Arctomecon merriamii - Coville
White Bear-poppy
Other English Common Names: Desert Bearpoppy
Other Common Names: desert bearpoppy
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Arctomecon merriamii Coville (TSN 18901)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.158319
Element Code: PDPAP02030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Poppy Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Papaverales Papaveraceae Arctomecon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Arctomecon merriamii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Aug2013
Global Status Last Changed: 05Sep1990
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: There are more than 150 small occurrences of Arctomecon merriamii, but it occurs in a narrow range of the northeastern Mojave Desert in California and neighboring Nevada. Outside of its relatively safe existence in the Desert National Wildlife Range, its threats include: urban expansion, fire, invasive species, recreation, hydrology changes, grazing, road construction and air quality changes.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (S3), Nevada (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to Death Valley region (eastern Inyo and San Bernardino counties), California and into Clark County, Nevada.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy was calculated to be 123 4km2 grid cells (NatureServe element occurrence data 2013).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Twenty-six in California; Nevada has many.

Population Size Comments: Guess based on fact that populations tend to be scattered and small.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species occurs in California and Nevada, and is a Mojave Desert endemic. Burro dung, trampling, hiking and invasive speces are threats in California; it is not clear if mining is a threat (CNDDB 2013).

In Nevada this species occurs in Clark Co., the county that contains Las Vegas and where much land is being developed. The threats to the ecosystems where it occurs in the Blackbrush ecosystem are: fire, invasive species (Bromus tectorum, cheatgrass; fire ants which disturb and alter the soil ecology), pesticide application, land development and recreation (Sada et al. 2008). It also occurs in the Mojave Desert Scrub ecosystem, the most extensive in Clark Co., and the threats there, in addition to the ones already mentioned are: urbanization, road construction and altered air quality in the form of increased dust (Sada et al. 2008). In the Salt Scrub ecosystem in Clark Co., NV the third ecosystem where this species is found, changes in surface hydrology and grazing are major threats (in addition to the other major threats in the other ecosystems) (Sada et al. 2008).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Arctomecon merriamii occurs in Clark Co., Nevada and in portions of Death Valley, California. In Clark Co., the county that contains Las Vegas, the Adaptive Management Report for the Clark Co., Nevada, Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan esitmates that 3% of the cited locations will be impacted indirectly through the Incidental Take Permit, and 13% of the plan's cited locations will be impacted directly through the Incidental Take Permit (Sada et al. 2008).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to Death Valley region (eastern Inyo and San Bernardino counties), California and into Clark County, Nevada.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, NV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Inyo (06027), San Bernardino (06071)
NV Clark (32003), Lincoln (32017), Nye (32023)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Muddy (15010012)+, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+*, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+
16 Sand Spring-Tikaboo Valleys (16060014)+, Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys (16060015)+
18 Eureka-Saline Valleys (18090201)+, Upper Amargosa (18090202)+, Death Valley-Lower Amargosa (18090203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Arctomecon merriamii, the bear claw poppy, grows vegetatively in the first year and will flower in the second year if there is adequate rainfall. After the first year, there can be several more flowering events and then they form clonal plants with multiple rosettes as the plant ages (Thompson and Smith 1997). Arctomecon meriamii is capable of self-pollination in addition to outcrossing (Thompson et al. 1997).
Habitat Comments: Varies from barren, gravelly places to rocky slopes; some populations on limestone. Chenopod scrub, Mohavean desert scrub. Elevation range from 600-1800 m, but mostly around 1200 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Aug2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Bittman, R.L., and J. Shevock, rev. L. Oliver (2003), rev. L. Oliver (2013)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • California Department of Fish and Game. 2000. Natural Diversity Database (RareFind 2), Version 2.1.2, January 25, 2000. Downloaded in 2003.

  • California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB). 2013. RareFind Version 4. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

  • Griswold, T., S. Higbee and O. Messinger. 2005a. Pollination Ecology, Final Report for Biennium 2003. Clark County, Nevada (2004-2005).USDA-ARS Bee Biology & Systematics Laboratory. Utah State University, Logan, UT. Accessed online on Aug. 14, 2013 at: http://www.clarkcountynv.gov/Depts/dcp/Documents/Library/dcp%20reports/2006/Pollinator%20Ecology%20USDA-349%20Final%20Rpt%2020060413.pdf

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Morefield, J.D., editor. 2001. Nevada rare plant atlas [with rare plant fact sheets]. Available as a pdf file at: http://heritage.nv.gov/atlas/atlas.html. Compiled by the Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Reno, Nevada.

  • Morse, L. Memorandum to Rick York, California HP botanist. Regarding the ranking of Arctomecon merriamii

  • Sada, D., M. Stone, D. Mouat, J. Lancaster, P. Lee, S. MacCabe, L. Bice, M. Hamilton and S. Wainscott. 2008a. Adaptive Management Report for the Clark County, Nevada, Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan. Clark County, Nevada. Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management. Desert Conservation Program. 500 South Grand Central Parkway. Las Vegas, Nevada 89155-5201. Accessed online on 4_13_2013 at: http://www.clarkcountynv.gov/Depts/dcp/Documents/Library/dcp%20reports/2008/2008_AMR_ReportAndAppendices.pdf

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1997 (1994). Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 1997 Electronic Inventory Update of 1994 5th edition, California Native Plant Society, Special Publication No. 1, Sacramento.

  • Thompson, S. K., and S. D. Smith. 1997a. Ecology of Arctomecon californica and A. merriamii (Papaveraceae) in the Mojave Desert. Madrono 44(2): 151-169.

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