Anas crecca - Linnaeus, 1758
Green-winged Teal
Other English Common Names: green-winged teal
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Anas crecca Linnaeus, 1758 (TSN 175081)
French Common Names: sarcelle d'hiver
Spanish Common Names: Cerceta Ala Verde
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104242
Element Code: ABNJB10010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
Image 11045

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Anas
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Anas crecca
Taxonomic Comments: Livezey's (1991) phylogenetic analysis and classification (supergenera, subgenera, infragenera, etc.) of dabbling ducks (based on comparative morphology) listed A. crecca and A. carolinensis as separate species. Zink et al. (1995), however, found no evidence of genetic differentiation between populations in Asian and North American sides of Beringia. The American Ornithologists' Union (1998 and subsequent supplements in 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2004) accordingly has treated A. crecca and A. carolinensis as conspecific. In contrasts, in a phylogeny of dabbling ducks, Johnson and Sorenson (1999) presented evidence that A. crecca and A. carolinensis are separate species, and the British Ornithological Union (2001) subsequently recognized them as such.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 21Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (22Jun2004)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (25Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5N), Alaska (S5B,S4N), Arizona (S3B,S5N), Arkansas (S4N), California (SNRB,SNRN), Colorado (S5B,S4N), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S4N), District of Columbia (S2N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S5), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (S4B,S3N), Indiana (S1B,S1N), Iowa (S2B,S5N), Kansas (S1B,S5N), Kentucky (S4N), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S5B), Maryland (S4N), Massachusetts (S2B,S5M), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (S4N), Missouri (SNRN), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (S2B,S4S5N), Nebraska (S3S4), Nevada (S4B,S5N), New Hampshire (S3B), New Jersey (SNRB), New Mexico (S4B,S5N), New York (S3), North Carolina (S5N), North Dakota (SNRB), Oklahoma (S5N), Oregon (S4B,S5N), Pennsylvania (S1S2B,S3N), Rhode Island (S1B,S4N), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (S4B), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S2B,S5N), Utah (S3B,S5N), Vermont (S1B), Virginia (SU), Washington (S4B,S3N), West Virginia (SHB,S2N), Wisconsin (S3B), Wyoming (S5B,S5N)
Canada Alberta (S4S5B), British Columbia (S5B,S5N), Labrador (S5B,S5M), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S4B,S5M), Newfoundland Island (S4B,SUM), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nova Scotia (S4S5B), Nunavut (SUB,SUM), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (S5B), Quebec (S5B), Saskatchewan (S5B,S5M,S2N), Yukon Territory (S5B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Holarctic. BREEDS: north-central Alaska, northwestern and central Canada south to California, northern New Mexico, northern Nebraska, Minnesota, northern Ohio, western New York, Maine, Nova Scotia; Iceland, northern Eurasia, Aleutians south to southern Spain, northern Italy, southern Russia and northwestern China. WINTERS: in North America, mostly in the U.S., regularly to central Mexico and Antilles; also Hawaii; widely in Old World. In the U.S., the highest winter densities occur in western Texas, northern Utah, Kansas, Mississippi-Arkansas, and southeastern North Carolina; except for the latter, these are associated with national wildlife refuges (Root 1988).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Holarctic. BREEDS: north-central Alaska, northwestern and central Canada south to California, northern New Mexico, northern Nebraska, Minnesota, northern Ohio, western New York, Maine, Nova Scotia; Iceland, northern Eurasia, Aleutians south to southern Spain, northern Italy, southern Russia and northwestern China. WINTERS: in North America, mostly in the U.S., regularly to central Mexico and Antilles; also Hawaii; widely in Old World. In the U.S., the highest winter densities occur in western Texas, northern Utah, Kansas, Mississippi-Arkansas, and southeastern North Carolina; except for the latter, these are associated with national wildlife refuges (Root 1988).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NH Grafton (33009)
PA Crawford (42039), Sullivan (42113)
RI Providence (44007)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Waits (01080103)+, Blackstone (01090003)+
02 Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+
05 French (05010004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: See Jackson (1991) for information on identification of North American teal.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size is 7-15 (usually 8-9). Incubation, by female, lasts 21-23 days. Males abandon females early in incubation. Nestlings are precocial, tended by female, become independent in about 23 days.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Begins slowly migrating northward in March-April; arrives in Beaufort Sea area late May-early June. Generally departs from northernmost breeding areas August-September. Usually migrates southward in large flocks with first cold fall weather. Rare in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, October-April (Raffaele 1983).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, Tidal flat/shore
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Freshwater ponds, marshes, shallow edges of lakes; also, in migration and winter, shallow salt and brackish water and shores (Godfrey 1966). Nests in prairie pothole country and elsewhere. Usually nests in areas with dense emergent vegetation; on islands, lake edges, sometimes in upland habitat some distance from water. Nest is a depression lined with plant material, down, feathers.
Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats aquatic plants; seeds of sedges, smartweeds, pondweeds, and grasses; aquatic insects, mollusks, crustaceans and tadpoles. In fall waste grain. Also eats berries, grapes, acorns. Dabbles in shallow water, also forages on land.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 37 centimeters
Weight: 364 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Dabbling Ducks

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance a compromise between three times average home range diameters (about 5-6 kilometers), and the great mobility of these birds. Home ranges: female Black Duck, mean 130 hectares during prelaying and laying period (n = 7, