Crotaphytus bicinctores - Smith and Tanner, 1972
Great Basin Collared Lizard
Other English Common Names: Great Basin collared lizard, Mojave Black-collared Lizard
Synonym(s): Crotaphytus insularis bicinctores
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Crotaphytus bicinctores Smith and Tanner, 1972 (TSN 208791)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104755
Element Code: ARACF04010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Reptiles - Lizards
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Reptilia Squamata Crotaphytidae Crotaphytus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B90COL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Crotaphytus bicinctores
Taxonomic Comments: This species formerly was included in Crotaphytus collaris, and it also has been referred to as Crotaphytus insularis bicinctores. McGuire (1996) recognized C. bicinctores as a monotypic species.

McGuire et al. (2007) found incongruencies between their mtDNA phylogeny and currently recognized species boundaries in Crotaphytus. They interpreted these as evidence for introgression of C. collaris haplotypes into both C. reticulatus and C. bicinctores resulting from past hybridization during glacial maxima.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13May2005
Global Status Last Changed: 28Oct1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S4), California (SNR), Idaho (S2), Nevada (S4), Oregon (S3), Utah (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This lizard ranges from southeastern Oregon and southern Idaho south through northeastern California, Nevada, and western and lowland central Utah to southeastern California and western Arizona (McGuire 1996, Stebbins 2003); a museum record for Spokane County, Washington, is probably erroneous (Nussbaum et al. 1983) and at least should be considered questionable until confirmed by additional field work (McGuire 1996). Elevational range extends from around sea level to about 7,500 feet (2,290 meters) (Stebbins 2003).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: McGuire (1996) mapped well over 200 known collection sites that are widely distributed throughout the range.

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is uncertain but likely exceeds 100,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats have been identified.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) This lizard ranges from southeastern Oregon and southern Idaho south through northeastern California, Nevada, and western and lowland central Utah to southeastern California and western Arizona (McGuire 1996, Stebbins 2003); a museum record for Spokane County, Washington, is probably erroneous (Nussbaum et al. 1983) and at least should be considered questionable until confirmed by additional field work (McGuire 1996). Elevational range extends from around sea level to about 7,500 feet (2,290 meters) (Stebbins 2003).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, ID, NV, OR, UT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Coconino (04005)*, La Paz (04012), Maricopa (04013), Mohave (04015), Pinal (04021)*, Yuma (04027)
ID Ada (16001), Canyon (16027), Elmore (16039), Owyhee (16073)
OR Harney (41025), Klamath (41035), Malheur (41045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+*, Havasu Canyon (15010004)+*, Lower Virgin (15010010)+, Detrital Wash (15010014)+, Havasu-Mohave Lakes (15030101)+, Sacramento Wash (15030103)+, Imperial Reservoir (15030104)+, Bouse Wash (15030105)+, Tyson Wash (15030106)+, Bill Williams (15030204)+, Middle Gila (15050100)+*, Lower Gila-Painted Rock Reservoir (15070101)+, Agua Fria (15070102)+, Hassayampa (15070103)+, Centennial Wash (15070104)+, Lower Gila (15070201)+
17 C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Middle Owyhee (17050107)+, Jordan (17050108)+, Crooked-Rattlesnake (17050109)+, Lower Owyhee (17050110)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Lower Malheur (17050117)+, Willow (17050119)+, Alvord Lake (17120009)+
18 Sprague (18010202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from C. RETICULATUS, C. COLLARIS, C. NEBRIUS, and C. DICKERSONAE by absence of oral melanin; differs further from C. RETICULATUS, C. COLLARIS, and C. NEBRIUS by the presence in adult males of a strongly laterally compressed tail with a pale white dorsal caudal stripe, enlarged dark brown or black inguinal patches that extend between one-third and two-thirds of the distance between the hindlimb and forelimb insertions, and a pale tan or off-white patternless region on the dorsal surface of the head (McGuire 1996, which see for further details).
Reproduction Comments: Other members of the same genus lay 1 or 2 clutches of eggs/year. Clutch size 3-8. In Utah, egg laying occurs mainly in June (see McGuire 1996). In Arizona, eggs are laid in June or July, hatch in October. Neonates have been observed in August in eastern Oregon (see McGuire 1996). In southern populations some females mature in 1 year (Nussbaum et al. 1983).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Desert
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: This lizard occurs mainly in xeric, sparsely vegetated rocky areas; sometimes in adjacent areas lacking much rock; it perches atop rocks, and it hides under rocks or in rodent burrows (McGuire 1996). Eggs are deposited in sandy soil, rodent burrows, or under rocks.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Mainly feeds on arthropods and other reptiles (lizards), but is also known to eat small amounts of flowers and leaves (McGuire 1996).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Inactive during cold winter weather; duration of inactive period varies with local climate. Activity begins as early as March in Arizona (McGuire 1996).
Length: 33 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Crotaphytid Lizards

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway or highway with obstructions such that lizards rarely if ever cross successfully; major river, lake, pond, or deep marsh; urbanized area dominated by buildings and pavement.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Crotaphytids tend to have small home ranges. Dispersal characteristics are unknown, but these lizards appear to be capable of making extensive movements. The separation distance for suitable habitat is a compromise between the documented sedentary habits and the likely low probability that two locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent different populations.

Home range size of Gambelia sila is usually less than 9 ha (average 2 ha in females and 4.2 ha in males) (Warrick et al. 1998). For Gambelia wislizenii, Tanner and Krogh (1974) recorded home range sizes of 0.67, 1.54, and 2.35 ha over periods of 2-3 years for three individuals in Nevada. Some individuals appear to be somewhat nomadic. In northern Utah, Parker and Pianka (1976) recorded long distance movements by juvenile males (up to 806 m over two weeks and 1,186 m over 20 months) whereas adult males moved 0-450 m (average 125 m) over periods of about 2-4 weeks. In Kansas, male Crotaphytus collaris maintained home ranges averaging about 0.4 ha and spent most of their time in just a small portion of this. In Oklahoma, average home range size of adult male C. collaris was 1,865 sq m (Stone and Baird 2002).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .2 km
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 13May2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13May2005
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84. Online with updates at: http://www.ssarherps.org/pages/comm_names/Index.php

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2012. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. 7th edition. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1-92.

  • McGuire, J. A. 1996. Phylogenetic systematics of crotaphytid lizards (Reptilia: Iguania: Crotaphytidae). Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History (32):1-143.

  • McGuire, J. A., C. W. Linkem, M. S. Koo, D. W. Hutchison, A. K. Lappin, D. I. Orange, J. Lemos-Espinal, B. R. Riddle, and J. R. Jaeger. 2007. Mitochondrial introgression and incomplete lineage sorting through space and time: phylogenetics of crotaphytid lizards. Evolution 61:2879-2897.

  • Montanucci, R. R. 1983. Natural hybridization between two species of collared lizards (CROTAPHYTUS). Copeia 1983: 1-11.

  • Nussbaum, R.A., E.D. Brodie, Jr., and R.M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 332 pp.

  • Schwinn, M. A., and L. Minden. 1980. Utah reptile and amphibian latilong distribution. Publ. No. 80-1. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1985a. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xiv + 336 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
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