Catostomus latipinnis - Baird and Girard, 1853
Flannelmouth Sucker
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Catostomus latipinnis Baird and Girard, 1853 (TSN 163906)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106213
Element Code: AFCJC02110
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Suckers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Catostomidae Catostomus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Catostomus latipinnis
Taxonomic Comments: This sucker hybridizes with the razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), an introduced species. The sucker in the Little Colorado River is recognized as a distinct, undescribed species; it is under study by A. Hutchison and D. Buth (Starnes 1995). Range-wide study of genetic diversity is needed (Starnes 1995). See Smith (1992) for a study of the phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Oct2011
Global Status Last Changed: 13Jul1998
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Occurs in the Colorado River basin from Wyoming to Arizona-California; locally common in the northern part of the range, but declining or extirpated in the southern part of the historical range; threatened by ongoing activities including alteration of the hydrologic and thermal characteristics of river habitats, blockage of migration routes due to dam construction, predation by and competition with non-native aquatic species, and hybridization with other species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S2), California (S1), Colorado (S3), Navajo Nation (S3S4), Nevada (S1), New Mexico (S1), Utah (S3), Wyoming (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Historical range included the Colorado River Basin, from southwestern Wyoming to southern Arizona and Sonora (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). The species is extirpated from the Gila River Basin and the Colorado River below Lake Mead (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1995), except where introduced downstream from Lake Mohave in Arizona and Nevada in the mid-1970s (this population still exists) and in another area along the Arizona-California border (Minckley and Marsh 2009).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a fairly large number of extant occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but certainly exceeds 10,000. This fish is locally common (Page and Burr 2011). New Mexico Department of Game and Fish (1996) stated that it was common in the San Juan River below Blanco but has declined in abundance in the Animas and La Plata rivers. A mean of 10.6-61.3 individuals/mile was reported from 177 river miles on the San Juan River from Farmington to Lake Powell (Ryden and Pfeiffer 1994; David Mikesic, pers. comm., 1997). It was the most abundant species collected (electrofishing) in the Little Colorado River from 1989-1992 (Platania 1990; David Mikesic, pers. comm., 1997). During 1991-1995 in the Little Colorado River, the population size was calculated at 1591-5214 (average 2507), plus an additional 8-136 (average 30) hybrids with the razorback sucker (Douglas and Marsh 1998). In the early 2000, a breeding population of nearly 2,300 individuals existed along a 40-kilometer reach downstream from Lake Mohave (Arizona-Nevada) (see Minckley and Marsh 2009).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include alteration of the hydrologic and thermal (Clarkson and Childs 2000, Ward et al. 2002) characteristics of river habitats, blockage of migration routes due to dam construction, predation and competition by non-native aquatic species, and hybridization with other Catostomus species (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1995, 1996; Oliver 1997; New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1997). This species also has suffered directly from fish management activities such as piscicide applications in the Virgin River and elsewhere (Minckley and Marsh 2009).

Young suckers that exit warm tributaries and enter cold hypolimnetic water released from major dams may experience increased susceptibility to predation by rainbow trout and other predators (Ward and Bonar 2003).

The closure of Taylor Draw Dam on the White River, Colorado, changed sucker movement patterns and now apparently prevents the return of fishes to a preferred area (Chart and Bergersen 1992).

Hybridization occurs with the razorback sucker (Sigler and Miller 1963) and with the non-native white sucker. Hybridization is probably the greatest threat in New Mexico, but habitat modification (elevated sediments, channelization, modified flow regimes, and stream dewatering), and contaminants also have contributed to reduced abundance (see New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past three generations (estimated at around 20-25 years) is uncertain but probably slowly declining. The species has been stable recently in the Little Colorado River (Douglas and Marsh 1998). In New Mexico, it is considered common and stable in the San Juan downstream of Blanco, but there has been a decline in abundance of genetically pure populations in the Animas and La Plata rivers (New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: Over the long term, this species has experienced a substantial decline in extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, population size, and habitat quality, particularly in the southern portion of the range.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Update population information and determine trends in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and Mexico. Determine abundance across range.

