NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
 
Ecological System Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected. View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Classification
Scientific Name: North Pacific Shrub Swamp
Unique Identifier: CES204.865
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate

Search for Images on Google
Summary: Swamps vegetated by shrublands occur throughout the Pacific Northwest Coast, from Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound, Alaska, to the southern coast of Oregon. These are deciduous broadleaf tall shrublands that are located in depressions, around lakes or ponds, or river terraces where water tables fluctuate seasonally (mostly seasonally flooded regime), in areas that receive nutrient-rich waters. These depressions are poorly drained with fine-textured organic, muck or mineral soils and standing water common throughout the growing season. Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata often dominates the shrub layer, but many Salix species may also occur. The shrub layer can have many dead stems. However, various species of Salix, Spiraea douglasii, Malus fusca, Cornus sericea, Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia (= Alnus tenuifolia), Alnus viridis ssp. crispa (= Alnus crispa), and/or Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata (= Alnus sinuata) can be the major dominants. They may occur in mosaics with marshes or forested swamps, being on average more wet than forested swamps and more dry than marshes. However, it is also frequent for them to dominate entire wetland systems. Hardwood-dominated stands (especially Fraxinus latifolia) may be considered a shrub swamp when they are not surrounded by conifer forests but do not occur in Alaska. Typical landscape for the Fraxinus latifolia stands were very often formerly dominated by prairies and now by agriculture. Wetland species, including Carex aquatilis var. dives (= Carex sitchensis), Carex utriculata, Equisetum fluviatile, and Lysichiton americanus, dominate the understory. On some sites, Sphagnum spp. are common in the understory (Stikine, Yakutat Forelands, Copper River Delta).

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: Shrub swamps are usually not intermixed with the forested swamps and tend to be more wet. Deciduous and conifer forested swamps are often intermixed and more similar to each other in hydrology, and so are combined into North Pacific Hardwood-Conifer Swamp (CES204.090). This system includes what is known by the Alaska Natural Heritage Program as Maritime Tall-Shrub Swamp. Associations found in this system in Alaska need to be identified and added to the list. Deciduous shrub swamps in the Cook Inlet Basin are better placed in Western North American Boreal Deciduous Shrub Swamp (CES105.122).

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES105.144 Western North American Boreal Riparian Stringer Forest and Shrubland


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL000640 Fraxinus latifolia / Carex obnupta Riparian Forest
CEGL001129 Spiraea douglasii Wet Shrubland
CEGL001250 Vaccinium uliginosum / Deschampsia cespitosa Wet Shrubland
CEGL002896 Salix sitchensis Wet Shrubland
CEGL003292 Cornus sericea - Salix (hookeriana, sitchensis) Shrub Swamp
CEGL003293 Alnus (incana, viridis ssp. sinuata) / Lysichiton americanus - Oenanthe sarmentosa Shrub Swamp
CEGL003295 Salix geyeriana - Salix hookeriana Wet Shrubland
CEGL003336 Myrica gale / Boykinia intermedia - Carex obnupta Fen
CEGL003365 Fraxinus latifolia / Carex deweyana - Urtica dioica Riparian Forest
CEGL003385 Malus fusca Shrub Swamp
CEGL003386 Salix (hookeriana, sitchensis) - Spiraea douglasii Wet Shrubland
CEGL003387 Salix hookeriana - (Salix sitchensis) Wet Shrubland
CEGL003391 Fraxinus latifolia / Juncus patens Riparian Forest
CEGL003392 Fraxinus latifolia / Spiraea douglasii Riparian Forest
CEGL003393 Fraxinus latifolia / Symphoricarpos albus Riparian Forest
CEGL003432 Salix hookeriana - (Malus fusca) / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus Wet Shrubland
CEGL003437 Ledum glandulosum - Gaultheria shallon / Carex obnupta Fen
CEGL003438 Vaccinium cespitosum / Sanguisorba officinalis Fen
CEGL005301 Cornus sericea Pacific Shrub Swamp



