Callophrys gryneus - (Hübner, [1819])
Juniper Hairstreak
Synonym(s): Callophrys (Mitoura) grynea (Hübner, [1819]) ;Mitoura grynea (Hübner, [1819]) ;Mitoura gryneus (Hübner, [1819])
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Callophrys gryneus (Hübner, 1819) (TSN 777841)
French Common Names: porte-queue du genévrier
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.107588
Element Code: IILEPE2130
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Lycaenidae Callophrys
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Callophrys gryneus
Taxonomic Comments: Previously placed in genus Mitoura. Several western taxa that were long considered separate species (e.g. siva) are now considered to be subspecies. Some workers have suggested that sweadneri might be a separate species but evidence continues to accumulate that it is only a subspecies (see Gatrelle (2001) for discussion and note his concept subspecies smilacis which looks close to sweadneri. D. Schweitzer
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 11Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 29Apr1999
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Eastern (typical) subspecies and some western ones are common over substantial areas.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (01Sep1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (11Feb2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arizona (SNR), Arkansas (S4), California (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (S3), Delaware (S2), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (S2), Georgia (SNR), Idaho (S4), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S4), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (S1), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S4), Nebraska (S3), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (SH), New Jersey (S5), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S4), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S4?), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (S3S4), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (SNR), Utah (SNR), Vermont (S3), Virginia (S4), Washington (S3), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S3S4), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada British Columbia (S4), Ontario (S3), Quebec (S2), Saskatchewan (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Between the various taxa now included in this species they occupy much of the USA with at least one subspecies reported from probably all of the lower 48 states. Also enters parts of northern Mexcio and extreme southern Canada.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Between the various taxa now included in this species they occupy much of the USA with at least one subspecies reported from probably all of the lower 48 states. Also enters parts of northern Mexcio and extreme southern Canada.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada BC, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
DE Sussex (10005)
FL Brevard (12009), Citrus (12017), Dixie (12029), Duval (12031), Jackson (12063), Jefferson (12065), Levy (12075), Okaloosa (12091), Orange (12095), Seminole (12117), Taylor (12123), Volusia (12127), Walton (12131)
IA Clay (19041), Monona (19133), Plymouth (19149)
NE Colfax (31037), Franklin (31061), Furnas (31065), Garden (31069), Gosper (31073), Hooker (31091), Sioux (31165)
PA Bucks (42017), Chester (42029), Delaware (42045), Juniata (42067), Lancaster (42071), Montgomery (42091), Philadelphia (42101), Union (42119), York (42133)
WA Asotin (53003), Franklin (53021)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+, Lower Juniata (02050304)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+
03 Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Daytona - St. Augustine (03080201)+, Withlacoochee (03100208)+, Waccasassa (03110101)+, Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102)+, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Chipola (03130012)+, Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102)+, Yellow (03140103)+
10 Hat (10120108)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Lower North Platte (10180014)+, Lower Platte-Shell (10200201)+, Dismal (10210002)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, Harlan County Reservoir (10250009)+, Middle Republican (10250016)+
17 Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Lower Snake (17060110)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Lycaenidae.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Old field, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Juniper woodland, abandoned pastures, old fields, barrens, glades, coastal thickets and scrub; with its larval hosts, Juniperus virginiana, J. scopulorum.
Adult Food Habits: Nectarivore
Food Comments: Caterpillar Hosts: Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), California juniper (J. californica), Utah juniper (J. osteosperma), and perhaps others. Adult Food: Nectar from various flowers including winter cress, dogbane, common milkweed, wild carrot, shepherd's needle, butterflyweed, white sweet clover, and others (Lotts and Naberhaus 2017).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Callophrys (Mitoura): Cedar Hairstreaks

