Neotamias umbrinus - (J.A. Allen, 1890)
Uinta Chipmunk
Other English Common Names: Uinta chipmunk
Synonym(s): Eutamias umbrinus ;Tamias umbrinus J.A. Allen, 1890
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Tamias umbrinus J. A. Allen, 1890 (TSN 180209)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104775
Element Code: AMAFB02190
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Sciuridae Neotamias
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Tamias umbrinus
Taxonomic Comments: Pre-1953 references to T. quadrivittatus in some cases pertain to T. umbrinus. Bergstrom and Hoffmann (1991) found species-specific vocalizations, habitats, and bacular characters in sympatric umbrinus and quadrivittatus, but convergence in electromorphs.

Formerly included in genus Eutamias, which recently was included in the genus Tamias (Levenson et al. 1985; Jones et al. 1992, Hoffmann et al., in Wilson and Reeder 1993). Based on patterns of variation in ectoparasites (Jameson 1999) and molecular phylogenetics (Piaggio and Spicer 2001), the North American mammal checklist by Baker et al. (2003) placed all North American chipmunks (except Tamias striatus) in the genus Neotamias. Thorington and Hoffmann (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) noted that chipmunks could be legitimately allocated to one (Tamias), two (Neotamias, Tamias), or three (Tamias, Neotamias, Eutamias) genera; they chose to adopt the single-genus (Tamias) arrangement.

See Sutton (1992) for a key to the species of Tamias (Neotamias).

Former subspecies rufus now is regarded as a distinct species (Patterson 1984).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 06Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S4), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Idaho (S4), Montana (S3), Nevada (S5), Utah (S4S5), Wyoming (S4S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Eastern California and northern Arizona to northern Colorado, southeastern and northwestern Wyoming, and extreme southwestern Montana (Hoffmann et al., in Wilson and Reeder 1993). Elevations of about 6500-11,000 ft.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Eastern California and northern Arizona to northern Colorado, southeastern and northwestern Wyoming, and extreme southwestern Montana (Hoffmann et al., in Wilson and Reeder 1993). Elevations of about 6500-11,000 ft.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, UT, WY

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Coconino (04005)
NV Clark (32003)*
WY Carbon (56007), Fremont (56013), Hot Springs (56017), Lincoln (56023), Park (56029)*, Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Upper Wind (10080001)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+*, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+*
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+
17 Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Probably similar to other western chipmunks which mate in the spring and produce 1 litter of 4-5 altricial young following a gestation period of approximately 1 month. Young weaned and foraging on their own in mid-July or August
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Coniferous forests. Often found near logs and brush in open areas and at edge of forests. Found in Transition, Canadian and Hudsonian life zones. Excavates burrows beneath rocks and shrubs.
Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore
Food Comments: In summer feeds on seeds and berries, supplemented with other plant material and insects. In fall, stores seeds and berries in burrow. Occasionally eats bird's eggs and carrion (Armstrong 1975).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Dormant in winter in snow covered areas; may arouse and appear above ground in warm weather on warm slopes. Others may arouse and feed but not leave burrow (Armstrong 1975).
Length: 24 centimeters
Weight: 85 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Chipmunks

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: If parts of the occurrence are separated (by less than 1 kilometer), these should be mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: Major water barriers of greater than 30 meters width; major roads of more than 30 meters of bare clearance.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Home ranges generally small, 0.2-4.0 hectares (Broadbooks 1970, Sheppard 1972, Gashwiler 1965, Storer et al. 1944, Roberts 1962, Brown 1971, Eliot 1968, Wadsworth 1972). However, dispersal movements may extend to at least 0.86 km (Roberts 1976). Given that recorded dispersal can be a conservative indicator of actual dispersal characteristics, especially when methods other than radio-telemetry are used to monitor movements, the separation distance used here for suitable habitat assumes that chipmunk dispersal is more extensive than currently documented. Certainly these mammals are capable of making extensive movements. The separation distance for suitable habitat is a compromise between the documented sedentary habits and the likely low probability that two locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent different populations.

Barriers: In a study of small mammals and road-crossing, no TAMIAS STRIATUS (n=179) crossed highways with more than 30 meters of clearance (Oxley et al. 1974).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a home range of about 1 hectare (see Separation Justification).
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. G. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Apr1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. Maxent-based species distribution models. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Armstrong, D. M. 1975. Rocky Mountain mammals. Rocky Mountain Nature Asscoc., Inc. 174 pp.

  • Armstrong, D.M. 1972. Distribution of Mammals in Colorado. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas. University of Kansas Printing Service, Lawrence. 415 pp.

  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Broadbooks, H. E. 1970a. Home ranges and territorial behavior of the yellow-pine chipmunk, Eutamius amoenus. Journal of Mammalogy 51:310-26.

  • Broadbooks, H. E. 1970b. Populations of the yellow pine chipmunk, Eutamias amoenus. American Midland Naturalist 83:472-488.

  • Brown, J. H. 1971. Mechanisms of competitive exclusion between two species of chipmunks. Ecology 52:305-311.

  • Clark, Tim W. and Mark R. Stromberg. 1987. Mammals in Wyoming. University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas.

  • Coombs, E. M. [no date-1977?]. Wildlife observations of the hot desert region, Washington County, Utah, with emphasis on reptilian species and their habitat in relation to livestock grazing. A report to the Cedar City District, BLM by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.

  • Durrant, S. D. 1952. Mammals of Utah, taxonomy and distribution. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 6: 1-549.

  • Elliot, L. 1978. Social behavior and foraging ecology of the eastern chipmunk (TAMIAS STRIATUS) in the Adirondack Mountains. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 265. 107 pp.

  • Gashwiler, J. S. 1965. Longevity and home range of a Townsend chipmunk. Journal of Mammalogy 46:693.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981. The mammals of North America. 2nd ed. John Wiley, New York. 2 vols.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Ingles, L. G. 1965. Mammals of the Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

  • Jackson, H. H. 1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 504 pp.

  • Jameson, E. W., Jr. 1999. Host-ectoparasite relationships among North American chipmunks. Acta Theriologica 44:225-231.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Larrison, E.J. and D.R. Johnson. 1981. Mammals of Idaho. The University of Idaho Press, Moscow.

  • Levenson, H., et al. 1985. Systematics of the Holarctic chipmunks (TAMIAS). J. Mammalogy 66:219-242.

  • Long, C.A. 1965. The mammals of Wyoming. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 14: 493-758.

  • Oxley, D. J., M. B. Fenton and G. R. Carmody. 1974. The effects of roads on populations of small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 11: 51-59.

  • Piaggio, A. J., and G. S. Spicer. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the chipmunks inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20:335-350.

  • Roberts, D. R. 1962. Rodent movements in a cutover forest of the Sierra Nevada, California. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

  • Sheppard, D. 1972. Home ranges of chipmunks (EUTAMIAS) in Alberta. Journal of Mammalogy 53:379- 380.

  • Storer, T. I., F. C. Evans, and F. G. Palmer. 1944. Some rodent populations in the Sierra Nevada of California. Ecological Monographs 14:166-192.

  • Sutton, D. A. 1992. Tamias amoenus. Am. Soc. Mamm., Mammalian Species No. 390:1-8.

  • Wadsworth, C. E. 1972. Observations of the Colorado chipmunk in southeastern Utah. Southwestern Naturalist 16:451-454.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: https://www.departments.bucknell.edu/biology/resources/msw3/

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