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Classification
Scientific Name: North Pacific Bog and Fen
Unique Identifier: CES204.063
Classification Confidence: 2 - Moderate
Image 22133
© Keith Boggs
Summary: This wetland system occurs in peatlands along the Pacific Coast from British Columbia south to northern California, in and west of the coastal mountain summits but including the Puget Sound lowlands. Elevations are mostly under 457 m (1500 feet), and annual precipitation ranges from 890-3050 mm (35-120 inches). These wetlands are relatively abundant in British Columbia but diminish rapidly in size and number farther south. They occur in river valleys, around lakes and marshes, or on slopes. The organic soils are characterized by an abundance of sodium cations from oceanic precipitation. Poor fens and bogs are often intermixed except in a few calcareous areas in British Columbia where rich fen vegetation may dominate. Sphagnum characterizes poor fens and bogs (pH <5.5), and the two are lumped here, while "brown mosses" and sedges characterize rich fens (pH >5.5). Mire profiles in British Columbia may be flat, raised (domed), or sloping, but most occurrences in Washington and Oregon are flat with only localized hummock development. Vegetation is usually a mix of conifer-dominated swamp, shrub swamp, and open sphagnum or sedge mire, often with small lakes and ponds interspersed. Vegetation includes many species common to boreal continental bogs and fens, such as Ledum groenlandicum, Vaccinium uliginosum, Myrica gale, Andromeda polifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Equisetum fluviatile, Comarum palustre, and Drosera rotundifolia. However, it is also distinguished from boreal continental bogs and fens by the presence of Pacific coastal species, including Callitropsis nootkatensis, Pinus contorta var. contorta, Picea sitchensis, Tsuga heterophylla, Ledum glandulosum, Thuja plicata, Gaultheria shallon, Spiraea douglasii, Carex aquatilis var. dives, Carex lyngbyei, Carex obnupta, Carex pluriflora, Darlingtonia californica, Sphagnum pacificum, Sphagnum henryense, and Sphagnum mendocinum.

Classification Approach: International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification (ITESC)

Classification Comments: This system is distinguished and split from Boreal Depressional Shrub Bog (CES103.871) and Western Canadian Boreal Shrub-Sedge Rich and Alkaline Fen (CES103.872). The communities comprising this system are not well-described or classified. Several bog or fen ecological systems have recently (2007-2008) been classified for southeastern Alaska, hence this system no longer is considered to occur in Alaska. Where the "muskeg" of northern British Columbia should be placed is unclear and needs review from ecologists there. Discussion is that muskeg in the hypermaritime region is extensive, covering large areas of landscape, whereas this system in Oregon and Washington tends to occur in much smaller patches. How distinct is the hypermaritime muskeg of northern British Columbia from bogs and fens from central Vancouver Island south?

Similar Ecological Systems
Unique Identifier Name
CES103.871 Boreal Depressional Shrub Bog
CES103.872 Western Canadian Boreal Shrub-Sedge Rich and Alkaline Fen
CES204.156 Alaskan Pacific Maritime Mountain Hemlock Peatland
CES204.158 Alaskan Pacific Maritime Fen and Wet Meadow
CES204.164 Alaskan Pacific Maritime Shore Pine Peatland
CES204.165 Alaskan Pacific Maritime Dwarf-Shrub-Sphagnum Peatland


Component Associations
Association Unique ID Association Name
CEGL000477 Tsuga heterophylla / Ledum glandulosum / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus Treed Bog
CEGL001129 Spiraea douglasii Wet Shrubland
CEGL001811 Carex limosa Fen
CEGL001826 Carex aquatilis var. dives Fen
CEGL001831 Dulichium arundinaceum Shore Fen
CEGL001857 Carex interior - Hypericum anagalloides Wet Meadow
CEGL003202 Pinus contorta / Empetrum nigrum Treed Bog
CEGL003203 Pinus contorta / Carex aquatilis var. dives Treed Bog
CEGL003204 Pinus contorta / Trichophorum cespitosum Treed Bog
CEGL003205 Pinus contorta - (Callitropsis nootkatensis) / Gaultheria shallon Woodland
CEGL003206 Pinus contorta / Vaccinium ovalifolium Treed Bog
CEGL003332 Carex cusickii - (Menyanthes trifoliata) Fen
CEGL003333 Eriophorum chamissonis / Sphagnum spp. Bog & Acidic Fen
CEGL003335 Ledum groenlandicum - Myrica gale / Sphagnum spp. Shrub Bog
CEGL003336 Myrica gale / Boykinia intermedia - Carex obnupta Fen
CEGL003337 Pinus contorta var. contorta / Ledum groenlandicum / Sphagnum spp. Treed Bog
CEGL003338 Rhynchospora alba - (Vaccinium oxycoccos) / Sphagnum tenellum Fen
CEGL003339 Tsuga heterophylla - (Thuja plicata) / Ledum groenlandicum / Sphagnum spp. Treed Bog
CEGL003359 Kalmia microphylla - Ledum groenlandicum / Xerophyllum tenax Shrub Bog
CEGL003360 Pinus monticola / Ledum groenlandicum / Sphagnum spp. Treed Bog
CEGL003376 Myrica gale / Carex (aquatilis var. dives, utriculata) Fen
CEGL003385 Malus fusca Shrub Swamp
CEGL003414 Ledum groenlandicum - Kalmia microphylla / Sphagnum spp. Shrub Bog
CEGL003415 Spiraea douglasii / Carex aquatilis var. dives Fen
CEGL003416 Spiraea douglasii / Sphagnum spp. Fen
CEGL003417 Tsuga heterophylla - (Thuja plicata) / Sphagnum spp. Treed Bog
CEGL003419 Myrica gale / Sanguisorba officinalis / Sphagnum spp. Fen
CEGL003420 Myrica gale - Spiraea douglasii / Sphagnum spp. Fen
CEGL003423 Carex (livida, utriculata) / Sphagnum spp. Fen
CEGL003426 Ranunculus flammula - Juncus nevadensis - Carex lenticularis Marsh
CEGL003433 Carex aquatilis var. dives - Comarum palustre Fen
CEGL003434 Ledum glandulosum / Carex obnupta / Sphagnum spp. Fen
CEGL003435 Ledum glandulosum / Darlingtonia californica / Sphagnum spp. Fen
CEGL003436 Ledum glandulosum / Sanguisorba officinalis / Sphagnum spp. Fen
CEGL003437 Ledum glandulosum - Gaultheria shallon / Carex obnupta Fen



