus deltoides ssp. wislizeni / Acer negundo Flooded Woodland
CEGL002342 Acer negundo - Ostrya knowltonii Riparian Woodland
CEGL002465 Populus fremontii / Ericameria nauseosa Riparian Woodland
CEGL002470 Populus fremontii / Mesic Forbs Riparian Woodland
CEGL002473 Populus fremontii / Mesic Graminoids Riparian Woodland
CEGL002599 Acer negundo - Celtis laevigata var. reticulata Riparian Woodland
CEGL002638 Pinus ponderosa / Alnus incana Riparian Woodland
CEGL002639 Pseudotsuga menziesii / Betula occidentalis Riparian Woodland
CEGL002640 Populus angustifolia - Juniperus scopulorum Riparian Woodland
CEGL002641 Populus angustifolia - Pseudotsuga menziesii Riparian Woodland
CEGL002642 Populus angustifolia / Alnus incana Riparian Woodland
CEGL002643 Populus angustifolia Sand Dune Riparian Forest
CEGL002644 Populus angustifolia / Crataegus rivularis Riparian Woodland
CEGL002645 Populus angustifolia / Salix (monticola, drummondiana, lucida) Riparian Woodland
CEGL002646 Populus angustifolia / Salix drummondiana - Acer glabrum Riparian Woodland
CEGL002647 Populus angustifolia / Salix irrorata Riparian Woodland
CEGL002648 Populus angustifolia / Symphoricarpos (albus, occidentalis, oreophilus) Riparian Woodland
CEGL002655 Salix exigua - Salix ligulifolia Wet Shrubland
CEGL002660 Carex praegracilis Wet Meadow
CEGL002664 Populus angustifolia / Cornus sericea Riparian Woodland
CEGL002685 Populus deltoides (ssp. wislizeni, ssp. monilifera) / Salix exigua Riparian Woodland
CEGL002692 Acer negundo / Brickellia (grandiflora, longifolia) Riparian Woodland
CEGL002693 Acer negundo / Disturbed Understory Riparian Woodland
CEGL002750 Acer negundo / Rhus trilobata Riparian Woodland
CEGL002752 Fraxinus anomala Riparian Woodland
CEGL002756 Populus fremontii / Leymus triticoides Riparian Woodland
CEGL002760 Equisetum hyemale Wet Meadow
CEGL002797 Acer negundo / Quercus gambelii Riparian Woodland
CEGL002800 Conyza canadensis Ruderal Wet Meadow
CEGL002981 Populus fremontii / Betula occidentalis Wooded Shrubland
CEGL003081 Poa pratensis Ruderal Marsh
CEGL003114 Tamarix spp. Ruderal Riparian Shrubland
CEGL003453 Salix lasiolepis - Cornus sericea / Rosa woodsii Wet Shrubland
CEGL003550 Juniperus scopulorum Woodland
CEGL003749 Populus angustifolia / Invasive Perennial Grasses Ruderal Riparian Woodland
CEGL003778 Salix gooddingii / Salix exigua Riparian Woodland
CEGL003780 Salix lutea Wet Shrubland
CEGL003810 Populus deltoides ssp. wislizeni / Disturbed Understory Ruderal Flooded Woodland
CEGL005148 Equisetum (arvense, variegatum) Wet Meadow
CEGL005260 Cirsium arvense - Weedy Forbs Great Plains Ruderal Forbland
CEGL005269 Elaeagnus angustifolia Ruderal Riparian Woodland
CEGL005322 Salix lutea / Leymus cinereus Wet Shrubland
CEGL005365 Populus fremontii / Artemisia tridentata Riparian Woodland
CEGL005383 Acer negundo - Alnus oblongifolia Riparian Forest
CEGL005384 Pinus ponderosa / Forestiera pubescens Riparian Woodland
CEGL005656 Salix exigua / Gravel Bar Wet Shrubland
CEGL005868 Elymus repens Ruderal Grassland
CEGL005940 Acer negundo - Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia Riparian Forest
CEGL005966 Populus deltoides (ssp. wislizeni, ssp. monilifera) / Artemisia tridentata Flooded Woodland
CEGL005998 Artemisia cana / Juncus balticus Wet Shrubland



