Spiranthes brevilabris - Lindl.
Texas Ladies'-tresses
Other Common Names: Texas ladies'-tresses
Synonym(s): Spiranthes brevilabris var. brevilabris
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Spiranthes brevilabris Lindl. (TSN 43455) ;Spiranthes brevilabris var. brevilabris Lindl. (TSN 530525)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.143352
Element Code: PMORC2B032
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Spiranthes
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Spiranthes brevilabris var. brevilabris
Taxonomic Comments: Spiranthes brevilabris of Kartesz 1999 was treated as Spiranthes brevilabris var. brevilabris in Kartesz 1994. This record is for S. brevilabris excluding S. floridana.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Jul2014
Global Status Last Changed: 11Apr2014
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Historically known from the southeastern coastal plain throughout much of Florida, southern Georgia, probably Louisiana, and possibly southern Alabama and southern Mississippi, this plant has declined dramatically, apparently due to habitat conversion (FNA 2002). It is known to be extant at only 1-2 sites in Florida but up to 25 sites in eastern Texas. One Florida site is located in a roadside ditch and may contain 1000 plants when mowing management is favorable, although it appears to have closer to 50-100 plants in less favorable years. Most of the Texas sites have relatively small numbers of plants (22 and 25), although one has 100's of plants, within high-quality habitat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SH), Florida (S1), Georgia (SH), Louisiana (SNR), Texas (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southeastern coastal plain endemic, where currently known from 5 counties in eastern Texas and from at least Levy County in northern Florida. Historically known from more wide-ranging sites in Florida, southern Georgia, probably Louisiana (Kartesz 1999), and possibly southern Alabama and southern Mississippi (Flora of North America 2002).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Ten to 25 occurrences are believed extant. It is unknown how many of the sites would be distinct EOs. As of 2000, just a single extant occurrence of this taxon was known, in Levy County, Florida (Flora of North America 2002). In 2007, another extant occurrence was discovered in Walker County, Texas (Keith 2007). Keith's report of this discovery notes that "only two other extant sites are known for the species, both occurring in Florida (Paul Martin Brown, personal communication)," so it is possible that there is also a second, as-yet unmapped extant site in Florida. In 2009, a second extant Texas occurrence (comprised of two subpopulations) was discovered in San Jacinto County (J. Singhurst, pers. comm. 2009). Since 2009, sites have also been documented in Polk County. The Texas discoveries expanded this plant's known habitat range, so there is hope that more searching within blackland/Fleming prairie habitats may locate additional extant occurrences (Keith 2007). One historical site is known in Georgia (last seen early 1900s) (L. Chafin pers. comm. 2009). Total number of historical/extirpated occurrences is unknown; includes at least 3-4 other sites in Texas (Keith 2007), some in Florida, at least one in Louisiana (Kartesz 1999), and possibly at least one in both Alabama and Mississippi (Flora of North America 2002).

Population Size Comments: Counts at the Florida site were 38-127 plants between 1998 and 2002; however, in 2003, another 1000 plants appeared at the site due to "improvement in mowing schedule." 22 plants were counted at the Walker County, TX site in 2007 (Keith 2007). 25 plants were counted at the San Jacinto County, TX site in 2009, 10 in one subpopulation and 15 in the other (J. Singhurst pers. comm. 2009). A site discovered in TX in 2013, had 100's of individuals.

Viability/Integrity Comments: The Texas occurrences are found within high-quality natural habitats, but have relatively small numbers of plants. The Florida occurrence is located on a roadside, but can have much larger plant numbers, apparently depending on when mowing occurs.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Very little information is available on threats. Habitat loss/conversion and degradation through mowing, herbicide treatments, drainage, and the lack of favorable or adequate disturbance are primary threats (NatureServe Central Database 2014).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-90%
Short-term Trend Comments: This taxon has dramatically declined (Flora of North America 2002).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Plants seem to thrive on disturbance,e.g. mowing, depending on timing.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Southeastern coastal plain endemic, where currently known from 5 counties in eastern Texas and from at least Levy County in northern Florida. Historically known from more wide-ranging sites in Florida, southern Georgia, probably Louisiana (Kartesz 1999), and possibly southern Alabama and southern Mississippi (Flora of North America 2002).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, LA, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Levy (12075)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Waccasassa (03110101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: Delicate, nearly ephemeral orchid, producing winter rosettes. Flowering February to April.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Distinguished from S. floridana (= S. brevilabris var. floridana) and S. eatonii by its densely pubescent rachis (Flora of North America 2002, Brown 2004). It can also be distinguished from S. eatonii by its creamy-yellow flowers with deeper yellow lips (Brown 2004). Other diagnostic features include oval leaves that persist through anthesis and lie flat at the base of the flowering stalk (Keith 2007, J. Singhurst pers. comm.. 2009) and small flowers with a yellowish central lip (Keith 2007).
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Mixed, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Sandy soil in moist prairies, including blackland/Fleming prairies in Texas (calcareous prairie pockets surrounded by pines). Also known from pine-hardwood forest, open pinelands, wetland pine savannahs/flatwoods, and dry to moist fields, meadows, and roadsides. 0-100 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Jun2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Olivero, A. and L. Chafin (2002), rev. K. Gravuer (2009), rev. Treher (2014)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • BROWN, P.M. AND STAN FOLSOM (ILLUSTRATOR). 2003. WILD ORCHIDS OF NORTH AMERICA, NORTHOF MEXICO. UNIVERSITY PRESS OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE.

  • BROWN, PAUL M. (WITH STAN FOLSOM, ILLUSTRATOR). 2002. WILD ORCHIDS OF FLORIDA. UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA.

  • Brown, P. M. 2004. Status of Spiranthes eatonii Ames ex P.M. Brown at two state properties. Final Report for Florida Division of Forestry, Plant Conservation Program.

  • Brown, P.M. 2002. Wild Orchids of Florida. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, FL. xvii+408 pgs.

  • Correll, D.S., and M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner. 1881 pp.

  • FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA, VOL. 26.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Keith, E. 2007. Texas ladies' tresses (Spiranthes brevilabris) rediscovered In Texas. North America Native Orchid Journal 13(2): 113-114.

  • Krupnick, G.A. 2013. The status and future of orchid conservation in North America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 99(2):180-198.

  • Luer, C. A. 1972. The native orchids of Florida. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 293 pp.

  • Thomas, R.D., and C.M. Allen. 1993. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana. Volume 1: Ferns and fern allies, conifers, and monocotyledons. Louisiana Dept. Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 217 pp.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2000. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of May 15, 2000. Unpublished draft, The Nature Conservancy, Southern Resource Office.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1998. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 806 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.