Euderma maculatum - (J.A. Allen, 1891)
Spotted Bat
Other English Common Names: spotted bat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Euderma maculatum (J. A. Allen, 1891) (TSN 180010)
French Common Names: oreillard maculé
Spanish Common Names: Un Murciélago
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104813
Element Code: AMACC07010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Bats
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Euderma
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Euderma maculatum
Taxonomic Comments: Frost and Timm (1992) evaluated morphological and karyological characters and concluded that Idionycteris phyllotis and Euderma maculatum are sister species and that both belong in the genus Euderma (Idionycteris phyllotis would become E. phyllote). Chromosomal data presented by Qumsiyeh and Bickham (1993) also indicate a close relationship between Euderma and Idionycteris. However, Tumlison and Douglas (1992) examined morphological variation in plecotine bats and kept Idionycteris and Euderma as distinct genera. Jones et al. (1992) and Koopman (in Wilson and Reeder 1993) listed this species in the genus Idionycteris but did not cite the recent studies mentioned above. Bogdanowicz et al. (1998) examined morphological and chromosomal variation and concluded that Idionycteris phyllotis and Euderma maculatum should be regarded as generically distinct. In a study of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences, Hoofer and Van Den Bussche (2001) confirmed that these two genera were indeed closely related, but percent sequence distance coupled with previous morphologic and karyotypic data supported generic distinction between the two. Simmons (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) listed Idionycteris phyllotis and Euderma maculatum as generically distinct.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 05Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread but patchy distribution in western North America; many roost/observation sites and locations; population size unknown but not as rare as previously believed; population trend uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining; primary roosting habitat generally not vulnerable to loss or excessive disturbance; foraging habitat appears to be extensive and not limiting; not often killed by wind turbines; not known to be affected by white-nose syndrome.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (29Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S2S3), California (S3), Colorado (S2), Idaho (S3), Montana (S3), Navajo Nation (S4), Nevada (S2), New Mexico (S3), Oregon (S2), Texas (S2), Utah (S3), Washington (S3), Wyoming (S3)
Canada British Columbia (S3S4)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: SC (14Jul2005)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Special Concern (28Nov2014)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: This distinctly patterned bat is found in the dry intermontane grasslands of southern British Columbia.  A cliff-roosting bat, its patchy distribution and specialized roosting needs suggest a relatively small population size.  The main threats to foraging habitat in valley bottoms or roosting locations are urban development, land conversion for orchards and vineyards, roads, mining and exploration, recreational activities (e.g., rock climbing), and light and noise pollution. This bat may be susceptible to White-nose Syndrome if this disease spreads west. Its specialized habitat requirements and slow reproductive rate will affect recovery.

Status History: Designated Special Concern in April 1988. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2004 and November 2014.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range encompasses western North America from southern British Columbia (north to Fraser River basin near Williams Lake) (Cannings et al. 1999) and south-central Montana south through central and eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, Idaho, western Wyoming, western Colorado, western and southern Nevada, California (Pierson and Rainey 1998), Arizona, western and central New Mexico, and western Texas to central Mexico (Queretaro) (Verts and Carraway 1998, Luce and Keinath 2007). Distribution appears to be patchy with availability of suitable habitat (suitable roosting cliffs and water sources). Winter range is poorly known. Elevational range extends from below sea level to 3,230 meters (Luce and Keinath 2007).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences has not been determined using standardized or meaningful criteria, but this species is represented by a fairly large number of observation sites and locations (as defined by IUCN).

Population Size: 2500 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but undoubtedly exceeds 2,500 and presumably exceeds 10,000. Formerly this species was thought to be exceptionally rare. It tends to fly high and so is infrequently captured in mist nets, and roost sites generally are dispersed and often not easily accessible. Surveys using modern acoustic methods have shown it to be more widespread and numerous but still relatively uncommon (e.g., Fenton et al. 1987).

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. Roosting habitat is extensive, remote, and mostly not vulnerable to destruction or excessive disturbance. Potential foraging areas are extensive (Navo et al. 1992, Storz 1995, Priday and Luce 1999) and generally not subject to extensive loss.

Several factors may affect local populations, though the range-wide scope of these threats generally is negligible. Construction of dams that inundate high cliffs and canyon walls may remove some habitat (Snow 1974). Overgrazing of meadows or expansion of invasive plant species might potentially reduce the local food base of these bats (Pierson and Rainey 1998). Timber harvest might benefit the bats by increasing the area of foraging habitat (Schmidt 2003). Disturbance in the form of intensive rock climbing is a potential threat (Pierson and Rainey 1998). Large-scale, non-target pesticide spraying could have adverse effects through secondary poisoning of bats and reduction of their prey base (Hayes and Wiles 2013). Wind turbines have the potential to cause direct mortality and could pose a threat to small local populations (Hayes and Wiles 2013). As of 2012, white-nose syndrome had not been detected in this species.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably have been relatively stable.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trend is uncertain, but distribution and abundance likely have not changed very much compared to the historical situation.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Additional information is needed on distribution and abundance in many parts of the range.

