NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
 
Ecological System Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected. View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Classification
Scientific Name: California Coastal Closed-Cone Conifer Forest and Woodland
Unique Identifier: CES206.922
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate

Search for Images on Google
Summary: Small occurrences of this system may be found in scattered locations along California's entire coastline and onto the Channel Islands. They are found on marine sedimentary, non-metamorphosed features, often with podsols on sterile sandstone. These forests and woodlands are limited to coastal areas with moderate maritime climate and likely receive more annual precipitation than nearby coastal chaparral. Highly localized endemic tree species include Hesperocyparis macrocarpa (= Cupressus macrocarpa), Hesperocyparis goveniana (= Cupressus goveniana), and Hesperocyparis abramsiana (= Cupressus abramsiana) in scattered groves along coastal Mendocino, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey counties. Pinus contorta var. contorta, Pinus contorta var. bolanderi, Pinus muricata, Pinus torreyana, and Pinus radiata are dominant or codominant in these and other occurrences. These occurrences can also include pygmy woodland expressions where nearly lateritic subsoil underlies acidic sands (ancient marine terraces). Stunted and twisted Pinus contorta var. contorta stands along the Oregon coast (often called pygmy forests) are also part of this system. Other associated plant species include Arctostaphylos nummularia, Ledum groenlandicum, Vaccinium ovatum, Gaultheria shallon, Rhododendron macrophyllum, and Morella californica (= Myrica californica). The lichen and moss component of this system is very diverse, includes Cladonia spp., and can be abundant in these communities.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL003042 Hesperocyparis pigmaea Scrub
CEGL003076 Pinus radiata Forest
CEGL003164 Pinus muricata - Arbutus menziesii / Vaccinium ovatum Forest



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Forest and Woodland
Spatial Pattern: Small patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: Yes
Wetland: No
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Forest and Woodland (Treed)  
Marine Sedimentary  
Cupressus macrocarpa, C. goveniana, C. abramsiana  

Non-diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Montane Lower Montane
Sideslope  
Acidic Soil  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Arctostaphylos nummularia
  (Fort Bragg Manzanita)
G3?  
Cardamine pattersonii
  (Saddle Mountain Bittercress)
G2  
Castilleja mendocinensis
  (Mendocino Coast Indian-paintbrush)
G2  
Cupressus abramsiana
  (Santa Cruz Island Cypress)
G1 LT: Listed threatened
Cupressus goveniana ssp. goveniana
  (Gowen Cypress)
G2T1 LT: Listed threatened
Cupressus macrocarpa
  (Monterey Cypress)
G1  
Lasthenia macrantha ssp. macrantha
  (Perennial Goldfields)
G3T2  
Lilium occidentale
  (Western Lily)
G1G2 LE: Listed endangered
Phacelia argentea
  (Silvery Phacelia)
G2  
Pinus contorta var. bolanderi
  (Bolander's Beach Pine)
G5T2  
Pinus radiata
  (Monterey Pine)
G1  
Pinus torreyana
  (Torrey Pine)
G1  
Thaxterogaster pavelekii
  (a fungus)
G2  

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Cupressus abramsiana G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cupressus goveniana ssp. goveniana T1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cupressus macrocarpa G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus contorta var. bolanderi T2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus contorta var. contorta T5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus coulteri G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus muricata G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus radiata G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus torreyana G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cardamine pattersonii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Castilleja mendocinensis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lasthenia macrantha ssp. macrantha T2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lilium occidentale G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Elgaria multicarinata
  (Southern Alligator Lizard)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: CA, ORpotentially occurs
Distribution Outside Canada and the United States: Mexico
Global Range: This system is found in scattered locations along California's entire coastline and onto the Channel Islands and possibly just into southern Oregon in southern Coos and Curry counties.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
206-Mediterranean California C: Confident or certain

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
14 California North Coast Confident or certain
15 California Central Coast Confident or certain
16 California South Coast Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
2 Oregon Coastal Range Confident or certain
3 Northern California Coastal Range Confident or certain
4 Southern California Coastal Range Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 4268
ESP Code (Environmental Site Potential): 1177
EVT Code (Existing Vegetation Type): 2177

West Landfire Legend: Yes
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jan2014
Element Description Author(s): P. Comer, T. Keeler-Wolf, M.S. Reid and G. Kittel

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Barbour, M. G. 2007. Closed-cone pine and cypress forests. Pages 296-312 in: M. G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. A. Schoenherr, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California, third edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • Barbour, M. G., T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. A. Schoenherr, editors. 2007a. Terrestrial vegetation of California, third edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • Barbour, M. G., and J. Major, editors. 1988. Terrestrial vegetation of California: New expanded edition. California Native Plant Society, Special Publication 9, Sacramento. 1030 pp.

  • Borchert, M. 1985. Serotiny and closed-cone habit variation in populations of Pinus coulteri (Pinaceae) in the southern Coast Ranges of California. Madrono 32:29-48.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Davis, F. W., and M. I. Borchert. 2006. Central Coast bioregion. Pages 321-349 in: N. G. Sugihara, J. W. van Wagtendonk, K. E. Shaffer, J. Fites-Kaufman, and A. E. Thode, editors. Fire in California's ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Holland, V. L., and D. J. Keil. 1995. California vegetation. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. 516 pp.

  • Keeley, J. E., and P. H. Zedler. 1998a. Evolution of life histories in Pinus. Pages 219-250 in: D. M. Richardson, editor. Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

  • Landfire [Landfire National Vegetation Dynamics Database]. 2007a. Landfire National Vegetation Dynamics Models. Landfire Project, USDA Forest Service, U.S. Department of Interior. (January - last update) [http://www.LANDFIRE.gov/index.php] (accessed 8 February 2007).

  • Lanner R. 2007. The bristlecone book: A natural history of the world's oldest trees. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, MT. 128 pp.

  • Ne'eman, G., C. J. Fotheringham, and J. E. Keeley. 1999. Patch to landscape patterns in post fire recruitment of a serotinous conifer. Plant Ecology 145:235-242.

  • PRBO Conservation Science. 2011. Projected effects of climate change in California: Ecoregional summaries emphasizing consequences for wildlife. Version 1.0. PRBO Conservation Science, Petaluma, CA. [http://data.prbo.org/apps/bssc/climatechange]

  • Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2009. A manual of California vegetation. Second edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento CA. 1300 pp.

  • Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2018
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2018