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Woody Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Linear
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: No
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Montane Lower Montane
Riverine / Alluvial  
Mineral: W/ A-Horizon <10 cm  
Unconsolidated  
Short (<5 yrs) Flooding Interval  
Short (50-100 yrs) Persistence  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Shrubland (Shrub-dominated)  
Braided channel or stream  
Drainage bottom (undifferentiated)  
Floodplain  
Stream terrace (undifferentiated)  
Valley bottom  
Temperate Temperate Continental
Circumneutral Water  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Aquilegia laramiensis
  (Laramie Columbine)
G2G3  
Astragalus cottonii
  (Cotton's Milkvetch)
G2Q  
Botrychium ascendens
  (Upward-lobed Moonwort)
G3  
Botrychium lineare
  (Narrowleaf Grapefern)
G3  
Centrocercus minimus
  (Gunnison Sage-Grouse)
G2G3 LT: Listed threatened
Centrocercus urophasianus
  (Greater Sage-Grouse)
G3G4  
Deroceras hesperium
  (Evening Fieldslug)
G2Q  
Empidonax traillii extimus
  (Southwestern Willow Flycatcher)
G5T2 LE: Listed endangered
Gaura neomexicana ssp. coloradensis
  (Colorado Butterfly Plant)
G3T2 LT: Listed threatened
Juncus tweedyi
  (Tweedy's Rush)
G3Q  
Lasionycteris noctivagans
  (Silver-haired Bat)
G3G4  
Lasiurus cinereus
  (Hoary Bat)
G3G4  
Lepidium integrifolium var. integrifolium
  (Entire Thickleaf Pepperwort)
G2G3T2T3  
Myotis lucifugus
  (Little Brown Myotis)
G3  
Myotis septentrionalis
  (Northern Myotis)
G1G2 LT: Listed threatened
Ranunculus aestivalis
  (Autumn Buttercup)
G1 LE: Listed endangered
Rorippa calycina
  (Persistent-sepal Yellowcress)
G3  
Speyeria nokomis nokomis
  (Nokomis Fritillary)
G3T1  
Trifolium barnebyi
  (Barneby's Clover)
G1G2  
Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus
  (Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse)
G4T3  
Zapus hudsonius luteus
  (New Mexico Jumping Mouse)
G5T2 LE: Listed endangered
Zapus hudsonius preblei
  (Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse)
G5T2 LT: Listed threatened

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer glabrum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Populus angustifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Populus deltoides G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Populus fremontii G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Juniperus scopulorum G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Picea pungens G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pseudotsuga menziesii G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Acer negundo G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Alnus incana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Betula occidentalis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Prunus virginiana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Salix amygdaloides G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Cornus sericea G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Crataegus rivularis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Forestiera pubescens G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rhus trilobata G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Salix drummondiana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Salix exigua G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Salix irrorata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Salix lucida G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Salix monticola G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Shepherdia argentea G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Salix candida G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling      
 
