Phalaropus fulicarius - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Red Phalarope
Other Common Names: Falaropo-de-Bico-Grosso
Synonym(s): Phalaropus fulicaria (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 176734)
French Common Names: phalarope à bec large
Spanish Common Names: Falaropo Pico Grueso Pollito de Mar Rojizo
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.636983
Element Code: ABNNF20030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Shorebirds
Image 7689

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Phalaropus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 2002. Forty-third supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 119(3):897-906.
Concept Reference Code: A02AOU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Phalaropus fulicarius
Taxonomic Comments: In Old World literature this species is known as gray phalarope (AOU 1983). Combined allozyme, morphologic, and mtDNA data suggest that Wilson's phalarope evolved shortly after the phalarope lineage itself arose and that the phalaropes are monophyletic, with the red and red-necked phalaropes being sister taxa (Dittman and Zink 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 26Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3N), Alaska (S4S5B,S5M), Arizona (S1S2M), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNRN), Colorado (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S1N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (SNRN), Hawaii (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Maine (S3N), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S4N), Michigan (SNRN), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S2N), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S1N), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), Texas (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (S4N)
Canada British Columbia (SUM), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (S3M), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nova Scotia (S2S3M), Nunavut (S4B,S4M), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (S4M), Yukon Territory (S1B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: western and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, and Banks, Melville, Ellesmere, Bylot, Dundas, and northern Baffin islands, and south to eastern Keewatin, Southhampton and Mansel islands, northern Quebec, and probably northern Labrador; in Palearctic from Greenland and Iceland through arctic islands to northern Siberia. Nonbreeders summer off coasts of California and Newfoundland. NORTHERN WINTER: primarily pelagic, ranges widely, mainly in Southern Hemisphere off both coasts of South America and western Africa, also western Pacific from Japan south; primarily in productive waters of Humboldt Current off Peru and Chile, and Benguela Current off West Africa south to the Cape of Good Hope.

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Morrison et al. (2001) estimated the total population to be about 1 million, but this species is poorly surveyed in migration, and the population may actually be considerably more than this.

Short-term Trend Comments: Morrison (1993/1994) categorized the population trend in Canada as "stable?/decreasing?"

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: western and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, and Banks, Melville, Ellesmere, Bylot, Dundas, and northern Baffin islands, and south to eastern Keewatin, Southhampton and Mansel islands, northern Quebec, and probably northern Labrador; in Palearctic from Greenland and Iceland through arctic islands to northern Siberia. Nonbreeders summer off coasts of California and Newfoundland. NORTHERN WINTER: primarily pelagic, ranges widely, mainly in Southern Hemisphere off both coasts of South America and western Africa, also western Pacific from Japan south; primarily in productive waters of Humboldt Current off Peru and Chile, and Benguela Current off West Africa south to the Cape of Good Hope.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, TX, VA, WA
Canada BC, MB, NB, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Nez Perce (16069)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Four eggs are laid June-July. The male incubates the eggs for 18-20 days (Terres 1980). Female usually deserts male as soon as clutch complete, may attempt to mate again. Nestlings are precocial and downy. Young are capable of first flight about 16-18 days after hatching. Usually nests in small colonies.
Ecology Comments: Nonbreeding: occurs singly, in small scattered flocks, or sometimes in flocks of >1000.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Northward migration usually well offshore along both coasts of North America; arrives on nesting ground in late May or early June (mostly June in Arctic Canada) (Terres 1980), females arriving before males. Passes through east-central Pacific February-April in large numbers (Pratt et al. 1987). Females leave breeding areas in late June and July; males depart usually early July to mid-August; juveniles depart nesting areas mid-August to early September (Johnson and Herter 1989). In North America, much more numerous along Pacific coast than along Atlantic coast, especially September-December and in some years in spring (Hayman et al. 1986).
Marine Habitat(s): Pelagic
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Tundra
Habitat Comments: Nonbreeding: primarily pelagic, occurring in migration on bays and estuaries, rarely on ponds, lakes and marshes; mainly in plankton-rich upwelling zones. May be driven to coast or inland by strong winds. In northern Alaska, postbreeding habitat was mainly gravel coastal beaches (Smith and Connors 1993). Nests on coastal tundra; hummocky moss-sedge tundra interspersed with numerous ponds; wet unpatterned tundra with strangmoor ridges for nesting. Nests on the ground in a depression that is sometimes lined with grasses or other plants. Nest may be hidden by grass that is pulled over the depression.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds on insects and crustaceans; also eats larval fishes and small jellyfishes. Obtains food from ocean surface, wet tundra, and marine littoral zone. In northern Bering Sea in spring, forages opportunistically in littoral zone (Haney and Stone 1988); littoral foraging also by juveniles in fall in Beaufort and Chukchi seas.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 22 centimeters
Weight: 61 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shorebirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas of nesting adults and broods. Because separations are based on nesting areas, the foraging areas of different occurrences may overlap if nesting birds are traveling to distant places to feed.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance pertains specifically to nesting areas, not to locations of dispersed foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas.

The separation distance is an arbitrary value; it is impractical to attempt to delineate shorebird occurrences on the basis of dispersal patterns or metapopulation dynamics. Foraging ranges of some nesting shorebird species (see following) may suggest use of a larger separation distance, but this likely would result in occurrences that are too large and less effective for conservation planning.

Separation distance based on larger 'typical' breeding home ranges with diameters of 1.5 to 3 kilometers. Semipalmated Plovers have breeding home ranges up to 3 square kilometers, i.e. a diameter of just under 2 kilometers (Nol and Blanken 1999). Red-necked Phalaropes have a core home range of 1-3 hectares, but occasionally travel 1.5 kilometers to feed (Rubega et al. 2000). Stilt Sandpipers can forage up to 8 kilometers from nest (Jehl 1973). Mountain Plovers have an average home range of 56.6 hectares (Knopf 1996) but broods typically move 1-2 kilometers shortly after hatching (Knopf and Rupert 1996).

Territories: Common Snipe, 6.4-28.6 hectares (Mueller 1999); Long-billed Dowitcher, 100-300 meter diameter (Johnsgard 1981); golden-plovers, average 10-59 hectares (Johnson and Connors 1996); Long-billed Curlew, 6-20 hectares (Johnsgard 1981).

Nesting densities: Black-bellied Plover, 0.3-2.3 pairs per square kilometer (44 ha per pair at latter density; Hussell and Page 1976, Parmelee et al. 1967); Marbled Godwit, maximum density 1 pair/32 hectares (Stewart and Kantrud 1972).

Foraging distances: Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, up to 13 kilometers from nest (Elphick and Tibbits 1998, Tibbits and Moskoff 1999).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a smaller 'typical' home ranges (see Separation Justification).
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (minimum can be reduced in the case of rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Winter Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Dec1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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