Classifiers

Land Cover Class: Woody Wetland
Spatial Pattern: Small patch
Natural/Seminatural: No
Vegetated ( > 10% vascular cover):
Upland: No
Wetland: Yes
Isolated Wetland: No

Diagnostic Classifiers
Primary Classifier Secondary Classifier
Lowland Foothill
Shrubland (Shrub-dominated)  
Temperate Temperate Oceanic
Depressional  
Organic Peat (>40 cm)  
Sphagnum spp.  

At-Risk Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Anemone oregana var. felix
  (Bog Anemone)
G4T3  
Arenaria paludicola
  (Marsh Sandwort)
G1 LE: Listed endangered
Darlingtonia californica
  (California Pitcherplant)
G3G4  
Eanus hatchi
  (Hatch's Click Beetle)
G1  
Erigeron peregrinus var. thompsonii
  (Thompson's Wandering Daisy)
G5T3  
Lilium occidentale
  (Western Lily)
G1G2 LE: Listed endangered
Rana pretiosa
  (Oregon Spotted Frog)
G2 LT: Listed threatened

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Char-
acter-
istic
Domi-nant Con-stant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Myrica gale G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Spiraea douglasii G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ledum glandulosum G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ledum groenlandicum G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Vaccinium uliginosum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Anemone oregana var. felix T3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Arenaria paludicola G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Drosera rotundifolia G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Erigeron peregrinus var. thompsonii T3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lilium occidentale G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pohlia nutans G5 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 


Animal Species Reported for this Ecological System
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status Charact-
eristic
Exotic
Eanus hatchi
  (Hatch's Click Beetle)
G1      
Hyliola regilla
  (Pacific Treefrog)
G5      
Microtus townsendii
  (Townsend's Vole)
G5      
Peromyscus maniculatus
  (North American Deermouse)
G5      
Rana pretiosa
  (Oregon Spotted Frog)
G2 LT: Listed threatened    
Sorex bendirii
  (Marsh Shrew)
G4      
Sorex monticolus
  (Dusky Shrew)
G5      


Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
Nation: United States
United States Distribution: OR, WA
Nation: Canada
Canadian Province Distribution: BC
Global Range: This system occurs along the Pacific Coast from British Columbia south to northern California, west of the coastal mountain summits but including the Puget Sound lowlands. Occurrences diminish rapidly in size and number south of British Columbia.

Biogeographic Divisions
Division Code and Name Primary Occurrence Status
204-North American Pacific Maritime C: Confident or certain
206-Mediterranean California P: Predicted or probable

The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Ecoregions
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Pacific Northwest Coast Confident or certain
2 Puget Trough - Willamette Valley - Georgia Basin Confident or certain
3 North Cascades Confident or certain
69 S.E. Alaska - B.C. Coastal Forest and Mountains Predicted or probable
81 West Cascades Confident or certain

MRLC 2000 Mapzones
Code Name Occurrence Status
1 Northern Cascades Confident or certain
2 Oregon Coastal Range Confident or certain
7 Cascade Mountain Range Confident or certain

National Mapping
ESLF Code (Ecological System Lifeform): 9166

West Landfire Legend: No
East Landfire Legend: No

Authors/Contributors
Element Description Edition Date: 08Dec2008
Element Description Author(s): M.S. Reid, K. Boggs, J. Christy, C. Chappell

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Banner, A., W. MacKenzie, S. Haeussler, S. Thomson, J. Pojar, and R. Trowbridge. 1993. A field guide to site identification and interpretation for the Prince Rupert Forest Region. Ministry of Forests Research Program. Victoria, BC. Parts 1 and 2. Land Management Handbook Number 26.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • DeLong, C., A. MacKinnon, and L. Jang. 1990. A field guide for identification and interpretation of ecosystems of the northeast portion of the Prince George Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 22. Province of British Columbia, Research Branch, Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.

  • DeLong, C., D. Tanner, and M. J. Jull. 1994. A field guide for site identification and interpretation for the northern Rockies portion of the Prince George Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 29. Province of British Columbia, Research Branch, Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Steen, O. A., and R. A. Coupé. 1997. A field guide to forest site identification and interpretation for the Cariboo Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 39. Parts 1 and 2. British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program, Victoria, BC.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.


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