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range encompasses western North America from southern British Columbia (north to Fraser River basin near Williams Lake) (Cannings et al. 1999) and south-central Montana south through central and eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, Idaho, western Wyoming, western Colorado, western and southern Nevada, California (Pierson and Rainey 1998), Arizona, western and central New Mexico, and western Texas to central Mexico (Queretaro) (Verts and Carraway 1998, Luce and Keinath 2007). Distribution appears to be patchy with availability of suitable habitat (suitable roosting cliffs and water sources). Winter range is poorly known. Elevational range extends from below sea level to 3,230 meters (Luce and Keinath 2007).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NN, NV, OR, TX, UT, WA, WY
Canada BC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Apache (04001), Coconino (04005), Mohave (04015), Yavapai (04025), Yuma (04027)*
CA Fresno (06019), Inyo (06027), Kern (06029), Los Angeles (06037), Madera (06039)*, Mariposa (06043), Mono (06051), Riverside (06065)*, San Bernardino (06071)*, San Diego (06073)*, Shasta (06089), Sierra (06091), Siskiyou (06093), Tehama (06103), Tulare (06107), Tuolumne (06109)
CO Garfield (08045)*, Moffat (08081), Montrose (08085)
ID Lemhi (16059), Owyhee (16073), Valley (16085)
MT Beaverhead (30001), Big Horn (30003), Blaine (30005), Broadwater (30007), Carbon (30009), Cascade (30013), Chouteau (30015), Dawson (30021), Fergus (30027), Gallatin (30031), Jefferson (30043), Lewis and Clark (30049), Madison (30057), Musselshell (30065), Phillips (30071), Powder River (30075), Richland (30083), Rosebud (30087), Silver Bow (30093), Treasure (30103), Yellowstone (30111)
NM Bernalillo (35001)*, Catron (35003)*, Cibola (35006), Grant (35017)*, Otero (35035), Rio Arriba (35039)*, Sandoval (35043), Santa Fe (35049), Sierra (35051), Socorro (35053)
NV Clark (32003), Esmeralda (32009), Humboldt (32013)*, Lincoln (32017)*, Mineral (32021), Nye (32023), Washoe (32031), White Pine (32033)
OR Deschutes (41017), Gilliam (41021), Grant (41023), Harney (41025)*, Jefferson (41031), Lake (41037), Malheur (41045), Morrow (41049), Sherman (41055), Wallowa (41063)*, Wasco (41065), Wheeler (41069)
TX Brewster (48043)
UT Beaver (49001), Duchesne (49013)*, Garfield (49017)*, Grand (49019)*, Iron (49021)*, Kane (49025), Salt Lake (49035)*, San Juan (49037), Uintah (49047), Utah (49049)*, Washington (49053)*, Wayne (49055)
WA Benton (53005), Douglas (53017), Grant (53025), Kittitas (53037), Lincoln (53043), Okanogan (53047), Pend Oreille (53051)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Fremont (56013), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Park (56029), Sweetwater (56037), Washakie (56043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Beaverhead (10020002)+, Ruby (10020003)+, Big Hole (10020004)+, Jefferson (10020005)+, Boulder (10020006)+, Madison (10020007)+, Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Smith (10030103)+, Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101)+, Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+, Upper Musselshell (10040201)+, Middle Musselshell (10040202)+, Peoples (10050009)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007)+, Pryor (10070008)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Lower Bighorn (10080015)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Lower Tongue (10090102)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001)+, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+
13 Upper Rio Grande (13020101)+, Rio Chama (13020102)+*, Jemez (13020202)+, Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203)+*, Rio San Jose (13020207)+, Jornada Del Muerto (13020210)+, Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211)+, Caballo (13030101)+, Big Bend (13040205)+, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+, Salt Basin (13050004)+, Rio Penasco (13060010)+
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+*, Upper Gunnison (14020002)+, Upper Dolores (14030002)+, Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005)+*, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Lower Yampa (14050002)+, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+, Duchesne (14060003)+*, Upper Lake Powell (14070001)+*, Muddy (14070002)+*, Fremont (14070003)+, Lower Lake Powell (14070006)+, Paria (14070007)+*, Lower San Juan-Four Corners (14080201)+, Montezuma (14080203)+*
