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Classification
Scientific Name: North Pacific Montane Riparian Woodland and Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CES204.866
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate

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Summary: This ecological system occurs throughout mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest coast, both on the mainland and on larger islands. It occurs on steep streams and narrow floodplains above foothills but below the alpine environments, e.g., above 1500 m (4550 feet) elevation in the Klamath Mountains and western Cascades of Oregon, up as high as 3300 m (10,000 feet) in the southern Cascades, and above 610 m (2000 feet) in northern Washington. Surrounding habitats include subalpine parklands and montane forests. In Washington, they are defined as occurring primarily above the Tsuga heterophylla zone, i.e., beginning at or near the lower boundary of the Abies amabilis zone. Dominant species include Pinus contorta var. murrayana, Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa, Abies lowiana, Abies magnifica, Populus tremuloides, Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia, Alnus viridis ssp. crispa, Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata, Alnus rubra, Rubus spectabilis, Ribes bracteosum, Oplopanax horridus, Acer circinatum, and several Salix species. In western Washington, major species are Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata, Acer circinatum, Salix, Oplopanax horridus, Alnus rubra, Petasites frigidus, Rubus spectabilis, and Ribes bracteosum. This is a disturbance-driven system that requires flooding, scour and deposition for germination and maintenance. It occurs on streambanks where the vegetation is significantly different than surrounding forests, usually because of its shrubby or deciduous character.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: Riparian and floodplain woodlands and shrublands in Alaska have been placed into a different system. Still need to determine where the Alaskan type grades into this one, and whether British Columbian riparian systems should be placed here or in the new Alaskan system.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES204.154 Alaskan Pacific Floodplain Forest and Shrubland


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL001079 Betula glandulosa / Carex utriculata Wet Shrubland
CEGL001141 Alnus incana Wet Shrubland
CEGL001145 Alnus incana / Cornus sericea Wet Shrubland
CEGL001146 Alnus incana / Equisetum arvense Wet Shrubland
CEGL001147 Alnus incana / Mesic Forbs Wet Shrubland
CEGL001152 Alnus incana / Spiraea douglasii Wet Shrubland
CEGL001153 Alnus incana / Symphoricarpos albus Wet Shrubland
CEGL001156 Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata / Athyrium filix-femina - Cinna latifolia Wet Shrubland
CEGL001157 Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata / Oplopanax horridus Shrub Swamp
CEGL001176 Salix (boothii, geyeriana) / Carex aquatilis Wet Shrubland
CEGL001178 Salix boothii / Carex utriculata Wet Shrubland
CEGL001185 Salix boothii - Salix geyeriana / Carex angustata Wet Shrubland
CEGL001186 Salix boothii - Salix lemmonii Wet Shrubland
CEGL001189 Salix commutata / Carex scopulorum Wet Shrubland
CEGL002607 Salix boothii - Salix eastwoodiae / Carex nigricans Wet Shrubland
CEGL002628 Alnus incana / Athyrium filix-femina Wet Shrubland
CEGL002631 Salix drummondiana / Carex utriculata Wet Shrubland
CEGL003296 Salix sitchensis / Equisetum arvense - Petasites frigidus Wet Shrubland



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Woody Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Linear
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: No
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Temperate Temperate Oceanic
Riverine / Alluvial  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Montane Montane
Short (50-100 yrs) Persistence  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Allomyia scotti
  (Scott's Caddisfly)
G1  
Batrachoseps wrightorum
  (Oregon Slender Salamander)
G3  
Eanus hatchi
  (Hatch's Click Beetle)
G1  
Hemphillia pantherina
  (Panther Jumping-slug)
G1  
Penstemon eriantherus var. whitedii
  (Crested-tongue Beardtongue)
G4G5T2  
Pristiloma johnsoni
  (Broadwhorl Tightcoil Snail)
G3  
Pterostichus rothi
  (Blind Carabid Beetle)
G2?  
Rana pretiosa
  (Oregon Spotted Frog)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Rivulariella gemmipara
  (a liverwort)
G2  
Sidalcea oregana var. calva
  (Oregon Checker-mallow)
G5T1 LE: Listed endangered

