Salvelinus alpinus oquassa - (Girard, 1854)
Landlocked Arctic Char
Other English Common Names: Blue Backed Trout, Sunapee Trout
Synonym(s): Salvelinus alpinus aureolus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
French Common Names: omble chevalier oquassa
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106337
Element Code: AFCHA05011
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Salmon and Trouts
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Salmoniformes Salmonidae Salvelinus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B80LEE01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Salvelinus alpinus oquassa
Taxonomic Comments: Genetic studies indicate that Laurentian arctic char (including blue-backed trout, sunapee trout, and red trout) represent a single taxon (Brunner et al. 2001, Bernatchez et al. 2002), here regarded as S. alpinus oquassa (landlocked arctic charr).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T3T4Q
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Nov2009
Global Status Last Changed: 19Nov2009
Rounded Global Status: T3 - Vulnerable
Nation: United States
National Status: N2 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (09Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Idaho (SNA), Maine (S2), New Hampshire (SX), Vermont (SX)
Canada Quebec (S3S4)

Other Statuses

American Fisheries Society Status: Threatened (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southeastern Quebec, New Brunswick, and northeastern United States (Qadri 1974, Brunner et al. 2001, Bernatchez et al. 2002); introduced in Idaho (present status?) (Williams et al. 1989).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Blue-backed trout: native populations are threatened by habitat alteration and introduced non-native fishes (Williams et al. 1989).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southeastern Quebec, New Brunswick, and northeastern United States (Qadri 1974, Brunner et al. 2001, Bernatchez et al. 2002); introduced in Idaho (present status?) (Williams et al. 1989).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IDexotic, ME, NHextirpated, VTextirpated
Canada QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
VT Essex (50009)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 St. Francois River (04150500)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Habitat Comments: Deep cold ponds and lakes (Williams et al. 1989).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 13Mar2003
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Sep1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): GAH

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bernatchez L. et M. Giroux. 2000. Les poissons d'eau douce du Québec et leur répartition dans l'est du Canada. Broquet. 350 pages

  • Bernatchez, L., J. G. Rhydderch, and F. W. Kircheis. 2002. Microsatellite gene diversity analysis in landlocked arctic char from Maine. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131:1006-1118.

  • Brunner, P. C., M. R. Douglas, A. Osinov, C. C. Wilson, and L. Bernatchez. 2001. Holarctic phylogeography of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Evolution 55:573-586.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Qadri, S. U. 1974. Taxonomic status of the Salvelinus alpinus complex. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31(8):1355-1361.

  • Scott W.B. et E.J. Crossman. 1974. Poissons d'eau douce du Canada. Ministère de l'Environnement. Service des pêches et des sciences de la mer. Office des recherches sur les pêcherires du Canada. Bulletin 184. 1026 p.

  • Williams, J.E, J.E. Johnson, D.A. Hendrickson, S. Contreras-Balderas, J.D. Williams, M. Navarro-Mendoza, D.E. McAllister, and J.E. Deacon. 1989b. Fishes of North America endangered, threatened or of special concern: 1989. Fisheries 14(6):2-20.

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