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Lake Mead (15010005)+, Hualapai Wash (15010007)+, Upper Virgin (15010008)+*, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+*, Muddy (15010012)+, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+*, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+*, Yuma Desert (15030108)+*, Big Sandy (15030201)+, Upper Gila (15040001)+*, San Francisco (15040004)+*, Black (15060101)+, Big Chino-Williamson Valley (15060201)+, Lower Gila (15070201)+*
16 Utah Lake (16020201)+*, Spanish Fork (16020202)+*, Provo (16020203)+*, Jordan (16020204)+*, Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+, Upper Sevier (16030001)+, East Fork Sevier (16030002)+*, Escalante Desert (16030006)+*, Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver (16030007)+, Smoke Creek Desert (16040203)+, Thousand-Virgin (16040205)+*, Truckee (16050102)+*, Diamond-Monitor Valleys (16060005)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys (16060010)+, Ralston-Stone Cabin Valleys (16060011)+, Cactus-Sarcobatus Flats (16060013)+
17 Pend Oreille (17010216)+, Okanogan (17020006)+, Similkameen (17020007)+, Methow (17020008)+, Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010)+, Moses Coulee (17020012)+, Upper Crab (17020013)+, Banks Lake (17020014)+, Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016)+, Upper Yakima (17030001)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Middle Owyhee (17050107)+, Lower Owyhee (17050110)+, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+*, Hells Canyon (17060101)+, Imnaha (17060102)+*, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+*, Palouse (17060108)+, Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+, Upper John Day (17070201)+, North Fork John Day (17070202)+, Lower John Day (17070204)+, Upper Deschutes (17070301)+, Lower Crooked (17070305)+, Trout (17070307)+*, Lake Abert (17120006)+, Alvord Lake (17120009)+*
18 Lower Pit (18020003)+, Sacramento headwaters (18020005)+, Middle Fork Feather (18020123)+, Cow Creek (18020151)+*, Paynes Creek-Sacramento River (18020155)+, Thomes Creek-Sacramento River (18020156)+, Upper Kern (18030001)+, Upper Kaweah (18030007)+, Upper King (18030010)+, Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes (18030012)+*, Middle San Joaquin-Lower (18040001)+*, Upper San Joaquin (18040006)+, Upper Merced (18040008)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+, Santa Clara (18070102)+*, Santa Monica Bay (18070104)+, San Diego (18070304)+*, Mono Lake (18090101)+, Crowley Lake (18090102)+, Owens Lake (18090103)+, Eureka-Saline Valleys (18090201)+, Upper Amargosa (18090202)+, Indian Wells-Searles Valleys (18090205)+, Antelope-Fremont Valleys (18090206)+, Southern Mojave (18100100)+*, Whitewater River (18100201)+*, Salton Sea (18100204)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A black bat with very large ears and prominent white spots.
General Description: Huge pink ears (37-47 mm [Hall 1981] or 45-50 mm [Watkins 1977]); blackish dorsum with a large white spot on each shoulder and on the rump, and white patches at the posterior base of each ear; total length 107-115 mm; forearm 48-51 mm; 16-20 g; greatest length of skull 18.4-19.0 mm (small sample); supraorbital region of skull sharply ridged; no median sagittal crest; 34 teeth (Watkins 1977, Handley 1959, Hall 1981). The newborn young lack any indication of having the adult color pattern (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Four hours after birth, a male weighed 4 g and measured 59 mm in length; tail length was 20 mm, hind foot 11 mm, ear 12 mm, and forearm 21 mm.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from other bats in the unique patterning of the fur and the extremely large ears.
Reproduction Comments: Copulation likely occurs in late summer or fall. Births apparently occur in late May or early June in the south (Snow 1974, Watkins 1977, Schmidly 1977), mid-June to early July in the north (Watkins 1977, Nagorsen and Brigham 1993). Litter size is one. Lactating females have been netted on June 23, 30, and July 1 in New Mexico, on July 9 in New Mexico by Mike Bogan, and on August 10, 15, and 18 in Utah (Barbour and Davis 1969). Females are not known to form maternity colonies (Hayes and Wiles 2013).
Ecology Comments: Apparently relatively solitary but may hibernate in small clusters (Whitaker 1980). In British Columbia, individuals roosted solitarily during the active season; appeared to maintain exclusive foraging areas (Leonard and Fenton 1983).