 
Aquilegia laramiensis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Cypripedium fasciculatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Epipactis gigantea G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Gaura neomexicana ssp. coloradensis T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lepidium integrifolium var. integrifolium T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lomatogonium rotatum G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Mimulus primuloides G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Nama densum G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Ranunculus aestivalis G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rorippa calycina G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rubus arcticus ssp. acaulis T5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trifolium barnebyi G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium ascendens G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium lineare G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium minganense G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex crawei G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex diandra G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex gynocrates G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex retrorsa G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Eriophorum chamissonis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Juncus tweedyi G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Muhlenbergia glomerata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Potamogeton diversifolius G5 Aquatic herb Floating aquatic      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Anaxyrus boreas
  (Western Toad)
G4      
Antigone canadensis tabida
  (Greater Sandhill Crane)
G5T5      
Antigone canadensis
  (Sandhill Crane)
G5      
Bucephala albeola
  (Bufflehead)
G5      
Bucephala islandica
  (Barrow's Goldeneye)
G5      
Catharus fuscescens
  (Veery)
G5      
Centrocercus minimus
  (Gunnison Sage-Grouse)
G2G3 LT: Listed threatened    
Centrocercus urophasianus
  (Greater Sage-Grouse)
G3G4      
Chrysemys picta
  (Northern Painted Turtle)
G5      
Coccyzus americanus
  (Yellow-billed Cuckoo)
G5      
Coluber constrictor
  (North American Racer)
G5      
Cypseloides niger
  (Black Swift)
G4      
Deroceras hesperium
  (Evening Fieldslug)
G2Q      
Empidonax traillii extimus
  (Southwestern Willow Flycatcher)
G5T2 LE: Listed endangered    
Empidonax traillii
  (Willow Flycatcher)
G5      
Euderma maculatum
  (Spotted Bat)
G4      
Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  (Bald Eagle)
G5      
Idionycteris phyllotis
  (Allen's Big-eared Bat)
G4      
Lasionycteris noctivagans
  (Silver-haired Bat)
G3G4      
Lasiurus blossevillii
  (Western Red Bat)
G4      
Lasiurus cinereus
  (Hoary Bat)
G3G4      
Lithobates pipiens
  (Northern Leopard Frog)
G5      
Lithobates yavapaiensis
  (Yavapai Leopard Frog)
G4      
Melanerpes uropygialis
  (Gila Woodpecker)
G5      
Myotis ciliolabrum
  (Western Small-footed Myotis)
G5      
Myotis evotis
  (Long-eared Myotis)
G5      
Myotis lucifugus
  (Little Brown Myotis)
G3      
Myotis occultus
  (Arizona Myotis)
G4G5      
Myotis septentrionalis
  (Northern Myotis)
G1G2 LT: Listed threatened    
Myotis thysanodes
  (Fringed Myotis)
G4      
Myotis volans
  (Long-legged Myotis)
G4G5      
Myotis yumanensis
  (Yuma Myotis)
G5      
Ochlodes yuma
  (Yuma Skipper)
G5      
Opheodrys vernalis
  (Smooth Greensnake)
G5      
Pandion haliaetus
  (Osprey)
G5      
Pituophis catenifer
  (Gophersnake)
G5      
Rana luteiventris
  (Columbia Spotted Frog)
G4      
Sceloporus magister
  (Desert Spiny Lizard)
G5      
Setophaga petechia
  (Yellow Warbler)
G5      
Speyeria nokomis nokomis
  (Nokomis Fritillary)
G3T1      
Spizella breweri
  (Brewer's Sparrow)
G5      
Tadarida brasiliensis
  (Brazilian Free-tailed Bat)
G5      
Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus
  (Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse)
G4T3      
Tympanuchus phasianellus
  (Sharp-tailed Grouse)
G5      
Zapus hudsonius luteus
  (New Mexico Jumping Mouse)
G5T2 LE: Listed endangered    
Zapus hudsonius preblei
  (Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse)
G5T2 LT: Listed threatened    
Zapus hudsonius
  (Meadow Jumping Mouse)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: AZ, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, SD, UT, WY
Global Range: This system is found throughout the lower montane Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau regions within a broad elevation range from approximately 900 to 2800 m. It is also found in the island mountain ranges of central and eastern Montana.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
304-Inter-Mountain Basins C: Confident or certain
306-Rocky Mountain C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
11 Great Basin Confident or certain
18 Utah High Plateaus Confident or certain
19 Colorado Plateau Confident or certain
20 Southern Rocky Mountains Confident or certain
21 Arizona-New Mexico Mountains Confident or certain
25 Black Hills Confident or certain
26 Northern Great Plains Steppe Confident or certain
6 Columbia Plateau Predicted or probable
8 Middle Rockies - Blue Mountains Confident or certain
9 Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
8 Grande Coulee Basin of the Columbia Plateau Possible
9 Blue Mountain Region Confident or certain
13 Death Valley Basin Confident or certain
15 Mogollon Rim Confident or certain
16 Utah High Plateaus Confident or certain
17 Eastern Great Basin Predicted or probable
18 Snake River Plain Confident or certain
20 Missouri River Plateau Confident or certain
21 Middle Rocky Mountains Confident or certain
22 Wyoming Basin Confident or certain
23 Colorado Plateau Confident or certain
24 Navajo Plateau Confident or certain
25 Rio Grande Basin Confident or certain
26 Chihuahuan Desert Confident or certain
27 Great Plains Tablelands Confident or certain
28 Southern Rocky Mountains Confident or certain
29 Wyoming Highlands Confident or certain
33 Western Great Plains Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9156

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jan2014
Element Description Author(s): M.S. Reid and G. Kittel

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Baker, W. L. 1988. Size-class structure of contiguous riparian woodlands along a Rocky Mountain river. Physical Geography 9(1):1-14.

  • Baker, W. L. 1989a. Macro- and micro-scale influences on riparian vegetation in western Colorado. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 79(1):65-78.

  • Baker, W. L. 1989b. Classification of the riparian vegetation of the montane and subalpine zones in western Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist 49(2):214-228.

  • Baker, W. L. 1990. Climatic and hydrologic effects on the regeneration of Populus angustifolia James along the Animas River, Colorado. Journal of Biogeography 17:59-73.

  • Bales, R. C., N. P. Molotch, T. H. Painter, M. D. Dettinger, R. Rice, and J. Dozier. 2006. Mountain hydrology of the western United States. Water Resources Research 42(8).

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2005-2010b. Ecosystem descriptions and EIA specifications. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/projects/eco_systems/] (accessed September 9, 2013).

  • Comer, P. J., M. S. Reid, R. J. Rondeau, A. Black, J. Stevens, J. Bell, M. Menefee, and D. Cogan. 2002. A working classification of terrestrial ecological systems in the Northern Colorado Plateau: Analysis of their relation to the National Vegetation Classification System and application to mapping. NatureServe. Report to the National Park Service. 23 pp. plus appendices.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Comer, P., P. Crist, M. Reid, J. Hak, H. Hamilton, D. Braun, G. Kittel, I. Varley, B. Unnasch, S. Auer, M. Creutzburg, D. Theobald, and L. Kutner. 2013a. Central Basin and Range rapid ecoregional assessment report. Prepared for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 168 pp. plus appendices.

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