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Historical range included the Colorado River Basin, from southwestern Wyoming to southern Arizona and Sonora (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). The species is extirpated from the Gila River Basin and the Colorado River below Lake Mead (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1995), except where introduced downstream from Lake Mohave in Arizona and Nevada in the mid-1970s (this population still exists) and in another area along the Arizona-California border (Minckley and Marsh 2009).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, NM, NN, NV, UT, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Coconino (04005), Mohave (04015)
CA San Bernardino (06071)
CO Montezuma (08083)
NM Rio Arriba (35039)*, San Juan (35045)
NV Clark (32003)
UT Carbon (49007), Daggett (49009)*, Duchesne (49013), Emery (49015), Garfield (49017), Grand (49019), Kane (49025), San Juan (49037), Uintah (49047), Washington (49053), Wayne (49055)
WY Carbon (56007), Lincoln (56023), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Uinta (56041)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001), Roaring Fork (14010004), Colorado headwaters-Plateau (14010005), Upper Gunnison (14020002), North Fork Gunnison (14020004), Lower Gunnison (14020005), Uncompahange (14020006), Westwater Canyon (14030001)+, Upper Dolores (14030002), San Miguel (14030003), Lower Dolores (14030004)+, Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005)+, Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Upper Yampa (14050001), Lower Yampa (14050002), Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+, Upper White (14050005), Piceance-Yellow (14050006), Lower White (14050007)+, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+, Duchesne (14060003)+, Strawberry (14060004)+, Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005)+, Willow (14060006)+, Price (14060007)+, Lower Green (14060008)+, San Rafael (14060009)+, Upper Lake Powell (14070001)+, Muddy (14070002)+, Fremont (14070003)+, Dirty Devil (14070004)+, Escalante (14070005)+, Lower Lake Powell (14070006)+, Paria (14070007)+, Upper San Juan (14080101)+, Piedra (14080102), Blanco Canyon (14080103)+*, Animas (14080104)+, Middle San Juan (14080105)+, Mancos (14080107), Lower San Juan-Four Corners (14080201)+, Mcelmo (14080202)+, Montezuma (14080203)+, Chinle (14080204)+, Lower San Juan (14080205)+
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Lake Mead (15010005)+, Upper Virgin (15010008)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+, Little Colorado headwaters (15020001), Upper Little Colorado (15020002), Middle Little Colorado (15020008), Chevelon Canyon (15020010), Lower Little Colorado (15020016)+, Havasu-Mohave Lakes (15030101)+, Imperial Reservoir (15030104)+, Lower Colorado (15030107)*, Upper Gila-Mangas (15040002)*, Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir (15040005)*, Middle Gila (15050100)*, Upper San Pedro (15050202)*, Lower San Pedro (15050203)*, Upper Salt (15060103)*, Lower Salt (15060106)*, Lower Gila-Painted Rock Reservoir (15070101)*, Lower Gila (15070201)*
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A fish (sucker) reaching a length of 22 inches.
General Description: See Snyder and Muth (1990) for a guide to the identification of larvae and early juveniles.
Reproduction Comments: Spawns spring and early summer. In Colorado, ripe females have been collected in May-early June; both sexes mature at age IV at earliest, most by age VII (McAda and Wydoski 1985). See also McKinney et al. (1999).
Ecology Comments: Mobile, with random movements, in the White River, Colorado, prior to closure of Taylor Draw Dam; following closure of the dam, fishes were more active and their movements were directed (Chart and Bergersen 1992).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Rocky pools, runs, riffles, and backwaters of medium to large rivers, less often in small rivers and creeks, absent from impoundments (Lee et al. 1980, Sublette et al. 1990, Page and Burr 2011). This species is typical of pools and deeper runs and often enters mouths of small tributaries (Lee et al. 1980). Young usually are in shallower water than are adults (Sigler and Miller 1963). Spawning occurs in riffles, margins of rapids, or in low-gradient mouths of tributaries, usually over a substrate of coarse gravel or gravel-cobble (Lee et al. 1980, Minckley and Marsh 2009).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Bottom feeder. Reported to feed on diatoms, algae, fragments of higher plants, seeds, and benthic invertebrates (Sigler and Miller 1963; Lee et al. 1980). See Tyus and Minckley 1988 for possible importance of Mormon cricket as food source.
Length: 50 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: A conservation plan for this and two other Colorado River species has been approved by all of the Colorado River basin states except California (Minckley and Marsh 2009).
Biological Research Needs: Determine effects of water temperature on ecology and life history. Determine effects of fluctuating water flows on movements and the fate of early life stages in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam. Determine food web relationships in the Little Colorado and Colorado rivers using stable isotope analysis (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1995). Describe spawning habits (Baxter and Stone 1995).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium suckers

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for catostomids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large catostomids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catostomids that typically are 20-40 cm in adult standard length.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Oct2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26Oct2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Arizona Game and Fish Department. 1995. Catostomus latipinnis. Unpublished abstract, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. 4 pp.

  • Arizona Game and Fish Department. 1996. Wildlife of special concern in Arizona (public review draft). Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program, Phoenix, Arizona. 40 pp.

  • Baxter, G. T., and M. D. Stone. 1995. Fishes of Wyoming. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 290 pp.

