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Classification
Scientific Name: Temperate Pacific Freshwater Emergent Marsh
Unique Identifier: CES200.877
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate

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Summary: Freshwater marshes are found at all elevations below timberline throughout the temperate Pacific Coast and mountains of western North America. In the Pacific Northwest, they are mostly small-patch, confined to limited areas in suitable floodplain or basin topography. They are mostly semipermanently flooded, but some marshes have seasonal hydrologic flooding. Water is at or above the surface for most of the growing season. Soils are muck or mineral (in Alaska typically muck over a mineral soil), and water is high-nutrient. Occurrences of this system typically are found in a mosaic with other wetland systems. It is often found along the borders of ponds, lakes or reservoirs that have more open basins and a permanent water source throughout all or most of the year. Some of the specific communities will also be found in floodplain systems where more extensive bottomlands remain. By definition, freshwater marshes are dominated by emergent herbaceous species, mostly graminoids (Carex, Scirpus and/or Schoenoplectus, Eleocharis, Juncus, Typha latifolia) but also some forbs. Common emergent and floating vegetation includes species of Scirpus and/or Schoenoplectus, Typha, Eleocharis, Sparganium, Sagittaria, Bidens, Cicuta, Rorippa, Mimulus, and Phalaris. Maritime Alaska freshwater marshes are described as having Carex rostrata, Equisetum fluviatile (often pure stands), Carex aquatilis var. dives, Menyanthes trifoliata, Comarum palustre, Eleocharis palustris, and Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani. In relatively deep water, there may be occurrences of the freshwater aquatic bed system, where there are floating-leaved genera such as Lemna, Potamogeton, Polygonum, Nuphar, Hydrocotyle, and Brasenia. A consistent source of freshwater is essential to the function of these systems.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: In Alaska, freshwater marshes found in floodplain wetland mosaics are not included in this system. Also, freshwater marshes on Kodiak Island, Alaska, are placed into Aleutian Freshwater Marsh (CES105.235). This system encompasses a very large geographic range. We may want to split it into two types, on a north-south gradient. However, the species composition and environmental settings of freshwater marshes throughout the temperate Pacific region are markedly similar. Where to make a split that would make sense biogeographically is hard to determine. For now, they are maintained as one ecological system.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES105.235 Aleutian Freshwater Marsh


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL001562 Carex utriculata Wet Meadow
CEGL001820 Carex obnupta - Argentina egedii ssp. egedii Wet Meadow
CEGL001831 Dulichium arundinaceum Shore Fen
CEGL001840 Schoenoplectus acutus Marsh
CEGL001990 Sparganium angustifolium Aquatic Vegetation
CEGL002010 Typha (latifolia, angustifolia) Western Marsh
CEGL002623 Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani Temperate Marsh
CEGL002746 Equisetum fluviatile Marsh
CEGL003312 Carex exsiccata Wet Meadow
CEGL003313 Carex obnupta Wet Meadow
CEGL003317 Juncus effusus var. brunneus Pacific Coast Wet Meadow
CEGL003319 Oenanthe sarmentosa Marsh
CEGL003320 Paspalum distichum Marsh
CEGL003321 Sagittaria latifolia Aquatic Vegetation
CEGL003322 Scirpus microcarpus Marsh
CEGL003323 Sparganium eurycarpum Aquatic Vegetation
CEGL003324 Bidens cernua Mudflat
CEGL003379 Carex obnupta - Juncus patens Wet Meadow
CEGL003413 Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis - Carex obnupta Wet Meadow
CEGL003425 Deschampsia cespitosa - Artemisia lindleyana Marsh
CEGL003426 Ranunculus flammula - Juncus nevadensis - Carex lenticularis Marsh



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Herbaceous Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Small patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: No
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Herbaceous  
Temperate Temperate Continental
Depressional Pond