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location containing the foodplant cedar or juniper (usually as at least co-dominant in the tallest stratum) or mistletoe within them where the species occurs, or has occurred, with potential for persistence or regular recurrence. In most contexts, minimally a patch of foodplant where at least one specimen has been collected or photographed and positively identified. In geographic areas where only one taxon is possible sight records may be used; this specifically does not apply to Chamaecyparis swamps in or near New Jersey since both the common C. gryneus and C. hesseli occur in these.
Mapping Guidance: Subject to Inferred Extent it is sometimes possible to simply map the EO boundary as coinciding with a mapped community or with vegetation maps, for example usually so for C. hesseli. If small patches of the foodplant occur between two occurrences apply the 4 kilometer distance. Several taxa including C. gryneus gryneus and C. g. sweadneri do form temporary colonies in as fewer than a dozen trees.
Separation Barriers: No information available. Probably for montane taxa in hottest months, lowland deserts are barriers.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: In cases where the occurrence coincides well to a recognized natural community use the suitable habitat distance within the community including degraded or fragmented portions. On ridges or in canyons (or along rivers for C. hesseli) where multiple foodplant patches occur use the suitable habitat distance across sections where the foodplant cedar is sparse but not absent unless it is present only as shaded understory plants or unless gaps exceed half the suitable habitat separation distance.
Separation Justification: These figures are basically arbitrary. They reflect the fact most taxa occur as highly localized colonies and that adults very seldom move more than a few dozen meters from the cedars. Nevertheless colonizations do occur and C. gryneus does occasionally turn up more than a kilometer out of habitat. Apparently even C. hesseli does so rarely as Schweitzer collected one female on a lawn red cedar more than a kilometer from the nearest white cedar swamp. Still these butterflies rarely leave their habitats.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: This very low figure reflects mainly the fact that some of the taxa, most notably C. hesseli, often cannot be readily documented as occurring throughout the apparent contiguous habitat although some others such a C. g. gryneus usually do occupy the full patch. For C. hesseli and some other species male "lekking" areas can be very localized within the habitat. Probably females in fact do ultimately move more widely within habitats but for now this is not assumed. If the habitat is smaller than this consider the entire patch occupied..
Date: 23Jul2001
Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Apr1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Opler, P.A., Schweitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14May2001

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, T.J. 1997. The butterflies of West Virginia and their caterpillars. Pittsburgh, PA. University of Pittsburgh Press.

  • COVELL, C.V., JR. 1999. THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA) OF KENTUCKY: AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST. KENTUCKY STATE NATURE PRESERVES COMMISSION SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERIES 6:1-220.

  • Campbell, C.A., D.P. Coulson and A.A. Bryant. 1990. Status, Distribution and Life History Characteristics of Some Butterflies at Risk in the Carolinian Forest Zone of Ontario. pp 207-252. In: Allen, M.A., P.F.J. Eagles and S.D. Price (eds.). Conserving Carolinian Canada. University of Waterloo Press..

  • Guppy, C.S., and J.H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia. UBC Press in collaboration with Royal B.C. Mus. 414pp.

  • Hanks, A. J. 1996. Toronto Entomological Association. Butterflies of Ontario & Summaries of Lepidoptera Encountered in Ontario in 1995.. Toronto Entomological Association.

  • Hanks, A.J. 1997. Butterflies of Ontario & Summaries of Lepidoptera Encountered in Ontario in 1996. Toronto Entomologists Association Publication #29-97. 90 pp.

  • Hanks, A.J. 1998. Butterflies of Ontario & Summaries of Lepidoptera Encountered in Ontario in 1997. Toronto Entomologists Association Publication #30-98. 89 pp.

  • Hanks, A.J. 1999. Butterflies of Ontario & Summaries of Lepidoptera Encountered in Ontario in 1998. Toronto Entomologists Association Publication #31-99. 81 pp..

  • Holmes, A.M., Q.F. Hess, R.R. Tasker and A.J. Hanks. 1991. The Ontario Butterfly Atlas. Toronto Entomologists' Association, Toronto, Ontario. viii + 167 pp.

  • Huber, R. L. 1981. An updated checklist of Minnesota butterflies. Minnesota Entomological Association Newsletter 14(3):15-25.

  • Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall, and J.D. Lafontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario. 280 pp.

  • Lotts, K., and T. Naberhaus, coordinators. 2017. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Available online: http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version December 2018).

  • Miller, L. D. and F. M. Brown. 1981. A Catalogue/Checklist of the Butterflies of America North of Mexico. The Lepidopterists' Society Memoir No. 2, Sarasota, Florida. 280 pp.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pohl, G.R., J. Landry, B. C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.J. Van Neiukerken, J.R. DeWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari, and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated Checklist of the Moth and Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. Bulgaria. 580 pp.

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Riotte, J.C.E. 1992. Annotated List of Ontario Lepidoptera. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. 208 pp.

  • Wormington, A. 1990. Five Year (1984-1988) Supplement to The Butterflies of Point Pelee National Park, Ontario (1983). Essex County Field Naturalists' Club. The Egret 7(1): 2-16.

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