Leucosticte atrata - Ridgeway, 1874
Black Rosy-Finch
Other English Common Names: black rosy-finch
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Leucosticte atrata Ridgway, 1874 (TSN 179222)
French Common Names: Roselin noir
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105480
Element Code: ABPBY02010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Perching Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Passeriformes Fringillidae Leucosticte
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Leucosticte atrata
Taxonomic Comments: Prior to 1983, North American rosy-finches were regarded as three species (L. atrata, L. australis, and L. tephrocotis). AOU (1983) lumped these together with Asian species as L. arctoa. Subsequently, Sibley and Monroe (1990, who cited unpublished genetic, biochemical, and morphological data by French and Loskot) and AOU (1993, who stated that the 1983 merger was based on insufficient new information) again recognized three species of rosy-finches in North America, distinct from Old World L. arctoa.

The three North American species sometimes have been merged as L. tephrocotis (American Rosy-Finch). Unpublished work by Johnson (1972) recognized a fourth North American species (L. griseonucha, comprising nominal subspecies griseonucha and umbrina of the Pribilof and Aleutian islands), but this taxon has not been accepted as a full species in subsequent checklists.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Dec1996
Global Status Last Changed: 04Dec1996
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This species has moderate numbers of occurrences, limited range, and is somewhat numerous. However, approximately 30% of the population is concentrated in a single occurrence, the Beartooth Mountains. Most occurrences are on public lands, and development in alpine areas (e.g., mining) has apparently not caused population declines. Overall, it apparently secure.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (19Mar1997)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S4N), Idaho (S2), Montana (S2), Navajo Nation (S1S2N), Nevada (S3), New Mexico (S3N), Oregon (S2B), Utah (S1), Wyoming (S1B,S2N)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: mountains from central Idaho, southwestern and south-central Montana, and northwestern and north-central Wyoming south to southeastern Oregon, northeastern and east-central Nevada (south to the Snake Mountains), and central Utah (to the Tushar and La Sal mountains). Beartooth Mounatins have more than 30% of the global population. WINTERS: central Idaho and western and southeastern Wyoming south to eastern California (at least casually), southern Nevada, northern Arizona, and northern New Mexico (AOU 1983).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Probably >10,000 but <20,000.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Only known threat is new massive mining which could level many square miles of breeding habitat.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Apparently stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Most potential areas have been surveyed.

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: mountains from central Idaho, southwestern and south-central Montana, and northwestern and north-central Wyoming south to southeastern Oregon, northeastern and east-central Nevada (south to the Snake Mountains), and central Utah (to the Tushar and La Sal mountains). Beartooth Mounatins have more than 30% of the global population. WINTERS: central Idaho and western and southeastern Wyoming south to eastern California (at least casually), southern Nevada, northern Arizona, and northern New Mexico (AOU 1983).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, ID, MT, NM, NN, NV, OR, UT, WY

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Blaine (16013), Boise (16015), Butte (16023), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Fremont (16043), Lemhi (16059), Madison (16065), Teton (16081), Washington (16087)
MT Beaverhead (30001)*, Broadwater (30007), Carbon (30009), Cascade (30013), Deer Lodge (30023)*, Granite (30039), Jefferson (30043)*, Judith Basin (30045), Madison (30057), Meagher (30059), Missoula (30063), Park (30067), Powell (30077), Ravalli (30081), Silver Bow (30093)*, Stillwater (30095)
NM Santa Fe (35049)*
OR Harney (41025)*, Union (41061)*, Wallowa (41063)*
UT Beaver (49001)*, Box Elder (49003)*, Daggett (49009), Duchesne (49013), Emery (49015), Grand (49019)*, Kane (49025)*, Piute (49031)*, Salt Lake (49035)*, San Juan (49037)*, Summit (49043)*, Tooele (49045)*, Uintah (49047), Utah (49049)*
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Carbon (56007), Fremont (56013), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Washakie (56043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Ruby (10020003)+, Big Hole (10020004)+*, Jefferson (10020005)+, Boulder (10020006)+*, Madison (10020007)+, Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Smith (10030103)+, Belt (10030105)+, Judith (10040103)+, Stillwater (10070005)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+*, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Crow (10190009)+
13 Upper Rio Grande (13020101)+*
14 Lower Dolores (14030004)+*, Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005)+*, Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+, Duchesne (14060003)+, Lower Green (14060008)+*, San Rafael (14060009)+, Lower Lake Powell (14070006)+*
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Utah Lake (16020201)+*, Provo (16020203)+*, Jordan (16020204)+*, Skull Valley (16020305)+*, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+*, Great Salt Lake (16020310)+*, Middle Sevier (16030003)+*, Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver (16030007)+*
17 Upper Clark Fork (17010201)+, Flint-Rock (17010202)+, Bitterroot (17010205)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Teton (17040204)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+*, Raft (17040210)+*, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, North and Middle Forks Boise (17050111)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, South Fork Payette (17050120)+, Payette (17050122)+, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+, Powder (17050203)+*, Imnaha (17060102)+*, Wallowa (17060105)+*, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Donner Und Blitzen (17120003)+*, Alvord Lake (17120009)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Black Rosy-Finch; a small dark sparrow-like bird.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size usually is 4-5. Incubation lasts 12-14 days, by female. Young are tended by both adults, leave nest at about 20 days.
Ecology Comments: Males typically outnumber females in breeding and wintering populations. During breeding season male defends "territory" around female wherever she moves (Ryser 1985). Forms large flocks when not breeding.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Cropland/hedgerow, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Barren, rocky or grassy areas and cliffs among glaciers or beyond timberline; in migration and winter also in open situations, fields, cultivated lands, brushy areas, and around human habitation (AOU 1983). May roost in mine shaft or similar protected site. Nests usually in rock crevices or holes in cliffs above snow fields. May nest in old abandoned building.
Adult Food Habits: Granivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Forages on the ground for seeds. In the spring gleans wind-transported insects from the snow. Later in the season may glean insects from vegetation or may chase flying insects and catch them in the air.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 16 centimeters
Weight: 27 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Passerines

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site, Nesting Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas.

