Speyeria hesperis - (Edwards, 1864)
Northwestern Fritillary
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Speyeria hesperis (W. H. Edwards, 1864) (TSN 778001)
French Common Names: argynne du Nord-ouest
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.113186
Element Code: IILEPJ6160
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Speyeria
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Speyeria hesperis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Jun2016
Global Status Last Changed: 30Sep1998
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (30Sep1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S3), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Idaho (SNR), Montana (S5), Nebraska (SNR), Nevada (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), Oregon (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Utah (SNR), Washington (S4), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5), Manitoba (S3S4), Northwest Territories (S4S5), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S3S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NE, NM, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NT, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NV Elko (32007)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, North Fork Humboldt (16040102)+
17 Bruneau (17050102)+*, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, South Fork Owyhee (17050105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Dry meadows and hillsides in prairies; dry open woodland of various sorts in the aspen parkland region and westward (Layeberry et al., 1998).
Adult Food Habits: Nectarivore
Food Comments: Caterpillar Hosts: Violets. Adult Food: Flower nectar including Gaillardia, rabbitbrush, purple mints, and shrub cinquefoil (Lotts and Naberhaus 2017).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Speyeria Butterflies, Generic

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs or has occurred with potential for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally a location with violets (larval foodplant), nectar flowers and suitable overall habitat for the particular species where presence has been verified by specimen (strongly preferred westward) or expertly identified photograph. For some species in eastern North America sight records from experienced observers are acceptable. Most viable EOs will be at least 10 hectares and some taxa such as S. IDALIA require much more space (as is also suggested by Layberry et al., 1998 for S. EDWARDSII).
Mapping Guidance: Use the unsuitable habitat distance only if there is really no suitable breeding habitat between sites and adults do not regularly visit the intervening area for nectar. For example for a prairie or woodland taxon the suitable habitat distance should be applied between high quality habitat patches separated by a landscape containing marginal or degraded habitat patches or abundant flowers such as thistles.If the habitat is a feature clearly contained within an overall natural community matrix, such as openings in chaparral or woodland, then all such patches within that community occurrence should generally be considered a single metapopulation EO and the suitable habitat distance used The EO boundaries can be based largely on the community boundaries but might include additional nectaring areas if these are a locally limiting resource and not abundant in the primary habitat. Consult habitat and food comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences for individual species. Presence of genus VIOLA is a critical habitat feature, but as far as known the exact species of violet is not important.
Separation Barriers: This definitely varies by species and cannot usually be known. Some open country species (such as S. IDALIA) will not enter wooded areas, but might fly over or around them. Developed areas, including lightly urbanized ones, cannot be assumed to be barriers as wandering adults will enter them to visit flower gardens. Due to high temperatures and lack of flowers lowland deserts probably can be considered significant barriers to most species.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 4 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: In arid regions consider whether hot arid terrain might actually be a thermal barrier and not merely unsuitable. If this appears to be the case a separation distance as small as 2 km might be appropriate.
Separation Justification: See separate documentation for S. IDALIA. Individuals of that species have been documented several times as moving a few kilometers in one day either one way or round trip during marking studies by Barb Barton in Pennsylvania and by Dale Schweitzer in New England. Documentation is less for other species but individuals several kilometers out of habitat are frequently seen for some of the species such as S. CYBELE eastward. At least the females are long lived and apparently move about during their late summer oviposition season. On the other hand adults are not commonly season more than a kilometer or so out of habitat if the intervening terrain is obviously different. Undoubtedly movement potential does vary among species and cold climate species probably are less able to travel due to temperature and generally shorter flight season. The more extreme habitat specialists and relictual populations are probably sedentary. A further serious complication is that habitat that is completely unsuitable for breeding (e.g. lacks violets) may contain a lot of nectar and thus should probably be considered suitable habitat in the context of separation distance. Adults of species such as S. DIANA, IDALIA, CYBELE, ATLANTIS frequently visit such places. The figures are educated guesses based on general experience.
The rather low figure of two kilometers takes into account the rather discrete habitat preferences of most of the species. Speyeria are not likely to utilize any patch of foodplants in inappropriate habitat context. Even S. CYBELE, probably the least specialized species, does not use extensive violet populations in highly disturbed habitats such as lawns or most city parks, even when these are mostly not subject to mowing or other regular disturbance.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Use with caution and some knowledge of the adult and breeding habitat. For a flying animal easily capable of covering 1-6 kilometers in a day that lives around one-two months and with occurrences being populations of generally hundreds of adults, it would be unreasonable to assume truly suitable habitat without large gaps would remain regularly unoccupied even if parts of it were vacant in a given year (such as in some cases after fall or spring fires). Apply the 2 km radius only for extensive suitable habitat. If the habitat does not extend that far do not infer presence. For habitats less than 400 hectares assume full occupancy. If the nature or extent of the local habitat is unclear, select a smaller inferred extent. Persistent greater fritillary occurrences usually occupy more than 50 hectares and often several hundred.
Date: 19Jul2001
Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Notes: These Specs are meant to cover most of the G4 and G5, and some G3, species within this large genus. The rarer species usually have their own Specs and are often better studied. There is substantial species or subspecies specific literature on this genus, dealing mostly with the rarities. If better taxon-specific local information is available, use it rather than these Specs.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17May2001

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba butterfly species list and subnational ranks proposed by Environment Canada contractor.

  • Guppy, C.S., N.G. Kondla and J.A. Scott. 2014. Correction of the status of Speyeria atlantis and S. hesperis. Journal of the Lepidopterists? Society 68(4):286-287.

  • Klassen,P.,Westwood, A.R., Preston. W.B. and W.B. McKillop. 1989. The butterflies of Manitoba. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature. Winnipeg. 290 pp.

  • Lotts, K., and T. Naberhaus, coordinators. 2017. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Available online: http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version December 2018).

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pohl, G.R., J. Landry, B. C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.J. Van Neiukerken, J.R. DeWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari, and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated Checklist of the Moth and Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. Bulgaria. 580 pp.

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Wildlife Management Information System (WMIS). 2006+. Geo-referenced wildlife datasets (1900 to present) from all projects conducted by Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada.  Available at http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/programs/wildlife-research/wildlife-management-information-services

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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