Cryptomastix sanburni - (W.G. Binney, 1886)
Kingston Oregonian
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cryptomastix sanburni (W. G. Binney, 1886) (TSN 77512)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.117532
Element Code: IMGAS93060
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Terrestrial Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Polygyridae Cryptomastix
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cryptomastix sanburni
Taxonomic Comments: Cryptomastix n.sp. 3 of Frest and Johannes is considered Cryptomastix sanburni (T. Burke, pers. comm., Sept. 2, 2016).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 03Dec2018
Global Status Last Changed: 03Dec2018
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Species is not common, but has been found across a moderately sized area of the Idaho Panhandle. Range is limited enough to present some risk of extirpation or extinction.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (03Dec2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Idaho (S3), Montana (S1), Oregon (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range in Montana is known from one site (Hendricks 2003), with no recent detections despite surveys conducted in the mid-2000s in suitable habitat (Hendricks and Maxell 2005, Montana Natural Heritage Program Data, Nov. 2018). In the Idaho panhandle, surveys conducted between 2010 and 2014 have detected the species at within 18, 25 sq km grid cells. Range in Idaho is not thought to encompass the Coeur d' Alene Mountains and areas to the south along the Montana border (Lucid et al. 2016). True range extent is unknown, but suitable habitat with connectivity to known populations is between 20,000 and 200,000 sq km.

Area of Occupancy: 6-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: One occurrence is known from Montana (Hendricks 2003). In Idaho, the species was recently found in 18, 25 sq km grid cells (Lucid et al. 2016), and was previously known from a handful of historic localities (Bill Bosworth, ID NHP, pers. comm., May 2005).

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: No estimate of population size is available for this species.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats to the species likely include fire, logging, and drought. All these factors may impact available moisture within suitable habitat, but impacts to populations have not been studied and are difficult to quantify.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: No data to assess trends are available

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: No data to assess trends are available

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Lifespan and fecundity have not been assessed for this species. Species may have difficulty dispersing between sites, which may prevent recolonization of excerpted populations.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: More surveys are needed within suitable habitat in Montana. The single known occurrence should be revisited to determine if the species is still found at that site.

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Range in Montana is known from one site (Hendricks 2003), with no recent detections despite surveys conducted in the mid-2000s in suitable habitat (Hendricks and Maxell 2005, Montana Natural Heritage Program Data, Nov. 2018). In the Idaho panhandle, surveys conducted between 2010 and 2014 have detected the species at within 18, 25 sq km grid cells. Range in Idaho is not thought to encompass the Coeur d' Alene Mountains and areas to the south along the Montana border (Lucid et al. 2016). True range extent is unknown, but suitable habitat with connectivity to known populations is between 20,000 and 200,000 sq km.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID, MT, OR

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Bonner (16017), Idaho (16049)*, Lewis (16061)*, Nez Perce (16069)*, Shoshone (16079)
MT Missoula (30063)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+*, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, South Fork Coeur D'alene (17010302)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Middle Fork Clearwater (17060304)+*, Clearwater (17060306)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview:

Across this species range, no direct management actions are undertaken by wildlife or land management agencies. Although most occurrences of this species are on US Forest Service managed lands, it is not listed as a sensitive species. As threats are largely unknown, assessing what specific conservation actions may benefit this species is difficult to determine. Management of this species should focus on maintaining current habitat and providing cover (woody debris, rocks, leaf litter, etc.) at sites where the species has been documented, and across potential habitat within the species range.


Restoration Potential: unknown
Management Requirements: No specific programs exists. Management of the habitat to promote suitable microclimates and cover should benefit this species.
Monitoring Requirements: General terrestrial mollusk inventory and monitoring methods such as searching under cover objects have been employed to find and monitor occurrences (e.g. Lucid et al. 2016).

Management Programs: None
Monitoring Programs: Multi-species Baseline Initiative/ Idaho Fish and Game
Management Research Programs: None
Management Research Needs: Research to explore microhabitat attributes this species selects for, better describe habitat features. Also species has not been documented in Montana in recent decades, so surveys to determine if this species still occurs in the state is necessary.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Terrestrial Snails

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Separation Barriers: Barriers include barriers to dispersal such as the presence of permanent water bodies greater than 30 m in width, permanently frozen areas (e.g. mountaintop glaciers) which generally lack land snails (Frest and Johannes, 1995), or dry, xeric areas with less than six inches precipitation annually, as moisture is required for respiration and often hatching of eggs. For the various slugs and slug-like species (families Arionidae, Philomycidae, Limacidae, Milacidae, Testacellidae, Veronicellidae), absence of suitable moisture, except for the most ubiquitous of species such as Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774), can serve as a barrier to movement (Frest and Johannes, 1995). Members of these groups tend to have greater difficulty crossing areas of little moisture than other pulmonates. For tree snails (family Bulimulidae [= Orthalicidae]), lack of appropriate arboreal habitat (e.g. distance of greater than 500 m) also serves as a separation barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Burch and Pearce (1990) suggest refuges may be the most important factor limiting terrestrial snail abundance, although the greatest richness of species among carbonate cliff habitats (one of the most diverse in North America) is associated with calcareous, as opposed to acidic, substrates (Nekola, 1999; Nekola and Smith, 1999). The panmictic unit (a local population in which matings are random) is small relative to those of other animal groups because terrestrial snails tend to be more sedentary. Baker (1958) claimed, "long-distance dispersal of terrestrial gastropods is undoubtedly passive" although short distance dispersal is active involving slow, short distance migration under favorable conditions. Long-distance passive migration is not considered when assigning separation distances, as otherwise separation distances for many animals and plants would be made impracticably large. Passive migration of snails on terrestrial mammals, birds, or insects may occur over longer distances may occur across barriers. Passive migration also may occur by wind or by rafting on floating objects (Vagvolgyi, 1975). A third form of passive migration may occur through human activity such as transport as food, with consumed goods, or for biological control of other organisms.

Terrestrial gastropods do not move much usually only to find food or reproduce. Olfaction is the primary sensory behavior utilized to find and move toward a food item (on the scale of cm to m) although Atkinson (2003) found that Anguispira alternata was capable of switching foraging behavior when snails encountered a physical barrier to movement. Fisher et al (1980) reported maximum movement rate of Rumina decollata (Linnaeus, 1758), an introduced pest species in California spreading relatively rapidly (for a snail), to be 20 m in three months (= 6.67 m/month) in an irrigated orchard. Tupen and Roth (2001) reported the movement rate for the same species in an un-irrigated native scrub on San Nicolas Island to be 0.4 km in 12 years (= 33.33 m/month). South (1965) found in dispersal studies of the slug, Deroceras reticulatum, that slugs traveled a mean distance of 1.13 m in seven days indicating this species disperses little throughout its life. Giokas and Mylonas (2004) found mean dispersal and minimal movement distances were very small (16.2 and 5.4 m, respectively) for Albinaria coerulea, with few individuals dispersing longer distances. Even the most extreme dispersal distances, such as 500 m for the giant African land snail Achatina fulica (Tomiyama and Nakane, 1993), do not approach the scale of km. Viable land snail populations generally occupy small areas. Frest and Johannes (1995) report the largest Oreohelix colony they observed was one mile (1.67 km) long and 0.25 miles (0.41 km) wide while the smallest was six feet (183 cm) long and two feet (61 cm) wide.

As a whole, pulmonates (previously Subclass Pulmonata) are better dispersers than prosobranchs (previously Subclass Prosobranchia) possibly due to their hermaphroditic reproduction increasing the chance of new colonization (Pilsbry, 1948). When compared with prosobranch families, pulmonates generally reproduce at smaller sizes and sooner, produce greater numbers of eggs/young, have larger clutch sizes, greater growth rates, and shorter life cycles (Brown, 1991). Further, prosobranchs' requirement of constant moisture for oxygen exchange limits their ability to colonize drier habitats. Suitable habitat for pulmonate groups tends to be more varied and less restrictive than for prosobranch groups. All of these factors contribute to pulmonates greater dispersal capability over prosobranchs, as evidenced by the wider and more varied distribution of pulmonates over prosobranchs. Despite this, separation distance for both groups is set at the minimum one km as most movements are well within this suggested minimum separation distance.

Date: 26May2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Nov2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Bachen, D.
Management Information Edition Date: 02Jan2019
Management Information Edition Author: Bachen, Dan

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Lucid, M., L. Robinson, and S. Ehlers. 2016. Multi-species Baseline Initiative Project Report: 2010-2014. Unpublished report to Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. 224 pp.


  • Hendricks, P. 2003. Status and conservation management of terrestrial mollusks of special concern in Montana. Unpublished report prepared for the U.S. Forest Service. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 67 pp. + app.

  • Hendricks, P. 2005. Surveys for animal species of concern in northwest Montana. Section 4: Terrestrial mollusk surveys in northwestern Montana; and section 5: Plum Creek owl and mollusk surveys. Unpublished report to the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife & Parks, Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana, May 2005. 53 pp.

  • Hendricks, P., and B.A. Maxell. 2005. USFS Northern Region 2005 land mollusk inventory: a progress report. Report submitted to the U.S. Forest Service Region 1. Agreement #05-CS-11015600-033. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 52 pp.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

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