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Woody Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: No
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Depressional Lakeshore
Broad-Leaved Deciduous Tree  
Broad-Leaved Deciduous Shrub  
Eutrophic Water  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Lowland Lowland
Depressional Pond
Depressional Sinkhole

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Arenaria paludicola
  (Marsh Sandwort)
G1 LE: Listed endangered
Eanus hatchi
  (Hatch's Click Beetle)
G1  
Erigeron peregrinus var. thompsonii
  (Thompson's Wandering Daisy)
G5T3  
Howellia aquatilis
  (Water Howellia)
G3 LT: Listed threatened
Pristiloma pilsbryi
  (Crowned Tightcoil)
G1  
Trillium parviflorum
  (Small-flowered Trillium)
G2G3  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Fraxinus latifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia T5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Alnus viridis ssp. crispa T5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata T5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Cornus sericea G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Malus fusca G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Spiraea douglasii G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Arenaria paludicola G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Erigeron peregrinus var. thompsonii T3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lysichiton americanus G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Trillium parviflorum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Equisetum fluviatile G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex aquatilis var. dives T5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex utriculata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Ambystoma gracile
  (Northwestern Salamander)
G5      
Eanus hatchi
  (Hatch's Click Beetle)
G1      
Hyliola regilla
  (Pacific Treefrog)
G5      
Microtus townsendii
  (Townsend's Vole)
G5      
Pristiloma pilsbryi
  (Crowned Tightcoil)
G1      
Taricha granulosa
  (Rough-skinned Newt)
G5      
Zapus trinotatus
  (Pacific Jumping Mouse)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: AK, OR, WA
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: BC
Global Range: This system occurs throughout the Pacific Northwest Coast, from Cook Inlet Basin and Prince William Sound, Alaska, to the southern coast of Oregon.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
204-North American Pacific Maritime C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Pacific Northwest Coast Confident or certain
2 Puget Trough - Willamette Valley - Georgia Basin Confident or certain
3 North Cascades Confident or certain
4 Modoc Plateau and East Cascades Confident or certain
69 S.E. Alaska - B.C. Coastal Forest and Mountains Confident or certain
70 Gulf of Alaska Mountains and Fjordlands Confident or certain
81 West Cascades Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Northern Cascades Confident or certain
2 Oregon Coastal Range Confident or certain
3 Northern California Coastal Range Predicted or probable
7 Cascade Mountain Range Confident or certain
9 Blue Mountain Region Possible
76 Southwest Alaska Never was there
77 Prince William Confident or certain
78 Southeast Alaska Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9173
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1663
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2663

West Landfire Legend: Yes
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 10Dec2008
Element Description Author(s): G. Kittel, P. Comer, K. Boggs, C. Chappell

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Boggs, K. 2002. Terrestrial ecological systems for the Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay, and Alaska Peninsula ecoregions. The Nature Conservancy, Anchorage, AK.

  • Chappell, C., and J. Christy. 2004. Willamette Valley-Puget Trough-Georgia Basin Ecoregion Terrestrial Ecological System EO Specs and EO Rank Specs. Appendix 11 in: J. Floberg, M. Goering, G. Wilhere, C. MacDonald, C. Chappell, C. Rumsey, Z. Ferdana, A. Holt, P. Skidmore, T. Horsman, E. Alverson, C. Tanner, M. Bryer, P. Lachetti, A. Harcombe, B. McDonald, T. Cook, M. Summers, and D. Rolph. Willamette Valley-Puget Trough-Georgia Basin Ecoregional Assessment, Volume One: Report prepared by The Nature Conservancy with support from The Nature Conservancy of Canada, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Natural Resources (Natural Heritage and Nearshore Habitat programs), Oregon State Natural Heritage Information Center and the British Columbia Conservation Data Centre.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Franklin, J. F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. General Technical Report PNW-8. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 417 pp.

  • Viereck, L. A., C. T. Dyrness, A. R. Batten, and K. J. Wenzlick. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. General Technical Report PNW-GTR286. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. 278 pp.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019