Calidris melanotos - (Vieillot, 1819)
Pectoral Sandpiper
Other Common Names: Maçarico-de-Colete
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Calidris melanotos (Vieillot, 1819) (TSN 176653)
French Common Names: bécasseau à poitrine cendrée
Spanish Common Names: Playero Pectoral
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104343
Element Code: ABNNF11130
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Shorebirds
Image 11119

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Calidris
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Calidris melanotos
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 26Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: With estimates of up to 1.6 million birds, a G5 ranking would be appropriate.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNRM), Alaska (S5B), Arizona (S3M), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (S4N), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S2N), Florida (S3M), Georgia (SNRN), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (S2M), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S4N), Kansas (S4N), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (S2S3N), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S3N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNRM), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (S3M), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S1M), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S3N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S4N), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S4), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (S3N), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (S4N)
Canada Alberta (S5M), British Columbia (S5M), Labrador (S2S3M), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (S3S4M), Newfoundland Island (S2S3M), Northwest Territories (S4B), Nova Scotia (S2S3M), Nunavut (S4B,S4M), Ontario (SHB,S5N), Prince Edward Island (S2S3M), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (S5M), Yukon Territory (S4B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: western and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, and Banks, Victoria, Bathurst, Devon, northern Baffin, and Southampton islands south to western Alaska, central Mackenzie, southeastern Keewatin, and south coast of Hudson Bay; and along Arctic coast of central and eastern Siberia. NON-BREEDING: southern South America from Peru, Bolivia, and southern Brazil south to central Chile and southern Argentina (AOU 1983). Siberian birds probably winter in southeastern Australia and New Zealand. Common fall migrant and rare winter visitor in Hawaii (Pratt et al. 1987). MIGRATION: through interior North America, Middle America, and northern South America. In fall (and uncommonly in spring) through eastern North America and West Indies (AOU 1983).

Area of Occupancy: 2,501 to >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Densities varies widely, even within the same habitat (e.g., from 0.52 per hectare to 2.46 per hectare on its wintering grounds in South America (Farmer, Holmes, and Pitelka, 2013). Assuming a global population of 500,000 or more, occupancy should be at least 2000 square kilometers

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: With an almost circumpolar distribution and an estimated global population size of 500,000 for North America (Morrison, et. al. 2006),there should be at least 300 element occurrences

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Morrison et al. (2001) estimated the total population at 400,000 individuals, but this is an 'interim' estimate. Farmer, Holmes, and Pitelka (2013) and came up with 1.15 million in just Alaska and an additional 400,000 in Canada, not even including large portions of the breeding range in other parts of Canada and Russia. So the upper limit assigned may actually be an underestimate.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: An estimate based on estimated population numbers and its circumpolar distribution

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Be a species that primarily uses vegetated areas rather than sandy beaches throughout most of its life cycle, there are no major threats to this species. The US Shorebird Conservation Program classifies this species of moderate concern with regardings to population trends and nonbreeding distribution and threats and of low concern relative to population size, breeding threats, and breeding distribution (Farmer, Holmes, and Pitelka, 2013).

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: The US Shorebird Conservation Program in 2004 classifed the trend as stable or unknown (Morrison, et, al. 2006). There is contradictory information about the overall trend. See the comments for the long-term trend.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <70% to increase of <25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Long-term trends are difficult to estimate. Farmer, Holmes, and Pitelka (2013) estimated a 5.1% decline per year from 1974 to 2009, which would equate to a 84% decrease in population but they agree the estimated rate of decline was imprecise. Christmas Count data suggest there have been further declines since the 1970's (National Audubon Society, 2014).

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Climate change may impact its breeding habitat in the high latitudes.

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Utilizes wider range of breeding habitats than co-occurring Sharp-tailed Sandpiper (Framer, Holmes, and Pitelka, 2013).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Improved inventorying of the global population of this species is needed, since population estimates range from about 400,0i00 up to 1.6 million, a factor of four.

Protection Needs: There are no pressing needs other than preserving and maintaining key migratory staing areas (Farmer, Holmes, and Pitelka, 2013).

