Lampornis clemenciae - (Lesson, 1829)
Blue-throated Hummingbird
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lampornis clemenciae (Lesson, 1829) (TSN 178054)
French Common Names: Colibri à gorge bleue
Spanish Common Names: Colibrí Garganta Azul
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105629
Element Code: ABNUC34040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Apodiformes Trochilidae Lampornis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lampornis clemenciae
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21May2015
Global Status Last Changed: 02Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range in southwestern United States and Mexico; presumed large population size; probably relatively stable; no known major threats, though locally the species may be vulnerable to various kinds of detrimental habitat alteration.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3B (03Oct2003)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S4), New Mexico (S2B,S2N), Texas (S3B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix II

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Breeding range extends from northern Sonora, southeastern Arizona, Chihuahua, and western Texas south through Coahuila, Durango, and western Mexico to Oaxaca and (possibly) Chiapas; recorded (mostly in summer) in southwestern and central Colorado (AOU 1998). Winter range extends from southern Sonora (casually southeastern Arizona) and Chihuahua south through the breeding range in Mexico (AOU 1998). Elevational range in Mexico is mainly 1,800-3,000 meters, but local nesting at elevations as low as 1,460 meters has been documented in Arizona (Corman and Wise-Gervais 2005).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences or subpopulations has not been determined using standardized criteria, but this species is represented by a large number of observation/collection sites (e.g., see GBIF database, eBird) and locations (as defined by IUCN).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000 and may exceed 1,000,000. Partners in Flight (2013) estimated global population size at 2,000,000.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threat impacts have been documented, but the species may be vulnerable to various forms of detrimental habitat alteration. Populations at the northwestern edge of the range are confined to a few narrow, moist canyons in the higher mountains; this habitat specificity may make them vulnerable to destruction or degradation of riparian corridors through logging, grazing, mining, water diversion, and/or introduction of exotic plants (Williamson 2000). Fire suppression increases threat of destruction of riparian forests by catastrophic fire (Williamson 2000). In Mexico, the species? affinity for forest understory makes it vulnerable to logging, which threatens forests throughout the Sierra Madre region; replanting of burned and clear-cut forests with 1 or 2 tree species of high market value and resulting loss of biodiversity may impact habitat and food availability (Williamson 2000).

On the other hand, these hummingbirds commonly nest in altered habitats and may place nests on buildings or other structures. They regularly visit feeders.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but area of occupancy and population size probably have been relatively stable or at least have not changed at a fast rate. Populations may fluctuate or move in response to availability of flowers/nectar (e.g., see Marshall 1957).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trend is unknown, but area of occupancy and population size probably have not changed very much.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Breeding range extends from northern Sonora, southeastern Arizona, Chihuahua, and western Texas south through Coahuila, Durango, and western Mexico to Oaxaca and (possibly) Chiapas; recorded (mostly in summer) in southwestern and central Colorado (AOU 1998). Winter range extends from southern Sonora (casually southeastern Arizona) and Chihuahua south through the breeding range in Mexico (AOU 1998). Elevational range in Mexico is mainly 1,800-3,000 meters, but local nesting at elevations as low as 1,460 meters has been documented in Arizona (Corman and Wise-Gervais 2005).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, NM, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Cochise (04003), Santa Cruz (04023)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 San Simon (15040006)+, Upper San Pedro (15050202)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A hummingbird.
Reproduction Comments: Egg dates: April-July in Arizona; apparently varies in different areas in Mexico. Clutch size 2. Incubation 17-18 days. Young fledge in 24-29 days. Apparently up to 3 broods per season in Arizona. See Johnsgard (1983).
Ecology Comments: Male defends feeding territory against intrusions by other males and other species of hummingbird; dominates most other hummingbirds.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Most individuals in populations in the northernmost section of breeding range move south for winter. Migrants arrive usually in March in Arizona, March-May in Texas, depart August-October; a few may be present in winter. Some may make seasonal elevational migrations in Mexico (Johnsgard 1983).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes pine-oak forest, pine forest, and montane evergreen forest edge; in migration also visits flowers in open situations and gardens (AOU 1998). This species occurs along edges of montane conifer forests in the highlands of Mexico and in the shady understory of deciduous streamside forests (often including sycamores in Arizona) in canyons of the ?sky island? mountain ranges of the southwestern United States (Williamson 2000). Nests are along streams, under bridges, in caves, or in and around buildings; nest sites often are completely covered from above. 
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Nectarivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Nectarivore
Food Comments: Diet includes nectar from large flowers, as well as insects and spiders obtained by gleaning from vegetation and by hawking (Johnsgard 1983, Williamson 2000).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 13 centimeters
Weight: 8 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: No major conservation measures are in place or needed. The species benefits from protection and restoration of riparian forests, including protection of such areas from catastrophic fires. Better information is needed on movement patterns in relation to food supply, threats posed by human-enhanced predator populations, and climate-change (e.g., drought) impacts.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Hummingbirds

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: High potential for gene flow among populations of birds makes it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for hummingbirds; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering individuals (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (or fewer individuals for G1-G3 species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; a compromise between the often small home ranges of these birds, their great mobility, and the need for occurrences of reasonable size.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21May2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23May1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Baltosser, W. H., and P. E. Scott. 1996. Costa's Hummingbird (CALYPTE COSTAE). No. 251 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The Amerian Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 32pp.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Bleiweiss, R., J. A. W. Kirsch, and J. C. Matheus. 1994. DNA-DNA hybridization evidence for subfamily structure among hummingbirds. Auk 111:8-19.

  • Corman, T. E., and C. Wise-Gervais, editors. 2005. Arizona breeding bird atlas. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. x + 636 pp.

  • DeGraaf, R.M., and J.H. Rappole. 1995. Neotropical migratory birds: natural history, distribution, and population change. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.

  • García-Moreno, J., N. Cortés, G. M. García-Deras, and B. E. Hernández-Baños. 2006. Local origin and diversification among Lampornis hummingbirds: A Mesoamerican taxon. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38:488-498.

  • Johnsgard, P. A. 1983c. Hummingbirds of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 304 pp.

  • Marshall, J. T., Jr. 1957. Birds of pine-oak woodland in southern Arizona and adjacent Mexico. Pacific Coast Avifauna. No. 32. 125 pp.

  • Montgomerie, R. D. 1979. Energetics of foraging and competition in some tropcial hummingbirds. Ph.D. dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.

  • Ortiz-Pulido, R. and R. Díaz. 2001. Distribución de colibríes en la zona baja del centro de Veracruz, México. Ornitologia Neotropical 12:297-317.

  • Parker III, T. A., D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Partners in Flight Science Committee (PIF). 2013. Population Estimates Database, version 2013. Available at http://rmbo.org/pifpopestimates.

  • Poole, A. F. and F. B. Gill. 1992. The birds of North America. The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Powers, D. R., and S. M. Wethington. 1999. Broad-billed Hummingbird (CYNANTHUS LATIROSTRIS). No. 430 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 20pp.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Williamson, S. L. 2000. Blue-throated hummingbird (Lampornis clemenciae). The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/531.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
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