Gymnocarpium dryopteris - (L.) Newman
Northern Oak Fern
Other English Common Names: Common Oak Fern, Western Oakfern
Other Common Names: western oakfern
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman (TSN 17579)
French Common Names: gymnocarpe du chêne
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.155709
Element Code: PPDRY0D030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Filicopsida Filicales Dryopteridaceae Gymnocarpium
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Gymnocarpium dryopteris
Taxonomic Comments: Excludes Gymnocarpium appalachianum and G. disjunctum, treated in older works as Gymnocarpium dryopteris. Kathleen Pryer and colleagues have shown that G. dryopteris is an allotetraploid hybrid derivative of these two other diploid species (cf. FNA). LEM 14Jun00.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Jun2015
Global Status Last Changed: 23May1986
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (05Sep2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (SNR), Arizona (S1), Colorado (S3), Connecticut (SNR), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (S1), Iowa (S2), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S4), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S1), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S4S5), North Dakota (S2), Ohio (S2), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (S1), South Dakota (SNR), Utah (S1), Vermont (SNR), Washington (SNR), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (S5), Manitoba (S4S5), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (S5), Northwest Territories (S4), Nova Scotia (S5), Nunavut (S2), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S4), Yukon Territory (S4S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Circumboreal, extending south to Oregon, Arizona, Iowa, and Virginia.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Circumboreal, extending south to Oregon, Arizona, Iowa, and Virginia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CO, CT, IA, ID, IL, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, UT, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Coconino (04005)
IA Allamakee (19005), Clayton (19043), Dubuque (19061), Grundy (19075)*, Hancock (19081), Hardin (19083)*, Johnson (19103)*, Winneshiek (19191)
IL Jo Daviess (17085)*, Ogle (17141)
MD Frederick (24021), Garrett (24023), Talbot (24041), Washington (24043)
ND Cavalier (38019), Ransom (38073)
NJ Bergen (34003)*, Essex (34013)*, Hunterdon (34019), Morris (34027)*, Passaic (34031)*, Sussex (34037), Warren (34041)*
OH Columbiana (39029), Cuyahoga (39035), Erie (39043), Jefferson (39081), Lorain (39093)*, Lucas (39095), Mahoning (39099), Vinton (39163)
RI Kent (44003)*, Providence (44007)*, Washington (44009)
UT Beaver (49001), Piute (49031)
WV Fayette (54019), Greenbrier (54025), Hardy (54031), Tucker (54093)
WY Carbon (56007), Crook (56011), Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Narragansett (01090004)+, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+*, Quinebaug (01100001)+*
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Raritan (02030105)+*, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, Monocacy (02070009)+
04 Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+, Black-Rocky (04110001)+*, Cuyahoga (04110002)+
05 Cheat (05020004)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Lower New (05050004)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+
07 Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+*, Winnebago (07080203)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+*, Middle Iowa (07080208)+*, Lower Iowa (07080209)+*, Lower Rock (07090005)+
09 Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+, Lower Pembina River (09020316)+
10 Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+
15 Middle Little Colorado (15020008)+
16 Middle Sevier (16030003)+, Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver (16030007)+
17 Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Help
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any naturally occurring population that is separated by a sufficient distance or barrier from a neighboring population.
Separation Barriers: EOs are separated by either: 1 mile or more across unsuitable habitat or altered and unsuitable areas; or 2 miles or more across apparently suitable habitat not known to be occupied.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1.6 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3.2 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to be occupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected populations will eventually be found to be more closely connected; these are best regarded as suboccurrences. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species.
Date: 27Sep2000
Author: Spackman, S., and D. Anderson
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
Excellent Viability: SIZE: There are no quantitative data available for this species. CONDITION: The occurrence has an excellent likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. This occurrence should be in a high-quality site with less than 1% cover of exotic plant species and/or no significant anthropogenic disturbance. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes needed to sustain this species.
Good Viability: SIZE: There are no quantitative data available for this species. CONDITION: There are no quantitative data available for this species. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. Anthropogenic disturbance within the occurrence is minimal. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover.
Fair Viability: SIZE: The surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes needed to sustain the occurrence but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans. CONDITION: There are no quantitative data available for this species. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable, with multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of anthropogenic disturbance).
Poor Viability: SIZE: There may be significant human disturbance, but the ecological processes needed to sustain the species are still intact. CONDITION: There are no quantitative data available for this species. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: Little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor seedling recruitment, no flowering or fruiting observed, or poor age class distribution). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance.
Justification: SIZE: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. CONDITION: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alverson, E. "Oak ferns (Gymnocarpium dryopteris and related taxa) in the Pacific Northwest... and beyond". Botanical Electronic News, No.305. March 11, 2003. January 12, 2004 .

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. HUC10-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Bruce-Grey Plant Committee. 1999. A Guide to the Ferns of Grey and Bruce Counties, Ontario. Stan Brown Printers Ltd., Owen Sound, Ontario. 119 pp.