For swallows and other species that have separate nesting and foraging areas, separations are based on nest sites or nesting areas, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap larger than the separation distance are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Mean foraging radius (from nesting area) of Brown-headed Cowbird females was 4.0 kilometers in California, 1.2 kilometers in Illinois-Missouri (Thompson 1994). Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Brewer's Blackbirds, and probably Red-winged Blackbirds all forage up to 1.6 kilometers away from breeding colony (Willson 1966, Horn 1968). In one study, Brewer's Blackbirds were found as far as 10 kilometers from nesting area (Williams 1952), but this may be unusual.

For swallows and other parrerines with similar behavioral ecology, separation distance pertains to nest sites or nesting colonies, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: For most passerines: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating individuals (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat.

For swallows: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 100 birds in appropriate habitat (e.g., traditional roost sites).

Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually.

EOs should not be described for species that are nomadic during nonbreeding season: e.g., Lark Bunting.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary but intended to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any area used traditionally in the nonbreeding season (used for populations that are not resident in a location year-round). Minimally, reliable observations of 10 or more individuals in appropriate habitat for 20 or more days at a time. For G1-G3 species, observations of fewer individuals could constitute an occurrence of conservation value. Sites used during migration should be documented under the 'migratory stopover' location use class.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is necessarily arbitrary but attempts to balance the high mobility of birds with the need for occurrences of reasonable spatial scope. Note that a population's roost sites and foraging areas are parts of the same occurrence, even if they are more than 5 km apart.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Nonmigratory
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a particular location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in or near appropriate habitat.

These occurrence specifications are used for nonmigratory populations of passerine birds.

Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and breeding-season foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Blue jays have small summer home ranges but fly up to 4 kilometers to harvest mast (Tarvin and Woolfenden 1999). Flocks of pinyon jays range over 21-29 square kilometers (Ligon 1971, Balda and Bateman 1971); nesting and foraging areas may be widely separated. Tricolored blackbirds forage in flocks that range widely to more than 15 kilometers from the nesting colony (Beedy and Hamilton 1999).

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: These specs pertain to nonmigratory species.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: R.E. Johnson and J.D. Reichel. Minor revisions by L. Master & G. Hammerson.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1993. Thirty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 110:675-82.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • American Ornithologists' Union. 1993. Thirty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 110:675-682.

  • American Ornithologists' Union. Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. HUC10-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. Maxent-based species distribution models. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Balda, R. P., and G. C. Bateman. 1971. Flocking and annual cycle of the piņon jay, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus. Condor 73:287-302.

  • Davis, C. V. 1961. A distributional study of the birds of Montana. Ph.D. dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis. 462 pp.

  • Hendricks, P. and J. E. Swenson. 1983. Dynamics of the winter distribution of rosy finches, LEUCOSTICTE ARCTOA, in Montana. Canadian Field-Naturalist 97(3):307-310.

  • Hoffmann, R. S. 1960. Summer birds of the Little Belt Mountains, Montana. Occasional Papers Montana State University, Missoula, Montana. 18 pp.

  • Horn, H. S. 1968. The adaptive significance of colonial nesting in the Brewer's Blackbird. Ecology 49:682-694.

  • Johnsgard, P. A. 1986. Birds of the Rocky Mountains with particular reference to national parks in the Northern Rocky Mountain region. Colorado Associated University Press, Boulder. xi + 504 pp.

  • Johnson, R. E. 2002. Black Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte atrata). In The Birds of North America, No. 678 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 28 pp.

  • Johnson, R. E. 1972. The biosystematics of the avian genus LEUCOSTICTE. Ph.D dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.

  • Johnson, R. E. 1972e. The biosystematics of the avian genus Leucosticte. Ph.D dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.

  • Lenard, S., J. Carlson, J. Ellis, C. Jones, and C. Tilly. 2003. P. D. Skaar's Montana Bird Distribution, 6th Edition. Montana Audubon, Helena, Montana. vi + 144 pp.

  • Ligon, J. D. 1971. Late summer-autumnal breeding of the piņon jay in New Mexico. Condor 73:147-153.

  • Mewaldt, L. R. 1950. Bird records from western Montana. Condor 52:238-239.

  • Moore, W. S., and R. A. Dolbeer. 1989. The use of banding recovery data to estimate dispersal rates and gene flow in avian species: case studies in the Red-winged Blackbird and Common Grackle. Condor 91:242-253.

  • Ryser, F. A. 1985. Birds of the Great Basin a natural history. University of Nevada Press, Reno.

  • Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven. xxiii + 976 pp.

  • Sibley, C.G., and B.L. Monroe, Jr. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. xxiv + 1111 pp.

  • Stokes, D. W., and L. Q. Stokes. 1996. Stokes field guide to birds: western region. Little, Brown & Company Limited, Boston.

  • Tarvin, K. A., and G. E. Woolfenden. 1999. Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata). No. 469 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 32pp.

  • Thompson, F. R., III. 1994. Temporal and spatial patterns of breeding brown-headed cowbirds in the midwestern United States. Auk 111:979-990.

  • Williams, L. 1952b. Breeding behavior of the Brewer blackbird. Condor 54:3-47.

  • Willson, M. F. 1966. Breeding ecology of the Yellow-headed Blackbird. Ecological Monographs 36:51-77.

  • Wright, P.L. 1996. Status of Rare Birds in Montana, With Comments on Known Hybrids. Northwestern Naturalist 77:57-85.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

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