Apparently this bat is a rapid flyer. Many of them are injured in the mist nets, indicating a high rate of speed at the collision (Snow 1974). In flight, the ears project forward. The only times the ears are carried erect are when the bat is alert, usually just preparatory to flight. At all other times, the ears lie along the back and are slightly curved (Barbour and Davis 1969).

Vocalizations and Echolocation

The spotted bat makes a wide variety of sounds in communicating and foraging. The voice has been described as sounding like a soft, extremely high-pitched metallic squeak; a hissing noise and a ratlike squeak; and a typical bat chirp. This bat has also been heard clicking the teeth together and making grinding noises by gnashing the teeth. Previous to taking flight, the spotted bat makes clicking or ticking notes (Snow 1974).

The echolocation call is loud and high- pitched; the fundamental frequency sweeps from 12 to 6 kHz and is a double or single steep frequency modulated pulse. The call is repeated at a rate of two to six per second. The sound pressure level is estimated at 80-90 dB at 10 cm, making it a moderate intensity. The echolocation call can clearly be heard by a human at distances of 250 m (van Zyll de Jong 1985).

The low frequency of the echolocation call is useful in both hunting and communications. Due to reduced attenuation and good propagation qualities, the call is good for long-range detection of prey and an increased range of audibility by other bats. The bat is also able to approach the moth more closely and enhance the chance of a successful pursuit due to the moth not being able to detect the low intensity of sound (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Similar calls are made by Plecotis phyllotis (Allen's big-eared bat), Tadarida macrotis (big freetail bat), and Eumops perotis (western mastiff bat) (Snow 1974).

Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Seasonal changes in distribution are poorly known. In some areas, the bats may occupy higher elevation coniferous stands in summer and migrate to lower elevations in late summer/early fall (Berna 1990, Barbour and Davis 1969, Geluso 2000).

In northern Arizona, radio-tagged individuals had home ranges that averaged 297 sq km (95 percent use, minimum convex polygon) (Chambers et al. 2011). Individuals used a mean of 1.4 roosts during 10 days.

In northern Arizona, a radio-tagged lactating female traveled 38.5 km from her day roost to forage over a higher elevation (~2,500 meters) meadow system (Rabe et al. 1998).

In British Columbia, individuals foraged up to 6-10 km from the day roost (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989).

Riverine Habitat(s): Aerial
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Subterranean Habitat(s): Subterrestrial
Habitat Comments: This species occurs in various habitats from desert to montane coniferous stands, including open ponderosa pine, pinyon-juniper woodland, canyon bottoms, riparian and river corridors, meadows, open pasture, and hayfields. Active foraging may be mostly in open terrain, including forest clearings, meadows, and open wetlands, sometimes in open areas near buildings (see review in Schmidt 2003) or even golf courses. Roosts, including maternity roosts, generally are in cracks and crevices in cliffs (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989, Pierson and Rainey 1998, Rabe et al. 1998), sometimes in caves or in buildings near cliffs (Sherwin and Gannon 2005). Winter habits poorly known.

In British Columbia, individuals used the same roost each night May-July, but not after early August (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). They foraged mainly in fields near pines and over marshes (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989).

In Wyoming, these bats were associated with canyons, cliffs, and nearby permanent water, in areas including xeric-shrub grassland, riparian woodland, and high-elevation conifer and aspens habitats (Priday and Luce 1999).

In northwestern Colorado, spotted bats are locally common in various habitats (pinyon-juniper woodland, riparian corridors, over river) in canyons (Navo et al. 1992).

In Garfield County, Utah, Easterla captured a spotted bat in an area that was treeless and rolling for several miles around the site and also surrounded by mountainous terrain. The predominant plant species were sagebrush and rabbitbrush. In the mountainous terrain, the predominant plant was ponderosa (yellow) pine (Snow 1974). In Utah, Snow (1974) reported that bats were captured over a waterhole near limestone cliffs with cracks.

In northern Arizona, radio-tagged individuals foraged mostly in desert scrub but also used woodlands and forests. Maternity roosts were remote and difficult to access (Chambers et al. 2011).

Many bats in New Mexico were caught over waterholes near a sandstone cliff with numerous vertical cracks.

In the Big Bend National Park in Texas, spotted bats were captured near the only water source (a permanent pool) in many square miles, in a shallow, barren, hot, dry canyon with walls of angled, buckled pink and red limestone. The predominant plant species were creosote bush, candelilla, Hechtia, agave, pricklypear, and ocotillo (Snow 1974).

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: The diet is dominated by moths (Noctuidae, Lasiocampidae, Geometridae) and includes a small percentage of other insects (Berna 1990, Snow 1974; Schmidly 1977, 1991; Barbour and Davis 1969; van Zyll de Jong 1985, Painter et al. 2009).

In British Columbia, spotted bats flew 5-15 meters above the ground when foraging; foraging areas of different individuals overlapped (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). In southeastern Utah, the bats fed on small insects within 2 meters of the ground; sometimes they captured insects on the ground (Poche and Bailie 1974), though this has been disputed. In Colorado, spotted bats foraged at heights above 10 meters (Navo et al. 1992).

One study stated that the bats hunted a regular beat and searched for prey in clearings in pine forest; the bat was extremely punctual in making its rounds and reached various points along its route at the same time every night. When in the clearings, the bat followed a definite circuit at or above treetop height. The bat spent approximately three to five minutes per clearing during the spring, and much longer during the summer, retracing its circuit in the clearing. The lengthier foraging in the summer is attributed to increased prey availability during the later season (van Zyll de Jong 1985). Another study found that a predictable pattern of foraging was observed in spring to midsummer (May to July), and a less predictable pattern later in the summer. At the beginning of the summer, foraging periods were long, and they became shorter later in summer (van Zyll de Jong 1985). The contradiction in foraging strategies between the two studies was attributed to the variability of the bat's behavior in response to changes in one or more factors in the environment such a abundance and distribution of prey (Snow 1974).

Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Activity may occur year-round in the warmer portions of the range but is not known to occur in the cold season in the northern range. Foraging occurs throughout the night, from after sunset to early morning (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989, Berna 1990, Navo et al. 1992, Storz 1995, Perry et al. 1997, Rabe et al. 1998, Priday and Luce 1999).

Nearly all of 54 individuals netted in western Texas were caught after midnight (Watkins 1977). In British Columbia, the bats left their day roost an average of 49 minutes after sunset (13 minutes in radio-tagged bats, Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989), returned an average of 67 minutes before sunrise; a peak in foraging occurred at 0000-0300 hours (Leonard and Fenton 1983); emergence from day roosts was not significantly influenced by moonlight; flew continuously between departure from and return to day roost (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). In Colorado, spotted bats were active throughout the night (Navo et al. 1992, Storz 1995).

Length: 13 centimeters
Weight: 18 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: The greatest management need is to obtain further information on current distribution and abundance, life history, ecology.
Restoration Potential: Until more is known, it is difficult to determine what can be done to increase the population of the spotted bat. It is probable that it has never been very common (Snow 1974).
Management Requirements: Not much management can be done until more ecological information is available. However, Snow (1974) recommended the following: 1) determine the presence of the spotted bat by surveying likely habitat 2) establish and maintain waterholes in likely spotted bat habitat (it is well known that the bat will fly for several miles to find water, and a water hole will benefit many species), 3) support and cooperate in studies to determine more about the impacts by humans.
Monitoring Requirements: The best capture method is to stretch a net over the only water source found within miles and in a area a few miles from trees (Barbour and Davis 1969). The spotted bat does not readily chew a net and is rather docile when handled (Snow 1974). One exception was reported by Constantine in 1961.

The spotted bat apparently does not adapt well to captivity (Barbour and Davis 1969).

Biological Research Needs: Further information is needed on threats, movements, and winter distribution.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a recurring breeding population during summer (approximately May through August). Includes detections or mist net captures away from roost sites obtained during the summer months even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation (including detection of echolocation chirps) of one or more individuals.
Mapping Guidance: Foraging areas can and should be mapped as separate polygons from roost sites if they are separated by a commuting route in which foraging bats do not feed. EOs may overlap if bats from different roosts more than 20 kilometers apart partially share a common foraging or drinking site.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Movement characteristics of these highly mobile bats (see following) would suggest separation distance of tens of kilometers. However, this would result in occurrences of unwieldy spatial scope. It is impractical to attempt to delineate occurrences on the basis of discrete populations. Instead, the assigned separation distance is intended to generate occurrences that consist of spatially proximate roost sites and capture locations. However, include in the same occurrence (1) any roost sites between which significant numbers of individuals are known to move, regardless of how far apart they are, and (2) known significant foraging areas of occurrences that are based on roost sites.

Individuals can travel from 6 up to 10 kilometers away from their roost site to forage (Wai-Ping and Fenton 1989). This may not be always a radius in the sense that the individuals may not have a roughly circular foraging range, but even so, the foraging ranges are generally large.

Date: 01Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: An area occupied either historically or at present by a recurring population during the non-breeding season. Includes detections or mist net captures away from roost sites obtained even if the actual roost site(s) are not known. Identification evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation (including detection of echolocation chirps) of one or more individuals.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: See Location Use Class = Breeding.
Date: 01Apr2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Mar2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Management Information Edition Author: Jodie Ann Bayerl
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 27Apr2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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