Paraperla frontalis - (Banks, 1902)
Hyporheic Sallfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Paraperla frontalis (Banks, 1902) (TSN 103234)
French Common Names: Chloroperle ŕ front tacheté
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.114785
Element Code: IIPLE1C010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Stoneflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Plecoptera Chloroperlidae Paraperla
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Stark, B.P. 1996. Last updated 16 February 2001. North American Stonefly List. Online. Available: http://www.mc.edu/campus/users/stark/Sfly0102.htm.
Concept Reference Code: N96STA01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Paraperla frontalis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Apr2017
Global Status Last Changed: 18Jun1998
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: It occurs in the Coast, Cascade, Rocky, and Sierra Nevada Mountains, northward to Alaska and Yukon.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (01Jan2000)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (19Apr2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Idaho (SNR), Montana (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), Oregon (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Utah (S3?), Washington (SNR), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Alberta (SU), British Columbia (S4S5), Yukon Territory (S4S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: It occurs in the Coast, Cascade, Rocky, and Sierra Nevada Mountains, northward to Alaska and Yukon (Stewart and Oswood, 2006).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Gaufin et al. (1972) cite Montana distribution as Flathead, Gallatin, Glacier, Granite, Lake, Lewis and Clark, Missoula, and Ravalli Cos. Baumann (1973) recorded it from Utah. Newell et al. (2006) report it from Glacier National Park and the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Jewett (1971) documented it in Alaska in Moose Creek between Anchorage and Eagle east of Fairbanks. In California, Jewett (1960) cited Inyo, Mariposa, Mendocino, Mono, Plumas, and Sonoma Cos. Stark et al. (2008) documented it in Modoc Co., California. It has been documented in a few sites in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington (Kondratieff and Lechleitner, 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) It occurs in the Coast, Cascade, Rocky, and Sierra Nevada Mountains, northward to Alaska and Yukon (Stewart and Oswood, 2006).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, YT

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Adults emerge from April to the first part of August (Gaufin et al., 1972).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, MEDIUM RIVER
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Mostly hyporheal in streams or larger rivers.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Stoneflies

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical presence or current presence of single or multiple specimens (including nymphs or adults) at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults during dispersal following emergence.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Stoneflies (Order Plecoptera) are a relatively small insect order with an immature larval stage that is entirely aquatic in North America. Nymphs of most genera occur in cold lotic habitats, with several occurring in warm lotic systems, comparatively few in cold lentic habitats, and none in warm lentic habitats (Baumann, 1979). Dispersal is primarily accomplished stochastically by nymphs and actively by winged adults; although the adult of Capnia lacustra Jewett, 1965, is entirely aquatic (Jewett, 1962) and Capnura fibula (Claassen, 1924), and Allocapnia vivipara (Claassen, 1924) are apparently wingless (Jewett, 1960). Numbers of described North American species (in nine families) have steadily grown from 350 (Jewett, 1960) to 537 (Stark et al., 1986) to 550 (Stewart and Stark, 1993) to 575 (DeWalt and Stewart, 1995) and most recently 614 (Stark et al., 1998).

Separation distances (unsuitable and suitable) have been set at three km based upon several life history characteristics that limit occurrences to the area of emergence, among them: (1) most stoneflies require some form of moving water for development of nymphs (Hynes in Stark and Armitage, 2000; Jewett, 1960); (2) although some species occur in cool lentic habitats, no stonefly genera occur in warm lentic habitats and most cool lentic taxa live along active, wave-swept areas of shorelines (Hynes in Stark and Armitage, 2000; Stark et al., 1996); (3) although drift does occur for some species, drft tendency is low for stoneflies (Stewart and Szczytko, 1983); (4) stonefly adults generally remain in the area (within m) of larval emergence and mate on nearby solid substratum (Brittain, 1990; Bubb et al., 2004; Cummins and Merritt, 1996); (5) the known life cycle of North American stoneflies is either univoltine (one year) or semivoltine (two or three years) (Hynes in Stark and Armitage, 2000; Stewart and Ricker, 1997; Stewart and Stark, 1993); (6) flying ability (particularly for adult females) is not strong with dispersal rarely exceeding a few km (Malmqvist, 2000) wherein, according to Stewart and Stark (1993), "most students of plecopteran biogeography have emphasized low vagility of adult stoneflies and the necessity for former land bridges or vicariant events to account for range disjunctions"; (7) recently, limited wind-driven dispersal of adults between tributaries has been demonstrated wherein Bubb et al. (2004) showed that between 0.1% and 0.2% of a population of Leuctra inermis moved a distance of 1 km while a very small percentage of a population of Peltoperla tarteri demonstrated genetic flow over 0.5 to 2.0 km (Schultheis et al., 2002).

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Oct2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 05Oct2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baumann, R.W. 1973. Studies on Utah stoneflies (Plecoptera). Great Basin Naturalist 33:91-108.

  • Gaufin, A.R., E.R. Ricker, M. Miner, P. Milam, and R.A. Hays. 1972. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Montana. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 98(1):1-161.

  • Huntsman, B.O., R.W. Baumann, and B.C. Kondratieff. 2001. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of South Dakota. Entomological News, 112(2): 104-111.

  • Jacobi, G.Z., S.J. Cary, and R.W. Baumann. 2005. An updated list of the stoneflies (Plecoptera) of New Mexico, U.S.A. Entomological News 116(1): 29-34

  • Jewett, S.G., Jr. 1960. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 6(6):125-177.

  • Jewett, S.G., Jr. 1971. Some Alaskan stoneflies (Plecoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47(3):189-192.

  • Judson, S. W. and C. R. Nelson. 2011. Diversity, phenology, and elevational distribution of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera in American Fork Canyon, Utah. Western North American Naturalist January 70(4):526-540.

  • Kondratieff, B.C. and R.A. Lechleitner. 2002. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. Western North American Naturalist, 62: 385-404.

  • Kruse, Jim. 2003. University of Alaska Museum Insect Omnibus: a Preliminary checklist of the Insects of Alaska. Order Plecoptera, Stoneflies. Available: http:/www.uaf.edu/museum/Insect_Omnibus/Plecoptera/index. Updated 7 April 2003. Accessed: 16 April 2003

  • Nebeker, A.V. and A.R. Gaufin. 1966. New stoneflies from Idaho (Plecoptera). Entomological News 77: 36-43.

  • Newell, R.L., R.W. Baumann, and J.A. Stanford. 2006. Pages 173-186 in F.R. Hauer, J.A. Stanford, and R.L. Newell. 2006. International Advances in the Ecology, Zoogeography, and Systematics of Mayflies and Stoneflies. University of California Press, Ecology series, Volume 128. 311 pp.

  • Stark, B. P., K. W. Stewart, S. W. Szczytko, R. W. Baumann, and B. C. Kondratieff. 2012. Scientific and common names of Nearctic stoneflies (Plecoptera), with corrections and additions to the list. The Caddis Press, Miscellaneous Contribution No. 1. 20 pp.

  • Stark, B.P. 1996. Last updated 16 February 2001. North American Stonefly List. Online. Available: http://www.mc.edu/campus/users/stark/Sfly0102.htm.

  • Stark, B.P., B.C. Kondratieff, and R.W. Baumann. 2008. Modoc County, California stoneflies Plecoptera. Perla 26: 12-15.

  • Stewart, K.W. and M.W. Oswood. 2006. The Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Alaska and Western Canada. The Caddis Press: Columbus, Ohio. 325 pp.

  • Stewart, K.W. and W.E. Ricker. 1997. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Yukon. Pages 201-222 in H.V. Danks and J.A. Downes (eds.), Insects of the Yukon. Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods): Ottawa. 1034 pp.

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