Acrocheilus alutaceus - Agassiz and Pickering, 1855
Chiselmouth
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Acrocheilus alutaceus Agassiz and Pickering in Agassiz, 1855 (TSN 163531)
French Common Names: bouche coupante
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104857
Element Code: AFCJB01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Acrocheilus
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Acrocheilus alutaceus
Taxonomic Comments: May hybridize with Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Lee et al. 1980).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Oct2011
Global Status Last Changed: 13Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Spotty distribution in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada; found in numerous localities and a variety of water body types; no serious threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (21Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Idaho (S4), Nevada (S3), Oregon (S4), Washington (S4)
Canada British Columbia (S3S4)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01May2003)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: The Canadian distribution of this species is restricted to a few disjunct populations in south-central British Columbia where they are found in low densities, but appear stable and are not subject to any known factors that could put them at risk.

Status History: Species considered in April 1997 and placed in the Data Deficient category. Re-examined in May 2003 and designated Not at Risk. More recently (2015) considered a medium priority candidate for re-assessment.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Columbia and Fraser river systems in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada; also the Harney River basin in the Malheur Lake drainage of central Oregon (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population size is unknown but preseumably exceeds 10,000 and probably exceeds 100,000. This fish is fairly common in the Columbia River drainage (Page and Burr 2011).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known, but "could be threatened by habitat loss or degradation in relation to impoundments for hydro-electric development" (Coffie 1998).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Range/population size do not appear to be declining in Canada (Coffie 1998).

Long-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Columbia and Fraser river systems in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada; also the Harney River basin in the Malheur Lake drainage of central Oregon (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID, NV, OR, WA
Canada BC

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Pend Oreille (17010216), Upper Spokane (17010305), Hangman (17010306), Lower Spokane (17010307), Little Spokane (17010308), Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001), Kettle (17020002), Colville (17020003), Sanpoil (17020004), Chief Joseph (17020005), Okanogan (17020006), Similkameen (17020007), Methow (17020008), Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010), Wenatchee (17020011), Moses Coulee (17020012), Upper Crab (17020013), Banks Lake (17020014), Lower Crab (17020015), Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016), Upper Yakima (17030001), Naches (17030002), Lower Yakima, Washington (17030003), Salmon Falls (17040213), C. J. Idaho (17050101), Bruneau (17050102), Middle Snake-Succor (17050103), Middle Owyhee (17050107), Jordan (17050108), Crooked-Rattlesnake (17050109), Lower Owyhee (17050110), Lower Boise (17050114), Middle Snake-Payette (17050115), Upper Malheur (17050116), Lower Malheur (17050117), Bully (17050118), Willow (17050119), Payette (17050122), Weiser (17050124), Brownlee Reservoir (17050201), Burnt (17050202), Powder (17050203), Hells Canyon (17060101), Imnaha (17060102), Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103), Upper Grande Ronde (17060104), Wallowa (17060105), Lower Grande Ronde (17060106), Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107), Palouse (17060108), Rock (17060109), Lower Snake (17060110), Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203), South Fork Clearwater (17060305), Clearwater (17060306), Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307), Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101), Walla Walla (17070102), Umatilla (17070103), Willow (17070104), Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105), Klickitat (17070106), Upper John Day (17070201), North Fork John Day (17070202), Middle Fork John Day (17070203), Lower John Day (17070204), Upper Deschutes (17070301), Beaver-South Fork (17070303), Upper Crooked (17070304), Lower Crooked (17070305), Lower Deschutes (17070306), Trout (17070307), Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001), Lewis (17080002), Lower Columbia-Clatskanie (17080003), Lower Columbia (17080006), Middle Fork Willamette (17090001), Coast Fork Willamette (17090002), Upper Willamette (17090003), Mckenzie (17090004), North Santiam (17090005), South Santiam (17090006), Middle Willamette (17090007), Yamhill (17090008), Molalla-Pudding (17090009), Tualatin (17090010), Clackamas (17090011), Lower Willamette (17090012), Silvies (17120002)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: a small fish; a minnow
Reproduction Comments: In British Columbia, spawning occurs usually in late June-early July when water temperatures reach about 62.5 F or higher. Mean egg count for 6 females in Wolfe Lake, British Columbia, was 6200. Males probably mature at age 3, most females at 4. Individuals may live up to about 6 years.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Lake populations migrate to tributaries to spawn.
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Habitat Comments: This fish appears to prefer warmer sections of streams and moderately fast to fast water (Wydoski and Whitney 1979). It occurs in flowing pools and runs over sand and gravel in creeks and small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011). It also occurs abundantly along the margins of lakes. Spawning occurs in streams. Although spawning has not been observed, eggs have been found both on the open bottom and buried among boulders (Scott and Crossman 1973). Juveniles tend to inhabit quiet waters.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Young feed mainly on aquatic and terrestrial insects. Adults feed largely on diatoms that they ingest while scraping their specialized, chisel-like lower jaw along rocks or other substrate (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Length: 20 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: The biology of this species is still poorly known.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Medium Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than many kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 15 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Oct2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cannings, S. G., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Oct2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Chiselmouth. 1999. B.C. Fish Facts. Conserv. Sect., Fish. Manage. Branch, B.C. Minist. Fish. 2pp.

  • Coffie, P. A. 1998. Status of the chiselmouth, Acrocheilus alutaceus, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112(1):154-157.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • McPhail, J.D. 2007. The freshwater fishes of British Columbia. The University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Sigler, W. F., and J. W. Sigler. 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin: a natural history. University of Nevada Press, Reno, Nevada. xvi + 425 pp.

  • Wydoski, R. S., and R. R. Whitney. 1979. Inland fishes of Washington. The University of Washington Press, Seattle. 220 pp.

  • Wydoski, R. S., and R. R. Whitney. 2003. Inland fishes of Washington. Second edition, revised and expanded. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, in association with University of Washington Press, Seattle. xiii + 322 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Master, L. L. 1996. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Progress Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 60 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Simpson, J. and R. Wallace. 1982. Fishes of Idaho. The University Press of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 238 pp.

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