  • Baxter, G.T. and M.D. Stone. 1995. Fishes of Wyoming. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 290 pp.

  • Chart, T. E., and E. P. Bergersen. 1992. Impact of mainstream impoundment on the distribution and movements of the resident flannelmouth sucker (Catostomidae: Catostomus latipinnis) population in the White River, Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 37:9-15.

  • Clarkson, R. W., and M. R. Childs. 2000. Temperature effects of hypolimnion-release dams on early life history stages of Colorado river basin big-river fishes. Copeia 2000:402-412.

  • Division of Natural Resources, Navajo Fish and Wildlife Department. 1995. Endangered Species List for The Navajo Nation.

  • Douglas, M. E., and P. C. Marsh. 1998. Population and survival estimates of Catostomus latipinnis in northern Grand Canyon, with distribution and abundance of hybrids with Xyrauchen texanus. Copeia 1998:915-925.

  • Holden, P. B., and C. B. Stalnaker. 1975. [title unknown]. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 104: 217-231.

  • Hubbs, C. L., and R. R. Miller. 1953 ["1952"]. Hybridization in nature between the fish genera Catostomus and Xyrauchen. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 38: 207-233.

  • La Rivers, I. 1962. Fishes and Fisheries of Nevada. Nevada State Fish and Game Commission, Carson City, Nevada. 782 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McCallister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh. 867 pp.

  • McAda, C. W. 1977. Aspects of the life history of three catostomids native to the upper Colorado River basin. M. S. thesis, Utah State University, Logan. xi + 105 pp.

  • McAda, C. W., and R. S. Wydoski. 1985. Growth and reproduction of the flannelmouth sucker, Catostomus latipinnis, in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 1975-76. Great Basin Naturalist 45(2):281-286.

  • McKinney, T., W. R. Persons, and R. S. Rogers. 1999. Ecology of flannelmouth sucker in the Lee's Ferry tailwater, Colorado River, Arizona. Great Basin Naturalist 59(3):259-265.

  • Minckley, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona. 293 pp.

  • Minckley, W. L., and P. C. Marsh. 2009. Inland fishes of the greater Southwest: chronicle of a vanishing biota. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 426 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. 1996. October 1-last update. Fish and Wildlife Information Exchange-VA Tech. Online. Available: http//www.fw.vt.edu/fishex/nm.html. Accessed 1997, April 8.

  • Oliver, G.V. 1997. Catostomus latipinnis. Pp. 135-137 in Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Inventory of Sensitive Species and Ecosystems in Utah. All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository). Paper 402. http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/govdocs/402

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Platania, S. P. 1990. The ichthyofauna of the Rio Grande drainage, Texas and Mexico, from Boquillas to San Ygnacio. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 100 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Ryden, D.W. and F.K. Pfeifer. 1994. Adult fish community monitoring on the San Juan River: 1993 annual progress report. Draft. Colorado River Fishery Project, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Junction, CO.

  • Sigler, W. F., and R. R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, Utah. 203 pp.

  • Sigler, W. F., and R. R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah State Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, Utah, 203 pp.

  • Smith, G. R. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae, freshwater fishes of North America and Asia. Pages 778-826 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Snyder, D. E., and R. T. Muth. 1990. Description and identification of razorback, flannelmouth, white, Utah, bluehead, and mountain sucker larvae and early juveniles. Colorado Division of Wildlife Technical Publication No. 38. 152 pp.

  • Starnes, W. C. 1995. Taxonomic validation for fish species on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Category 2 species list. 28 pp.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • Texas Natural History Collections [University of Texas at Austin]. 1997. February 7-last update. North American Freshwater Fishes Index (Images, Maps and Information). Online. Available: http://www.utexas.edu/depts/tnhc/www.fish.tnhc/na/naindex.ht ml. Accessed 1997, April 4.

  • Tyus, H. M., and W. L. Minckley. 1988. Migrating Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), as food for stream fishes. Great Basin Naturalist 48(1):25-30.

  • Ward, D. L., O. E. Maughan, S. A. Bonar, and W. J. Matter. 2002. Effects of temperature, fish length, and exercise on swimming performance of age-0 flannelmouth sucker. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131:492-497.

  • Ward, D. L., and S. A. Bonar. 2003. Effects of cold water on susceptibility of age-0 flannelmouth sucker to predation by rainbow trout. Southwestern Naturalist 48:43-46.

  • Woodling, J. 1985. Colorado's Little Fish: A Guide to the Minnows and Other Lesser Known Fishes in the State of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996b. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia: Export of freshwater fish and mussel records west of the Mississippi River in 1997. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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