- (Say, 1839)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s):
Sympetrum rubicundulum (Say, 1839) (TSN 101983)
French Common Names: sympétrum à dos roux
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.108520
Element Code: IIODO61120
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates
- Dragonflies and Damselflies
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference: Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.
Concept Reference Code: A99PAU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sympetrum rubicundulum
Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22May2015
Global Status Last Changed: 30Dec1985
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
National Status: N5
U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Alabama (SNR), Colorado (S4), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S4), District of Columbia (S4), Georgia (S2), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S4S5), Maine (S4S5), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (S4), Nebraska (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S3), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S5?), Utah (SH), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S4), Wyoming (SNR)
New Brunswick (SNR), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (SNR), Quebec (S4)
NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors
Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information
U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
AL, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, UT, VA, WI, WV, WY
NB, NS, ON, PE, QC
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted.
For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.
Range Map Compilers: NatureServe
U.S. Distribution by County
||County Name (FIPS Code)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed
||Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+*
Middle Bear (16010202)+*,
Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Not yet assessed
Not yet assessed
Not yet assessed
Group Name: Pond-Breeding Odonates
Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens ideally with evidence of on-site breeding (teneral adults, mating pairs, territorial males, ovipositing females, larvae, or exuviae) at a given location with potential breeding habitat. Although oviposition may not necessarily yield progeny that survive to adulthood (Fincke, 1992) and movements resembling oviposition may not necessarily result in egg deposition (Okazawa and Ubukata, 1978; Martens, 1992; 1994), presence of on-site oviposition is here accepted as an indicator of a minimum element occurrence because the time and effort involved in determining success of emergence is beyond the scope of the general survey. As adults of some species might disperse moderate distances (see below), only sites with available larval habitat can be considered appropriate for a minimum occurrence. Single, non-breeding adults captured away from potential suitable breeding habitat should not be treated as element occurrences. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of sexually mature adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults within the flight season.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Justification: Adults odonates are known to wander, some over great distances (not so for damselflies). Mass migration over great distances is not herein considered when drafting separation distances as such behavior is limited to few species (e.g. Anax junius, Libellula quadrimaculata, other Libellula spp., Sympetrum spp.), occurs unpredictably and infrequently (10 year cycles for L. quadrimaculata), are unidirectional or intergenerational (Freeland et al., 2003), or occurs under unusual circumstances such as irritation by trematode parasites (Dumont and Hinnekint, 1973) or major weather events (Moskowitz et al., 2001; Russell et al., 1998).
Corbet (1999) estimated average distance traveled for a commuting flight (between reproductive and foraging sites) to be less than 200 m but sometimes greater than one km. Pond-breeding odonates may wander but generally stay within a few km of their emergence pond. At the species level, overall range (and dispsersal capability) tends to be larger than for lotic species possibly in response to greater instability of lentic versus lotic habitat over time (Hof et al., 2006). Distribution is often limited in response to presence or absence of predators (also dependent on habitat permanence) (McPeek, 1989; Stoks and McPeek, 2003a; 2003b). At night and during inclement weather, adult Procordulia grayi roosted at least one km away from the reproductive site (Rowe, 1987). Conrad et al. (1999) listed maximum dispersal distance of Sympetrum sanguieneum at 1.2 km but at 800 m or less with high dispersal rate between ponds for other species (Ischnura elegans, Coenagrion puella, C. pulchellum, Lestes sponsa, Enallagma cyathigerum, and Pyrrhosoma nymphalis). Michiels and Dhondt (1991) cited dispersal distance of Sympetrum donae in Belgium at greater than 1.75 km and most mature adults immigrated away from the emergence site. Moore (1986) cited several species of Enallagma as dispersing 2.7 km and found no colonization of artificial acid water ponds in eastern England constructed at least 5 km from colonized natural ponds in 12 consecutive years (single introduced population of Ceriagrion tenellum not surviving past the second generation). Purse et al. (2003) found mature adults of the rare European damselfly, Coenagrion mercuriale, had a low rate of movement within continuous habitat (< 25 m), low emigration rates (1.3 to 11.4%), and low colonization distances (max. 1 km), comparable to other similarly sized coenagrionids.
Even within genera, however, differences in dispersal patterns may exist. McPeek (1989) found the mechanisms causing Enallagma movements between Michigan lakes were due to propensity to leave natal lakes, not active selection of different habitats (e.g. lakes with fish, without fish, or winterkill lakes with fish part-year). With the exception of winterkill lake species (Enallagma ebrium), species in lakes with fish (E. geminatum, E. hageni) and fishless lake species (E. boreale, E. cyathigerum), moved little or not at all away from natal lakes; even those less than 10 m apart. Natural selection may favor remaining at natal lakes where ecological conditions are constant and dispersal costs (i.e. mortality) high (McPeek, 1989). Uncharacteristic movement of E. ebrium away from natal lakes is explained by recolonization of lakes in which populations have been reduced or eliminated and reproducing when winterkill of fish populations changes a lake to the fishless condition.
Considering the above tendency for pond breeding odonates to remain at or near (order of hundreds of meters) natal emergence sites, separation distance has been set at 3 km.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: The few studies determining area of adult foraging habitat surrounding breeding sites have indicated a range of 30 meters to 300 meters [see Briggs (1993) for Enallagma laterale; Corbet (1999) for Nesciothemis nigeriensis and Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; Beukeman (2002) for Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; and Samways and Steytler (1996) for Chorolestes tessalatus]. As a result, an element occurrence should include the breeding site and surrounding pond or upland habitat extending 500 m in a radius from the breeding site.
Author: Cordeiro, J.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
Not yet assessed
Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of
natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).
- Cruden, R.W., and O.J. Gode, Jr. 2000. The Odonata of Iowa. Bulletin of American Odonatology 6(2):13-48.
- Curry, J.R. 2001. Dragonflies of Indiana. Everbest Printing, Ltd.: China. xiv + 303 pp.
- Curry, James R. Ph.D. 1997. Dragonfly Survey Annual Report for 1996. Annual Report to the Division of Nature Preserves, Indiana Dept. of Natural Resources.
- Curry, James R. Ph.D. 1998. Dragonfly Survey Annual Report for 1997. Specimen Listing. 3 pp.
- Mead, K. 2003. Dragonflies of the North Woods. Kollath-Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, Minnesota. 203 pp.
- Muise, C., K.R. Langdon, R.P. Shiflett, D. Trently, A. Hoff, P. Super, A. Mayor, and B.J. Nichols. 2007. Checklist of Odonata from Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Southeastern Naturalist, Special Issue 1:207-214.
- New York Natural Heritage Program. 2014. Database of odonate records by county for northeastern U.S. states. Data contributors available: http://nynhp.org/OdonataNE.
- Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.
- Paulson, D.R., and S.W. Dunkle. 2009. A checklist of North American Odonata including English name, etymology, type locality, and distribution. Originally published as Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, June 1999; completely revised March 2009. Online. Available: http://www.odonatacentral.org/docs/NA_Odonata_Checklist_2009.pdf.
- Shuey, John and David Banks. 1995. Odonata Species Collected 1995. List. 7 pp.
- Swinford, Thomas O. 1997. Checklist of Status of Indiana Odonata. List. 7 pp.
- Swinford, Tom. 1995. Checklist and Status of Indiana Odonata. List. 7 pp.
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