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: western and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, northern Mackenzie, and Banks, Victoria, Bathurst, Devon, northern Baffin, and Southampton islands south to western Alaska, central Mackenzie, southeastern Keewatin, and south coast of Hudson Bay; and along Arctic coast of central and eastern Siberia. NON-BREEDING: southern South America from Peru, Bolivia, and southern Brazil south to central Chile and southern Argentina (AOU 1983). Siberian birds probably winter in southeastern Australia and New Zealand. Common fall migrant and rare winter visitor in Hawaii (Pratt et al. 1987). MIGRATION: through interior North America, Middle America, and northern South America. In fall (and uncommonly in spring) through eastern North America and West Indies (AOU 1983).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Adams (16003), Bannock (16005), Benewah (16009), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Boundary (16021), Canyon (16027), Cassia (16031), Elmore (16039), Fremont (16043), Gooding (16047), Jefferson (16051), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Madison (16065), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077), Twin Falls (16083), Valley (16085)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Hangman (17010306)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Weiser (17050124)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins late May to early June (Harrison 1978). Female incubates 4 eggs for 21-23 days (Terres 1980) (also reported as usually 20 days). Nestlings precocial. Most males leaves breeding areas before eggs hatch (Hayman et al. 1986). Young tended by female; young begin flying about 21 days after hatching, fledge in late July or early August in northern Alaska. More than 10 nests per sq km in many areas in northern Alaska; often wide annual fluctuations in breeding density (see Johnson and Herter 1989).
Ecology Comments: May be seen singly or in flocks (sometimes several thousand in Puerto Rico) (Raffaele 1983). Some individuals may defend feeding territories.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Begins migrating northward in late February, passing through U.S. and Canada in April-May; arrives in breeding areas in Beaufort Sea area in late May or early June. Migrates mainly through interior North America, Middle America, and northern South America, and in fall (uncommon in spring) through eastern North America and West Indies (AOU 1983). Northern Alaska: adults begin southward migration in late June, juveniles depart late August-early September; most still in North America in September-October are juveniles (Hayman et al. 1986). Most common in Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands in fall, August-early November (Raffaele 1983). Passes through northern South America early August to mid-November (Hilty and Brown 1986). Amazonia apparently is an important migration route (Stotz et al. 1992).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Tidal flat/shore
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Tundra
Habitat Comments: NON-BREEDING: wet meadows, mudflats, flooded fields and golf courses, and shores of ponds and pools. Also found in grassy marshes and salt meadows, shores of lakes and rivers. BREEDING: Wet or moist coastal tundra (AOU 1983), with low-centered polygons or unpatterned ground; usually on dry fringes of well-vegetated wetlands (Hayman et al. 1986); where continuous grass or sedge cover is present. Nests on the ground, often under cover of grass tuft. Nest is a cup-like structure of grasses and leaves. See also Rodrigues (1994).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds on many insects in addition to crustaceans, some arachnids, seeds, and worms. Food picked from among grass, or picked or probed from soft mud.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 22 centimeters
Weight: 86 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Little is known aobut this species on the nonbreeding grounds in South America, including geographic populationi subdivisions (Framer, Holmes, and Pitelka, 2013). Studies linking nutrition and energetics with migration, survival, and reproductive success are needs.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shorebirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas of nesting adults and broods. Because separations are based on nesting areas, the foraging areas of different occurrences may overlap if nesting birds are traveling to distant places to feed.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance pertains specifically to nesting areas, not to locations of dispersed foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas.

The separation distance is an arbitrary value; it is impractical to attempt to delineate shorebird occurrences on the basis of dispersal patterns or metapopulation dynamics. Foraging ranges of some nesting shorebird species (see following) may suggest use of a larger separation distance, but this likely would result in occurrences that are too large and less effective for conservation planning.

Separation distance based on larger 'typical' breeding home ranges with diameters of 1.5 to 3 kilometers. Semipalmated Plovers have breeding home ranges up to 3 square kilometers, i.e. a diameter of just under 2 kilometers (Nol and Blanken 1999). Red-necked Phalaropes have a core home range of 1-3 hectares, but occasionally travel 1.5 kilometers to feed (Rubega et al. 2000). Stilt Sandpipers can forage up to 8 kilometers from nest (Jehl 1973). Mountain Plovers have an average home range of 56.6 hectares (Knopf 1996) but broods typically move 1-2 kilometers shortly after hatching (Knopf and Rupert 1996).

Territories: Common Snipe, 6.4-28.6 hectares (Mueller 1999); Long-billed Dowitcher, 100-300 meter diameter (Johnsgard 1981); golden-plovers, average 10-59 hectares (Johnson and Connors 1996); Long-billed Curlew, 6-20 hectares (Johnsgard 1981).

Nesting densities: Black-bellied Plover, 0.3-2.3 pairs per square kilometer (44 ha per pair at latter density; Hussell and Page 1976, Parmelee et al. 1967); Marbled Godwit, maximum density 1 pair/32 hectares (Stewart and Kantrud 1972).

Foraging distances: Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, up to 13 kilometers from nest (Elphick and Tibbits 1998, Tibbits and Moskoff 1999).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a smaller 'typical' home ranges (see Separation Justification).
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (minimum can be reduced in the case of rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Winter Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Aug2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jue, Dean K.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 04May1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Rodrigues, R. 1994. Microhabitat variables influencing nest-site selection by tundra birds. Ecological Applications 4:110-116.

  • Rubega, M. A., D. Schamel, and D. M. Tracy. 2000. Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus). No. 538 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 28pp.

  • See SERO listing

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Sinclair, P.H., W.A. Nixon, C.D. Eckert and N.L. Hughes. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC. 595pp.

  • Stevenson, H.M., and B.H. Anderson. 1994. The Birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, 891 pp.

  • Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.

  • Stotz, D. F., et al. 1992. The status of North American migrants in central Amazonian Brazil. Condor 94:608-621.

  • THOMPSON,M.C., AND C. ELY.1989. BIRDS IN KANSAS VOLUME ONE.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Wildlife Management Information System (WMIS). 2006+. Geo-referenced wildlife datasets (1900 to present) from all projects conducted by Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada.  Available at http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/programs/wildlife-research/wildlife-management-information-services

  • Wood, MERRILL. 1979. BIRDS OF PENNSYLVANIA. PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV., UNIVERSITY PARK. 133 PP.

  • Zook, J. L. 2002. Distribution maps of the birds of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Unpublished.

  • eBird. 2016. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. Accessed in 2016.

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