Zapada cordillera - (Baumann and Gaufin, 1971)
Cordilleran Forestfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Zapada cordillera (Baumann and Gaufin, 1971) (TSN 102600)
French Common Names: Némoure de la Cordillère
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.112137
Element Code: IIPLE0U040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Stoneflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Plecoptera Nemouridae Zapada
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Stark, B.P. 1996. Last updated 16 February 2001. North American Stonefly List. Online. Available: http://www.mc.edu/campus/users/stark/Sfly0102.htm.
Concept Reference Code: N96STA01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Zapada cordillera
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 23Sep2013
Global Status Last Changed: 20Sep1999
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Originally described from Missoula Co., Montana in 1991. Has since been collected from scattered localities in California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington and is restricted to large spring-influenced habitats. In Montana, sampled sites have low abundance.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (20Sep1999)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NU (28Apr2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (SNR), Idaho (S1), Montana (S2), Oregon (SNR), Washington (SU)
Canada Manitoba (SU)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: It is known from scattered localities in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana.

In Idaho, it has been reported only from Sherman Creek in Idaho Co. (Baumann et al., 1977). In Montana, it has been reported from scattered localities in Glacier National Park, Flathead and Glacier Cos., and from the Northern Rocky Mountain Refugium area of Mineral and Missoula Cos. (Gaufin et al. 1972, Newell et al. 2006, Stagliano et al. 2007). It has also been documented in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington (Kondratieff and Lechleitner, 2002). In California, it has been reported from Mendocino Co. (Bottorff and Bottorff 2007).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of occurrences is difficult to specify, but likely falls within the indicated range. However, the species may be more broadly distributed than currently known because the larvae have not been described within the Zapada oregonensis group (Stagliano and Maxell 2010). Occurrences in the Northern Rocky Mountain region (Montana and Idaho) appear to be disjunct glacial refugium populations (Gustafson 2001).

In 2007, there were nine occurrences in Idaho and Montana; subsequent surveys did not find any new occurrences (Stagliana and Maxell 2010).

Population Size Comments: Usually only 10 or fewer individuals are reported per site (Stagliano et al., 2007).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Specific threats to USFS populations of Z. cordillera have not been identified. In general, cold-water stonefly populations are affected by changes to aquatic habitat, such as alteration of flow patterns, streambed substrate, thermal characteristics, and water quality. Alteration and degradation of riparian and aquatic habitat is the primary concern for Northern Region 1 Forest Service populations (Stagliano et al., 2007).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) It is known from scattered localities in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana.

In Idaho, it has been reported only from Sherman Creek in Idaho Co. (Baumann et al., 1977). In Montana, it has been reported from scattered localities in Glacier National Park, Flathead and Glacier Cos., and from the Northern Rocky Mountain Refugium area of Mineral and Missoula Cos. (Gaufin et al. 1972, Newell et al. 2006, Stagliano et al. 2007). It has also been documented in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington (Kondratieff and Lechleitner, 2002). In California, it has been reported from Mendocino Co. (Bottorff and Bottorff 2007).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, ID, MT, OR, WA
Canada MB

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Idaho (16049)*
MT Flathead (30029)*, Lake (30047)*, Missoula (30063)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+*, Middle Fork Flathead (17010207)+*, Flathead Lake (17010208)+*, South Fork Flathead (17010209)+*, Swan (17010211)+*, Lower Flathead (17010212)+*, Lochsa (17060303)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Adults emerge in spring from March to May in Montana (Gaufin et al., 1972).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: It occurs in spring-influenced creeks and small streams (Baumann et al., 1977).
Food Comments: The morphology of the mouthparts suggests that Zapada cordillera is well-suited for shredding plant materials, thus trophic relationships would include being shredders and collectors-gatherers (Merritt and Cummins 1996).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Stoneflies

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical presence or current presence of single or multiple specimens (including nymphs or adults) at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults during dispersal following emergence.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Stoneflies (Order Plecoptera) are a relatively small insect order with an immature larval stage that is entirely aquatic in North America. Nymphs of most genera occur in cold lotic habitats, with several occurring in warm lotic systems, comparatively few in cold lentic habitats, and none in warm lentic habitats (Baumann, 1979). Dispersal is primarily accomplished stochastically by nymphs and actively by winged adults; although the adult of Capnia lacustra Jewett, 1965, is entirely aquatic (Jewett, 1962) and Capnura fibula (Claassen, 1924), and Allocapnia vivipara (Claassen, 1924) are apparently wingless (Jewett, 1960). Numbers of described North American species (in nine families) have steadily grown from 350 (Jewett, 1960) to 537 (Stark et al., 1986) to 550 (Stewart and Stark, 1993) to 575 (DeWalt and Stewart, 1995) and most recently 614 (Stark et al., 1998).

