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Classification
Scientific Name: Klamath-Siskiyou Lower Montane Serpentine Mixed Conifer Woodland
Unique Identifier: CES206.917
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate

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Summary: This system occurs throughout the Klamath-Siskiyou region below 1500 m (4550 feet) elevation on thin, rocky, ultramafic (gabbro, peridotite, serpentinite) soils below winter snow accumulations and typically experiences hot and dry summers. Soils are not always rocky; they can be loamy, up to 76 cm (30 inches) in depth, and can be heavy clay. Not all ultramafic outcrops support distinct vegetation; only those with very low Ca:Mg ratios impact biotic composition. These woodlands are highly variable and spotty in distribution. These sites are more productive and can support large-statured (dbh, height) trees, although they tend to be widely spaced. Common species include Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus sabiniana, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus attenuata, Notholithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides, Calocedrus decurrens, Arctostaphylos spp., Quercus vacciniifolia, and Xerophyllum tenax. Perennial grasses such as Festuca idahoensis may also be characteristic. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana communities can occur within occurrences of this system in mesic and linear riparian zones. Herbaceous-dominated serpentine fens (and bogs) are treated in Mediterranean California Serpentine Fen (CES206.953).

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: It has been proposed to merge this system with the similar Klamath-Siskiyou Upper Montane Serpentine Mixed Conifer Woodland (CES206.914), as they are similar in composition and structure. For now, they are kept as separate systems pending further review and comment from California ecologists.

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES206.150 Klamath-Siskiyou Xeromorphic Serpentine Savanna and Chaparral
CES206.914 Klamath-Siskiyou Upper Montane Serpentine Mixed Conifer Woodland


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL000042 Abies lowiana - Chamaecyparis lawsoniana / Quercus sadleriana / Leucothoe davisiae - Rhododendron macrophyllum Forest
CEGL000043 Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - Pseudotsuga menziesii / Notholithocarpus densiflorus / Gaultheria shallon Forest
CEGL000044 Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - Pseudotsuga menziesii / (Rhododendron macrophyllum) / Xerophyllum tenax Forest
CEGL000049 Abies lowiana - Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - Picea breweriana / Quercus vacciniifolia Forest
CEGL000763 Pinus attenuata / Arctostaphylos nevadensis Woodland
CEGL003447 Pinus jeffreyi / Quercus vacciniifolia - Garrya buxifolia Woodland
CEGL003448 Pinus jeffreyi / Quercus vacciniifolia - Arctostaphylos nevadensis Woodland



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Large patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Serpentine  
Mediterranean Mediterranean Pluviseasonal-Oceanic
Ultramafic with low Ca:Mg ratio  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Montane Lower Montane
Xeric  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Hastingsia bracteosa
  (Large-flower Rushlily)
G2  
Limnanthes alba ssp. gracilis
  (Slender Meadowfoam)
G4T3  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Calocedrus decurrens G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus attenuata G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus jeffreyi G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus lambertiana G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus sabiniana G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pseudotsuga menziesii G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Lithocarpus densiflorus var. echinoides T4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Quercus vacciniifolia G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Hastingsia bracteosa G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Limnanthes alba ssp. gracilis T3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Callospermophilus lateralis
  (Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel)
G5      
Crotalus oreganus
  (Western Rattlesnake)
G5      
Mustela frenata
  (Long-tailed Weasel)
G5      
Neotamias amoenus
  (Yellow-pine Chipmunk)
G5      
Neotoma cinerea
  (Bushy-tailed Woodrat)
G5      
Spilogale gracilis
  (Western Spotted Skunk)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: CA, OR
Global Range: This system occurs throughout the Klamath-Siskiyou mountains region below 1500 m (4550 feet) elevation.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
206-Mediterranean California C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
5 Klamath Mountains Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
2 Oregon Coastal Range Confident or certain
3 Northern California Coastal Range Confident or certain
7 Cascade Mountain Range Possible

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4208
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1021
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2021

West Landfire Legend: Yes
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jan2014
Element Description Author(s): P. Comer, T. Keeler-Wolf, M.S. Reid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Atzet, T. A., D. E. White, L. A. McCrimmon, P. A. Martinez, P. R. Fong, and V. D. Randall. 1996. Field guide to the forested plant associations of southwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-17-96. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Barbour, M. G., T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. A. Schoenherr, editors. 2007a. Terrestrial vegetation of California, third edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • Barbour, M. G., and J. Major, editors. 1988. Terrestrial vegetation of California: New expanded edition. California Native Plant Society, Special Publication 9, Sacramento. 1030 pp.