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa T5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Populus tremuloides G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Abies concolor var. lowiana T5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Abies magnifica G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus contorta var. murrayana T4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pseudotsuga menziesii G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tsuga heterophylla G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Alnus rubra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Acer circinatum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia T5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Alnus viridis ssp. crispa T5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata T5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Oplopanax horridus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ribes bracteosum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rubus spectabilis G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Salix scouleriana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Maianthemum stellatum G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Penstemon eriantherus var. whitedii T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Sidalcea oregana var. calva T1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rivulariella gemmipara G2 Liverwort/hornwort Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Allomyia scotti
  (Scott's Caddisfly)
G1      
Aplodontia rufa
  (Mountain Beaver)
G5      
Batrachoseps wrightorum
  (Oregon Slender Salamander)
G3      
Eanus hatchi
  (Hatch's Click Beetle)
G1      
Hemphillia pantherina
  (Panther Jumping-slug)
G1      
Microtus richardsoni
  (North American Water Vole)
G5      
Mustela erminea
  (Ermine)
G5      
Mustela frenata
  (Long-tailed Weasel)
G5      
Pristiloma johnsoni
  (Broadwhorl Tightcoil Snail)
G3      
Pterostichus rothi
  (Blind Carabid Beetle)
G2?      
Rana pretiosa
  (Oregon Spotted Frog)
G2 LT: Listed threatened    
Sorex monticolus
  (Dusky Shrew)
G5      
Sorex palustris
  (American Water Shrew)
G5      
Sorex vagrans
  (Vagrant Shrew)
G5      
Zapus trinotatus
  (Pacific Jumping Mouse)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: OR, WA
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: BC
Global Range: This system occurs throughout mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest Coast, both on the mainland and on larger islands, above 1500 m (4550 feet) elevation in the Klamath Mountains and western Cascades, up as high as 3300 m (10,000 feet) in the southern Cascades, and above 610 m (2000 feet) in northern Washington.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
204-North American Pacific Maritime C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Pacific Northwest Coast Confident or certain
3 North Cascades Confident or certain
4 Modoc Plateau and East Cascades Confident or certain
69 S.E. Alaska - B.C. Coastal Forest and Mountains Possible
81 West Cascades Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Northern Cascades Confident or certain
2 Oregon Coastal Range Confident or certain
3 Northern California Coastal Range Possible
7 Cascade Mountain Range Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9108
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1158
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2158

West Landfire Legend: Yes
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 08Dec2008
Element Description Author(s): G. Kittel and C. Chappell

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Banner, A., W. MacKenzie, S. Haeussler, S. Thomson, J. Pojar, and R. Trowbridge. 1993. A field guide to site identification and interpretation for the Prince Rupert Forest Region. Ministry of Forests Research Program. Victoria, BC. Parts 1 and 2. Land Management Handbook Number 26.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • DeLong, C. 2003. A field guide to site identification and interpretation for the southeast portion of the Prince George Forest Region. Land Manage. Handbook No. 51. Province of British Columbia, Research Branch, Ministry of Forestry, Victoria, BC. [http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Lmh/Lmh51.htm]

  • DeLong, C., D. Tanner, and M. J. Jull. 1993. A field guide for site identification and interpretation for the southwest portion of the Prince George Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 24. British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Branch, Victoria, British Columbia.

  • DeLong, C., D. Tanner, and M. J. Jull. 1994. A field guide for site identification and interpretation for the northern Rockies portion of the Prince George Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 29. Province of British Columbia, Research Branch, Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Franklin, J. F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. General Technical Report PNW-8. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 417 pp.

  • Holland, V. L., and D. J. Keil. 1995. California vegetation. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. 516 pp.

  • Lloyd, D. A., K. Angove, G. Hope, and C. Thompson. 1990. A guide for site identification and interpretation of the Kamloops Forest Region. 2 volumes. Land Management Handbook No. 23. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC. [http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/lmh/lmh23.htm]

  • MacKinnon, A., C. DeLong, and D. Meidinger. 1990. A field guide for identification and interpretation of ecosystems of the northwest portion of the Prince George Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 21. Province of British Columbia, Research Branch, Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.

  • Meidinger, D., A. McLeod, A. MacKinnon, C. DeLong, and G. Hope. 1988. A field guide for identification and interpretation of ecosystems of the Rocky Mountain Trench, Prince George Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 15. Province of British Columbia, Research Branch, Ministry of Forests and Lands, Victoria, BC.

  • Steen, O. A., and R. A. Coupé. 1997. A field guide to forest site identification and interpretation for the Cariboo Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 39. Parts 1 and 2. British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program, Victoria, BC.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.


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