Separation distances (unsuitable and suitable) have been set at three km based upon several life history characteristics that limit occurrences to the area of emergence, among them: (1) most stoneflies require some form of moving water for development of nymphs (Hynes in Stark and Armitage, 2000; Jewett, 1960); (2) although some species occur in cool lentic habitats, no stonefly genera occur in warm lentic habitats and most cool lentic taxa live along active, wave-swept areas of shorelines (Hynes in Stark and Armitage, 2000; Stark et al., 1996); (3) although drift does occur for some species, drft tendency is low for stoneflies (Stewart and Szczytko, 1983); (4) stonefly adults generally remain in the area (within m) of larval emergence and mate on nearby solid substratum (Brittain, 1990; Bubb et al., 2004; Cummins and Merritt, 1996); (5) the known life cycle of North American stoneflies is either univoltine (one year) or semivoltine (two or three years) (Hynes in Stark and Armitage, 2000; Stewart and Ricker, 1997; Stewart and Stark, 1993); (6) flying ability (particularly for adult females) is not strong with dispersal rarely exceeding a few km (Malmqvist, 2000) wherein, according to Stewart and Stark (1993), "most students of plecopteran biogeography have emphasized low vagility of adult stoneflies and the necessity for former land bridges or vicariant events to account for range disjunctions"; (7) recently, limited wind-driven dispersal of adults between tributaries has been demonstrated wherein Bubb et al. (2004) showed that between 0.1% and 0.2% of a population of Leuctra inermis moved a distance of 1 km while a very small percentage of a population of Peltoperla tarteri demonstrated genetic flow over 0.5 to 2.0 km (Schultheis et al., 2002).

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Sep2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ormes, M. (2013), Cordeiro, J. (2008), Kondratieff, B. (1999)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Feb2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Baumann, R. W., A. R. Gaufin, and R. F. Surdick. 1977. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Rocky Mountains. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 31: 1-207.

  • Bottorff, R.L. and L.D. Bottorff. 2007. Phenology and diversity of adult stoneflies (Plecoptera) of a small coastal stream, California. Illiesia, 3(1):1-9.

  • DeWalt, R.E., U. Neu-Becker, and G. Stueber. 2013. Plecoptera Species File Online. Version 5.0/5.0. Online. Available: http://Plecoptera.SpeciesFile.org

  • Gaufin, A.R., E.R. Ricker, M. Miner, P. Milam, and R.A. Hays. 1972. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Montana. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 98(1):1-161.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2014. Manitoba Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Mecoptera, and Plecoptera species lists and ranks proposed by experts.

  • Kondratieff, B.C. and R.A. Lechleitner. 2002. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. Western North American Naturalist, 62: 385-404.

  • Merritt, R. W. and K. W. Cummins. 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. Third Edition. Kendall/ Hunt Publishing Company: Dubuque, Iowa. 862 pp.

  • Newell, R.L., R.W. Baumann, and J.A. Stanford. 2006. Pages 173-186 in F.R. Hauer, J.A. Stanford, and R.L. Newell. 2006. International Advances in the Ecology, Zoogeography, and Systematics of Mayflies and Stoneflies. University of California Press, Ecology series, Volume 128. 311 pp.

  • Stagliano, D.M., G.M. Stephens, and W.R. Bosworth. 2007. Aquatic invertebrate species of concern on USFS Northern Region lands. Report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, Missoula, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana and Idaho Conservation Data Center, Boise, Idaho. Agreement number 05-CS-11015600-036. 95 pp. + app.

  • Stagliano, D.M., and B.A. Maxell. 2010. Aquatic Invertebrate Species of Concern: Updated Distributions, Vital Watersheds and Predicted Sites within USFS Northern Region Lands. Report to USDA Forest Service, Northern Region. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 30 pp. plus appendices.

  • Stark, B. P., K. W. Stewart, S. W. Szczytko, R. W. Baumann, and B. C. Kondratieff. 2012. Scientific and common names of Nearctic stoneflies (Plecoptera), with corrections and additions to the list. The Caddis Press, Miscellaneous Contribution No. 1. 20 pp.

  • Stark, B.P. 1996. Last updated 16 February 2001. North American Stonefly List. Online. Available: http://www.mc.edu/campus/users/stark/Sfly0102.htm.

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