  • Cody, W.J. 1988. Plants of Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. Agriculture Canada, Publication 1818/E, Ottawa ON.

  • Cody, W.J. and D.M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and Fern Allies of Canada. Agriculture Canada, Research Branch. Publication 1829/E.

  • Cody, W.J. and D.M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and Fern Allies of Canada. Publication 1829/E, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, Ottawa. 430 pp.

  • Dorn, R. D. 1992. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, second edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Dorn, R. D. 2001. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, third edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 2000. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 5, Dicotyledons (Salicaceae through Zygophyllaceae) and Pteridophytes. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 389pp.

  • Evert, E. F. 2010. Vascular Plants of the Greater Yellowstone Area: Annotated Catalog and Atlas. Park Ridge, IL.

  • Fertig, W. 2000. Rare vascular plant species in the Wyoming portion of the Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains Ecoregion. Prepared for the Wyoming Nature Conservancy by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 2 Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America, North of Mexico. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press, New York.

  • Heidel, B. 2008. Report on the floristic survey and draft establishment record for Proposed Hay Creek Research Natural Area. Unpublished report prepared for Black Hills National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. [Incorporated in Black Hills National Forest 2012].

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Hitchcock, C. L., A. Cronquist and M. Ownbey. 1969. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, Part 1: Vascular Cryptograms, Gymnosperms and Monocotyledons. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

  • Jones, R. 1992. Sensitive plant species in the area of the proposed Strawberry Gulch Timber Sale, Hayden District, Medicine Bow National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for the District Ranger, Hayden District, by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kesonie, D. T. 2009. A floristic inventory of Grand Teton National Park and the Pinyon Peak Highlands, Wyoming. Masters Thesis. Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Kesonie, D. T. and R. L. Hartman. 2011. A floristic inventory of Grand Teton National Park, Pinyon Peak Highlands, and Vicinity, Wyoming, U.S.A. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5:357-388.

  • Larson, G. E. and J. R. Johnson. 1999. Plants of the Black Hills and Bear Lodge Mountains. South Dakota State University College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences & South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, Brookings, SD.

  • Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern Allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

  • Markow, S. and W. Fertig. 2000. State Species Abstract: Gymnocarpium dryopteris. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. Available on the internet at www.uwyo.edu/wyndd.

  • Marriott, H. J. 1993. Rare plants of Grand Teton National Park. Unpublished report prepared for the National Park Service by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • PRYER, K.M. AND M.D. WINDHAM. 1988. A RE-EXAMINATION OF GYMNOCARPIUM DRYOPTERIS (L.) NEWMAN IN NORTH AMERICA. AM. J. BOT. 75(6)PART 2:142.

  • Peck, J.H. 1982. Ferns and fern allies of the driftless area of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Contrib. in Biology and Geology. Milwaukee Public Mus. No. 53.

  • Porter, C.L. 1962. A Flora of Wyoming, Part 1. Bulletin 402:1-39. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Wyoming.

  • Pryer, K. M. and C. H. Haufler. 1993. Isozymic and chromosomal evidence for the allotetraploid origin of Gymnocarpium dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae). Systematic Botany 18:150-172.

  • Pryer, K.M. 1993. Isozymic and Chromosomal evidence for the Allotetrapliod origin of Gymnocarpium dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae). Systematic Botany 18: 150-172.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Canada, Publ. in Botany 7(4).

  • Shaw, R. J. 1976. Field Guide to the Vascular Plants of Grand Teton National Park and Teton County, Wyoming. Utah State University Press, Logan.

  • Smith, A. R. 1993. Dryopteridaceae. Pages 246-308 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editor. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

  • Tryon, R.M., Jr., et al. 1940. The fern and fern allies of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisc. Press, Madison, WI.

  • Underwood, L.M. 1901. Contributions to the botany of the Yukon Territory. 3. An enumeration of the pteridophytes collected by R.S. Williams and J.B. Tarleton. Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden 2: 148-149.

  • WAGNER,W.H.,JR. 1966. NEW DATA ON NORHT AMERICAN OAK FERNS, GYMNOCARPIUM. RHODORA. 68:121-138.

  • Wein, R.W,, L.R. Hettinger, A.J. Janz, and W.J. Cody. 1974. Vascular plant range extensions in the northern Yukon Territory and northwestern Mackenzie District, Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 88(1):57-66

  • Welp, L., W.F. Fertig, G.P. Jones, G.P. Beauvais, and S.M. Ogle. 2000. Fine filter analysis of the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone National Forests in Wyoming. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Wildlife Management Information System (WMIS). 2006+. Geo-referenced wildlife datasets (1900 to present) from all projects conducted by Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada.  Available at http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/programs/wildlife-research/wildlife-management-information-services

  • von Ahlefeldt, J. 1993. Medicine Bow National Forest Sensitive plant species (Region 2 list) and species of special concern (Nature Conservancy). Unpublished report prepared by Medicine Bow National Forest. 35 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.