  • Bekker, M. F., and A. H. Taylor. 2001. Gradient analysis of fire regimes in montane forests of the southern Cascade Range, Thousand Lakes Wilderness, California, USA. Plant Ecology 155:15-28.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Frost, E. J., and R. Sweeney. 2000. Fire regimes, fire history and forest conditions in the Klamath-Siskiyou region: An overview and synthesis of knowledge. Wildwood Environmental Consulting. Prepared for the World Wildlife Fund, Klamath-Siskiyou Ecoregion Program, Ashland, OR.

  • Holland, V. L., and D. J. Keil. 1995. California vegetation. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. 516 pp.

  • Jimerson, T. J. 1994. A field guide to the Port Orford cedar plant associations in northwestern California. Pacific Southwest Research Station PSW-R5-ECOL-TP-OO2. Six Rivers National Forest, Eureka, CA. 109 pp.

  • Jimerson, T. J., L. D. Hoover, E. A. McGee, G. DeNitto, and R. M. Creasy. 1995. A field guide to serpentine plant associations and sensitive plants in northwestern California. Technical Publication R5-ECOL-TP-006. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, San Francisco, CA.

  • Jimerson, T. M. 1993. Preliminary plant associations of the Klamath province, Six Rivers and Klamath national forests. Unpublished report. USDA Forest Service, Eureka, CA.

  • Jimerson, T. M., and S. Daniel. 1999. Supplement to A field guide to Port Orford cedar plant associations in northwest California. Technical Publication R5-ECOL-TP-002. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, San Francisco, CA.

  • Kilgore, B. M., and D. Taylor. 1979. Fire history of a Sequoia-mixed conifer forest. Ecology 60:129-142.

  • Kruckberg, A. R. 1984. California serpentines: Flora, vegetation, geology, soils and management problems. University of California Publications in Botany 78:1-180.

  • LANDFIRE [Landfire National Vegetation Dynamics Database]. 2007a. Landfire National Vegetation Dynamics Models. Landfire Project, USDA Forest Service, U.S. Department of Interior. (January - last update) [http://www.LANDFIRE.gov/index.php] (accessed 8 February 2007).

  • PRBO Conservation Science. 2011. Projected effects of climate change in California: Ecoregional summaries emphasizing consequences for wildlife. Version 1.0. PRBO Conservation Science, Petaluma, CA. [http://data.prbo.org/apps/bssc/climatechange]

  • Parker, T. J. 1990. The vegetation of the Mount Tamalpais watershed of the Marin Municipal Water District and those on the adjacent lands of the Marin County Open Space District. Unpublished report. Department of Biology, San Francisco State University.

  • Sanchez-Mata, D. 2007. Ultramafic vegetation. Pages 93-104 in: M. G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. A. Schoenherr, editors. 2007. Terrestrial vegetation of California, third edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.

  • Sensenig, T. S. 2002. Development, fire history and current and past growth, of old-growth and young-growth forest stands in the Cascade, Siskiyou and mid-Coast mountains of southwestern Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

  • Taylor, A. H. 2000. Fire regimes and forest changes in mid and upper montane forests of the southern Cascades, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, USA. Journal of Biogeography 27:87-104.

  • Taylor, A. H., and C. N. Skinner. 1998. Fire history and landscape dynamics in a late-successional reserve, Klamath Mountains, California, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 44:1-17.

  • Taylor, A. H., and C. N. Skinner. 2003. Spatial and temporal patterns of historic fire regimes and forest structure as a reference for restoration of fire in the Klamath Mountains. Ecological Applications 13:704-719.


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