Noturus gyrinus - (Mitchill, 1817)
Tadpole Madtom
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Noturus gyrinus (Mitchill, 1817) (TSN 164003)
French Common Names: chat-frou brun
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104908
Element Code: AFCKA02110
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - North American Freshwater Catfishes
Image 1137

© Howard L. Jelks

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Siluriformes Ictaluridae Noturus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Noturus gyrinus
Taxonomic Comments: See Grady and LeGrande (1992) for a study of phylogenetic relationships, modes of speciation, and historical biogeography of Noturus madtom catfishes. See Lundberg (1992) for a synthesis of recent work on the systematic relationships of ictalurid catfishes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 18Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Delaware (S4), District of Columbia (SH), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S4), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S4), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S2S3), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (SNA), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S3), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4), New York (S3), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S3), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S1), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S3?), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S4), Virginia (S4), Washington (SNA), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Hampshire to Nueces River, Texas; St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from southern Quebec to southern Saskatchewan, and south to the Gulf; absent from Appalachian and Ozark highlands; introduced into Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; presumably introduced into Massachusetts and New Hampshire; usually common (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Hampshire to Nueces River, Texas; St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from southern Quebec to southern Saskatchewan, and south to the Gulf; absent from Appalachian and Ozark highlands; introduced into Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; presumably introduced into Massachusetts and New Hampshire; usually common (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IDexotic, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MAexotic, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NHexotic, NJ, NY, OH, OK, ORexotic, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WAexotic, WI
Canada MB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KS Atchison (20005)*, Doniphan (20043)*, Franklin (20059)*, Johnson (20091)*, Linn (20107)*, Shawnee (20177)
NE Adams (31001), Brown (31017), Butler (31023), Cass (31025), Custer (31041)*, Dodge (31053)*, Douglas (31055)*, Fillmore (31059), Gage (31067), Garden (31069), Hamilton (31081), Holt (31089), Howard (31093)*, Jefferson (31095)*, Knox (31107), Lincoln (31111), Loup (31115), Madison (31119), Nance (31125), Otoe (31131), Pierce (31139), Platte (31141)*, Polk (31143), Richardson (31147)*, Rock (31149)*, Saline (31151)*, Sarpy (31153)*, Seward (31159), Washington (31177), Wheeler (31183)*
PA Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Philadelphia (42101)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Sacandaga (02020002), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003), Mohawk (02020004)*, Schoharie (02020005), Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007)*, Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)*, Bronx (02030102)*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)*, Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104), Raritan (02030105), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Cohansey-Maurice (02040206), Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207), Mullica-Toms (02040301), Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chemung (02050105), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Choptank (02060005), Patuxent (02060006), Blackwater-Wicomico (02060007), Nanticoke (02060008), Pocomoke (02060009), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Lower Potomac (02070011), Great Wicomico-Piankatank (02080102), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109), Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110), Lower James (02080206)
03 Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Wateree (03050104), Lower Broad (03050106), Saluda (03050109), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Edisto (03050205), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Salkehatchie (03050207), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Upper Savannah (03060103), Broad (03060104), Middle Savannah (03060106), Stevens (03060107), Brier (03060108), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Upper Oconee (03070101), Little Ocmulgee (03070105), Satilla (03070201), St. Marys (03070204), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Vero Beach (03080203), Kissimmee (03090101), Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Big Cypress Swamp (03090204), Caloosahatchee (03090205), Peace (03100101), Myakka (03100102), Charlotte Harbor (03100103), Sarasota Bay (03100201), Manatee (03100202), Little Manatee (03100203), Alafia (03100204), Hillsborough (03100205), Tampa Bay (03100206), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Upper Chattahoochee (03130001), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 St. Louis (04010201), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102)*, Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Peshtigo (04030105)*, Brule (04030106), Menominee (04030108), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002)*, Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Shiawassee (04080203), Saginaw (04080206), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004)*, Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012)*, Black-Rocky (04110001)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)*, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200)*, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202)*, Black (04150101), Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Oswegatchie (04150302)*, Indian (04150303)*
05 Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Lower Monongahela (05020005), Shenango (05030102)*, Mahoning (05030103)*, Hocking (05030204)*, Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002)*, Walhonding (05040003)*, Licking (05040006)*, Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101)*, Eel (05120104), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Twin Cities (07010206), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Blue Earth (07020009), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Apple-Plum (07060005), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101)*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105)*, North Skunk (07080106)*, Upper Cedar (07080201)*, Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204)*, Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Sugar (07090004)*, Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006)*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009)*, Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004)*, Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009)*, Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)*, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108)*, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Forked Deer (08010206), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Deer-Steele (08030209), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201)*, Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Tangipahoa (08070205), Bayou Teche (08080102), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Grand Marais-Red (09020306), Turtle (09020307), Lower Red (09020311)
10 Upper James (10160003), Middle James (10160006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103)+, Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202)+, Salt (10200203), Lower Middle Loup (10210003)+*, Calamus (10210008)+, Loup (10210009)+, Cedar (10210010)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, North Fork Elkhorn (10220002)+, Lower Elkhorn (10220003)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002)*, Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Boyer (10230007)*, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Little Nemaha (10240006)+, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007)+*, Big Nemaha (10240008), Independence-Sugar (10240011)+*, Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013)*, Middle Kansas (10270102), Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Upper Big Blue (10270201)+, Middle Big Blue (10270202)+, West Fork Big Blue (10270203)+, Turkey (10270204)+, Thompson (10280102)*, Lower Grand (10280103)*, Upper Chariton (10280201), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+, Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Lower Osage (10290111), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009)*, Strawberry (11010012)*, Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Spring (11070207), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Little Wichita (11130209), Middle Washita (11130303), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Lower Neches (12020003), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Little (12070204), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), San Marcos (12100203), Upper Nueces (12110103), Lower Nueces (12110111)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Usually spawns in June and July. Most individuals sexually mature in 2nd year, with few living beyond 3rd year (Lee et al. 1980).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Typically in quiet or slow-moving waters, especially over soft muddy bottom with extensive vegetation; lakes, reservoirs, sloughs, swamps, backwaters, lowland creeks and small to large rivers. Usually in fairly clear water. Under cover by day. Spawns usually in rivers but also in lakes in shallow water; eggs are laid under objects or in cavities on bottom.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly insect larvae, crustaceans, and occasionally small fishes. Smaller individuals apparently depend on crustaceans and oligochaetes; larger fishes rely more on insects. Feeds at night on bottom and among aquatic plants.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Length: 10 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Madtoms