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Montane Montane
Montane Lower Montane
Lowland Foothill
Lowland Lowland
Depressional Lakeshore
Depressional Sinkhole
30-180-day hydroperiod  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Actinemys marmorata
  (Western Pond Turtle)
G3G4  
Agelaius tricolor
  (Tricolored Blackbird)
G1G2  
Alopecurus aequalis var. sonomensis
  (Sonoma Shortawn Foxtail)
G5T1 LE: Listed endangered
Bacopa eisenii
  (Gila River Water-hyssop)
G3?  
Calystegia sepium ssp. binghamiae
  (Santa Barbara Morning-glory)
G5TXQ  
Campanula californica
  (Swamp Harebell)
G3  
Carex hirtissima
  (Fuzzy Sedge)
G2?Q  
Carex saliniformis
  (Santa Cruz Sedge)
G2  
Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
  (Bolander's Water-hemlock)
G5T3T4  
Cirsium crassicaule
  (Slough Thistle)
G1  
Cirsium hydrophilum
  (Suisun Thistle)
G2  
Cirsium hydrophilum var. hydrophilum
  (Suisun Thistle)
G2T1 LE: Listed endangered
Eleocharis flavescens var. thermalis
  (Pale Spikerush)
G5T2T3Q  
Helianthus nuttallii ssp. parishii
  (Los Angeles Sunflower)
G5TH  
Iva hayesiana
  (San Diego Marsh-elder)
G3?  
Lilium occidentale
  (Western Lily)
G1G2 LE: Listed endangered
Oncorhynchus mykiss pop. 31
  (Steelhead - Oregon Coast Winter Run)
G5T2T3Q  
Pleuropogon hooverianus
  (North Coast False Semaphore Grass)
G2  
Potentilla hickmanii
  (Hickman's Cinquefoil)
G1 LE: Listed endangered
Rana cascadae
  (Cascades Frog)
G3G4  
Rana pretiosa
  (Oregon Spotted Frog)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Rhynchospora californica
  (California Beakrush)
G1  
Rorippa gambelii
  (Gambel's Watercress)
G1 LE: Listed endangered
Sagittaria sanfordii
  (Sanford's Arrowhead)
G3  
Salvelinus confluentus pop. 26
  (Bull Trout - Mid-Columbia)
G5T3 LT: Listed threatened
Sidalcea calycosa ssp. rhizomata
  (Point Reyes Checkerbloom)
G5T2  
Sidalcea stipularis
  (Scadden Flat Checkerbloom)
G1  
Thamnophis gigas
  (Giant Gartersnake)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Zigadenus fontanus
  (Small-flower Deathcamas)
G3  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Cicuta douglasii G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lilium occidentale G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lysichiton americanus G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Platanthera dilatata G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex rostrata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex utriculata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schoenoplectus acutus G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schoenoplectus pungens G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Typha latifolia G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Actinemys marmorata
  (Western Pond Turtle)
G3G4      
Agelaius tricolor
  (Tricolored Blackbird)
G1G2      
Cistothorus palustris
  (Marsh Wren)
G5      
Hyliola regilla
  (Pacific Treefrog)
G5      
Oncorhynchus mykiss pop. 31
  (Steelhead - Oregon Coast Winter Run)
G5T2T3Q      
Rana aurora
  (Northern Red-legged Frog)
G4      
Rana cascadae
  (Cascades Frog)
G3G4      
Rana pretiosa
  (Oregon Spotted Frog)
G2 LT: Listed threatened    
Salvelinus confluentus pop. 26
  (Bull Trout - Mid-Columbia)
G5T3 LT: Listed threatened    
Thamnophis gigas
  (Giant Gartersnake)
G2 LT: Listed threatened    


