Bucephala islandica - (Gmelin, 1789)
Barrow's Goldeneye
Other English Common Names: Barrow's goldeneye
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Bucephala islandica (Gmelin, 1789) (TSN 175144)
French Common Names: garrot d'Islande
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105817
Element Code: ABNJB18020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Bucephala
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bucephala islandica
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 21Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N4N5N,N5M (22Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S5B,S5N), Arizona (S1N), California (S1), Colorado (S2B), Idaho (S3B,S3N), Maine (S2S3N), Massachusetts (S2N), Montana (S4), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Mexico (S2N), New York (SNRN), Oregon (S3B,S3N), South Dakota (SNA), Utah (S1S2N), Vermont (S3N), Washington (S3B,S4N), Wyoming (S4)
Canada Alberta (S4B), British Columbia (S4S5), Labrador (S3S4M), New Brunswick (S2M,S2N), Newfoundland Island (S1N,SUM), Northwest Territories (S4B), Nova Scotia (S1N), Nunavut (SNRB,SUM), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (S2N), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (S2M), Yukon Territory (S4B)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS:SC
Comments on COSEWIC: Eastern population is designated Special Concern.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: southeastern Alaska, northern Mackenzie, northwestern British Columbia south to eastern Washington, southwestern Oregon, eastern California; Colorado Rockies; Quebec, Labrador, Greenland, Iceland. WINTERS: southern Alaska south along coast to central California (mainly from Washington northward); locally from southern British Columbia and northern Montana to northern Nevada, Utah, Colorado; from Gulf of St. Lawrence south to New York, rarely to South Carolina.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: southeastern Alaska, northern Mackenzie, northwestern British Columbia south to eastern Washington, southwestern Oregon, eastern California; Colorado Rockies; Quebec, Labrador, Greenland, Iceland. WINTERS: southern Alaska south along coast to central California (mainly from Washington northward); locally from southern British Columbia and northern Montana to northern Nevada, Utah, Colorado; from Gulf of St. Lawrence south to New York, rarely to South Carolina.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, MA, ME, MT, NH, NM, NV, NY, OR, SD, UT, VT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Clear Creek (08019), Eagle (08037), Garfield (08045), Grand (08049)*, Rio Blanco (08103), Summit (08117)*
OR Clackamas (41005), Deschutes (41017)*, Douglas (41019), Hood River (41027)*, Jefferson (41031), Linn (41043), Malheur (41045), Marion (41047)
WA Grant (53025), King (53033), Kittitas (53037), Okanogan (53047), Stevens (53065)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Clear (10190004)+
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+, Blue (14010002)+*, Roaring Fork (14010004)+, Upper White (14050005)+
17 Kettle (17020002)+, Sanpoil (17020004)+, Okanogan (17020006)+, Methow (17020008)+, Banks Lake (17020014)+, Upper Yakima (17030001)+, Lower Owyhee (17050110)+, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+*, Upper Deschutes (17070301)+*, Little Deschutes (17070302)+*, Lower Deschutes (17070306)+, Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+, Mckenzie (17090004)+, North Santiam (17090005)+, Clackamas (17090011)+, North Umpqua (17100301)+, Snoqualmie (17110010)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Diagnostic Characteristics: See Tobish (1987) for details on identification of Barrow's and common goldeneyes in all plumages.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size is 6-15 (usually 10-13). Incubation, by female, lasts about 30 days. In British Columbia, mean hatching date is mid- to late June (Savard et al. 1991). Nestlings are precocial and downy. Pair bond may last more than 1 year (Savard 1985). Intraspecific nest parasitism is common (Savard 1988).
Ecology Comments: In summer usually found in small, scattered groups. In winter often seen in large flocks.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates northward and inland to breeding areas in April. Migrates southward and to the coast October-November (Terres 1980). In British Columbia, breeding and wintering areas for some individuals were 320 km apart (Savard 1985).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Mixed, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Winters on lakes, rivers, estuaries, and bays. Usually nests near lake or pond surrounded by dense vegetation. May nest in wooded or open country. Usually nests in a natural tree cavity, abandoned woodpecker hole, rock cavity, stream bank. Often nests in same area in successive years.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: In fresh water forages for aquatic insects, crustaceans, some plant food, small fishes, and fish eggs. In salt water feeds on mollusks (especially blue mussels), some seastars, and marine worms, etc.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 46 centimeters
Weight: 1090 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Management Requirements: Nests boxes have been used to increase breeding populations in British Columbia (Savard 1988).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Diving Ducks and Sea Ducks

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Little information on breeding home ranges; separation distance somewhat arbitrary. Territories not defended in eiders, but goldeneyes defend small (0.18 to 1.45 hectares) territories (Eadie et al. 2000). Philopatry to breeding area strong in Common Eider (Reed 1975, Wakeley and Mendall 1976, Swennen 1990), and Spectacled Eider (Grand and Flint 1997).
Date: 29May2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Staging area, Foraging area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Molting area, Migration staging area, Wintering area, Non-breeding feeding concentration area, Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of molting, staging, or wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. For wintering occurrences, it would be preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Mapping Guidance: Map roosting and feeding areas with separate polygons in same EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Fidelity to molting sites (one or two lakes) high in Barrow's Goldeneye (van de Wetering 1997); fidelity to wintering sites probably high in Barrow's Goldeneye (Savard 1985). Separation distance somewhat arbitrary, set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 21Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Mar1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I.McT. Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia, Vol. 1. Nonpasserines: Introduction, Loons through Waterfowl. Royal B.C. Mus. in association with Environ. Can., Can. Wildl. Serv. 514pp.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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