Papilio anchisiades - Esper, 1788
Ruby-spotted Swallowtail
Synonym(s): Heraclides anchisiades ;Priamides anchisiades
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Papilio anchisiades Esper, 1788 (TSN 777708)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.109877
Element Code: IILEP94290
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Papilionidae Papilio
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Papilio anchisiades
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Sep1998
Global Status Last Changed: 01Sep1998
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Common in Latin America. Presumed to be a temporary resident in united States.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (SNR), Kansas (SNR), Texas (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Only US population was recently established in lower Rio Grande valley. The species is also present south to Bolivia.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Only US population was recently established in lower Rio Grande valley. The species is also present south to Bolivia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, KS, TX

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Mostly Citrus groves, gardens, hedges in Texas; tropical forests etc. in main range.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Swallowtails (most Papilionidae).

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs, or has occurred with potential for persistence or regular recurrence; minimally including suitable habitat with presence verified by a specimen or definitively identifiable photograph. For certain relatively easy species sight records might occasionally be used.
Mapping Guidance: For some of the more common mobile landscape level species utilizing very common habitats it may be impossible to define realistic EOs. This would very commonly be the case with species such as P. glaucus, canadensis, troilus, polyxenes asterias, zelicaon and the few migratory ones like Battus philenor. The species will usually be common or transient in the area and therefore not tracked.
Consult the habitat and food comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences. For island or other patchy metapopulations map major larval foodplant concentrations and any critical nectar areas.

Separation Barriers: These will often be unknown, but hot lowland deserts may be treated as barriers for montane species. Developed area should not be assumed to be barriers and are usually unsuitable, but sometimes suitable, habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 20 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: In very many cases, especially in the drier parts of western North America, populations will be confined to clearly definable, discrete landscape features such as riparian areas, canyons, ridgelines or even irrigated settled areas. In most such cases it is very reasonable simply to treat each canyon , ridge, etc., occurrence as a separate EO by using suitable habitat distances within them. If the landscape features are separated by hot arid terrain consider whether such terrain is a barrier rather than merely unsuitable and if that seems to be the case separations distances as small as 1 km may sometimes be appropriate. Although some species do move between islands, in general it is reasonable to treat populations on islands as separate EOs. In order to define practical EOs, for riparian species the unsuitable habitat distance might be applied over marginally suitable habitat.
Separation Justification: These figures are educated guesses based on the easily observable fact that most swallowtails move widely. Adults can commonly be directly observed to move a few hundred meters in a minute or so. Swallowtails are very commonly seen (especially in gardens) away from breeding habitats and are known to move between habitats. In some species both sexes may move substantial distances to encounter mates on hilltops. There are good data for some of the rarer species (which will have their own Specs) but merely many casual observations for most of the common ones. P. aristodemus ponceanus flies from one island to the next. Some taxa occasionally show up 500-1000 kilometers out of range. Isolated patches of foodplants often get larvae even where adults are only occasionally seen. Some naturalists plant larval foodplants in gardens and are quite successful in getting oviposition of species like P. polyxenes, zelicaon and B. philenor. These species wander widely and most use a wide range of habitats, other use a more limited range but still manage to occupy most patches over time. For species which feed on common or even dominant forest trees or shrubs occurrences may cover hundreds of square kilometers, sometimes much more, with no logical subdivisions. Individual male territories or home ranges would not be a logical basis for EOs for such species since insect occurrences are based on populations. Therefore while arbitrary these figures reflect that most swallowtails are wide ranging more or less landscape level species. It seems unlikely that permanent populations would occur in less than several hundred hectares and that may be too small for some.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: This applies only in suitable habitat and if larval foodplants are widely distributed. Do not use to extend occurrences beyond breeding habitat. However, given suitable habitat and dozens to thousands of highly mobile adults it would be unreasonable to assume absence from suitable habitat with established populations as close as 2 kilometers and at least marginal habitat in intervening area.
Date: 19Jul2001
Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 09Jun1987
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Opler, P.A., & D. Schweitzer
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 09May2001

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp.

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