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: AK, CA, OR, WA
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: BC
Global Range: This system occurs throughout the temperate Pacific Coast and coastal mountains of western North America, from southern coastal California north into coastal areas of British Columbia and Alaska.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
204-North American Pacific Maritime C: Confident or certain
206-Mediterranean California C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Pacific Northwest Coast Confident or certain
12 Sierra Nevada Predicted or probable
13 Great Central Valley Confident or certain
14 California North Coast Confident or certain
15 California Central Coast Confident or certain
16 California South Coast Confident or certain
2 Puget Trough - Willamette Valley - Georgia Basin Confident or certain
3 North Cascades Confident or certain
4 Modoc Plateau and East Cascades Confident or certain
69 S.E. Alaska - B.C. Coastal Forest and Mountains Confident or certain
70 Gulf of Alaska Mountains and Fjordlands Confident or certain
81 West Cascades Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Northern Cascades Confident or certain
2 Oregon Coastal Range Confident or certain
3 Northern California Coastal Range Confident or certain
4 Southern California Coastal Range Confident or certain
6 Sierra Nevada Mountain Range Predicted or probable
7 Cascade Mountain Range Confident or certain
8 Grande Coulee Basin of the Columbia Plateau Predicted or probable
9 Blue Mountain Region Predicted or probable
76 Southwest Alaska Never was there
77 Prince William Confident or certain
78 Southeast Alaska Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9260
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1662
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2662

West Landfire Legend: Yes
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 22Aug2008
Element Description Author(s): C. Chappell, G. Kittel, M.S. Reid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Banner, A., J. Pojar, and R. Trowbridge. 1986. Representative wetland types of the northern part of the Pacific Oceanic Wetland Region. Internal report FF85008-PR. British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 45 pp.

  • Banner, A., W. MacKenzie, S. Haeussler, S. Thomson, J. Pojar, and R. Trowbridge. 1993. A field guide to site identification and interpretation for the Prince Rupert Forest Region. Ministry of Forests Research Program. Victoria, BC. Parts 1 and 2. Land Management Handbook Number 26.

  • Boggs, K. 2000. Classification of community types, successional sequences and landscapes of the Copper River Delta, Alaska. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-469. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. March 2000. 244 pp.

  • Chappell, C., and J. Christy. 2004. Willamette Valley-Puget Trough-Georgia Basin Ecoregion Terrestrial Ecological System EO Specs and EO Rank Specs. Appendix 11 in: J. Floberg, M. Goering, G. Wilhere, C. MacDonald, C. Chappell, C. Rumsey, Z. Ferdana, A. Holt, P. Skidmore, T. Horsman, E. Alverson, C. Tanner, M. Bryer, P. Lachetti, A. Harcombe, B. McDonald, T. Cook, M. Summers, and D. Rolph. Willamette Valley-Puget Trough-Georgia Basin Ecoregional Assessment, Volume One: Report prepared by The Nature Conservancy with support from The Nature Conservancy of Canada, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Natural Resources (Natural Heritage and Nearshore Habitat programs), Oregon State Natural Heritage Information Center and the British Columbia Conservation Data Centre.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Holland, V. L., and D. J. Keil. 1995. California vegetation. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. 516 pp.

  • Lloyd, D. A., K. Angove, G. Hope, and C. Thompson. 1990. A guide for site identification and interpretation of the Kamloops Forest Region. 2 volumes. Land Management Handbook No. 23. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC. [http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/lmh/lmh23.htm]

  • MacKinnon, A., C. DeLong, and D. Meidinger. 1990. A field guide for identification and interpretation of ecosystems of the northwest portion of the Prince George Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 21. Province of British Columbia, Research Branch, Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.

  • Shephard, M. E. 1995. Plant community ecology and classification of the Yakutat Foreland, Alaska. R10-TP-56. USDA Forest Service, Alaska Region. 213 pp. plus appendices.

  • Shiflet, T. N., editor. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Society for Range Management. Denver, CO. 152 pp.

  • Steen, O. A., and R. A. Coupé. 1997. A field guide to forest site identification and interpretation for the Cariboo Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 39. Parts 1 and 2. British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program, Victoria, BC.

  • Viereck, L. A., C. T. Dyrness, A. R. Batten, and K. J. Wenzlick. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. General Technical Report PNW-GTR286. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. 278 pp.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.


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