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam/impoundment; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Madtoms are generally regarded as sedentary, at least over the short term, but dispersal characteristics are unknown. Separation distance is arbitrary but reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Desrosiers A., F. Caron et R. Ouellet. 1995. Liste de la faune vertébrée du Québec. Les publications du Québec. 122

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Duncan, J.R. 1997. Conservation Status Ranks of the Fishes of Manitoba. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 97-02. Winnipeg, MB. 10 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • George, C.J. 1980. The fishes of the Adirondack Park. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, NY 94 pp.

  • Gerking, Shelby D. 1945. Distribution of Fishes of Indiana. In Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams. 3(1): 1-137. Indiana Department of Conservation, Division of Fish and Game, Indianapolis and Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington.

  • Grady, J. M., and W. H. LeGrande. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships, modes of speciation, and historical biogeography of the madtom catfishes, genus Noturus Rafinesque (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae). Pages 747-777 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • HUBBS, CLARK, EDIE MARSH-MATTHEWS, WILLIAM J. MATTHEWS, AND ALLISON A. ANDERSON. 1997. CHANGES IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN EAST TEXAS STREAMS FROM 1953 TO 1986. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.:67-84.

  • Legendre V. 1952. Clef des poissons de pêche sportive et commerciale de la province de Québec. Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Office de biologie. 84 pages + illustrations.

  • Legendre V. 1954. Clef des poissons de pêche sportive et commerciale de la province de Québec. Les poissons d'eau douce. Tome 1. Deuxième édition. Société canadienne d'écologie. Université de Montréal. Ministère de la Chasse et de la Pêche.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Lundberg, J. G. 1992. The phylogeny of ictalurid catfishes: a synthesis of recent work. Pages 392-420 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scarola, J.F. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. 131 pp.

  • Scott W.B. et E.J. Crossman. 1974. Poissons d'eau douce du Canada. Ministère de l'Environnement. Service des pêches et des sciences de la mer. Office des recherches sur les pêcherires du Canada. Bulletin 184. 1026 p.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Stewart, K.W., McCulloch, B. Hanke, G. and J.R. Duncan. 1995. Preliminary ranking of Manitoba fish. Unpublished notes from an informal ranking workshop held at the University of Manitoba Fish Laboratory. 7 February 1995.

  • Stewart, K.W., and D. A. Watkinson. 2004. The freshwater fishes of Manitoba. University of Manitoba Press. Winnipeg. 276 p.

  • Taylor, W.R. 1969. A revision of the catfish genus Noturus (Rafinesque) with an analysis of higher groups in the Ictaluridae. Smithsonian Institution, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 282. 315 pp.

  • WINEMILLER, KIRK O. 1991. ECOMORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSIFICATION IN LOWLAND FRESHWATER FISH ASSEMBLAGES FROM FIVE BIOTIC REGIONS. ECOL. MONOGR. 61(4):345-365.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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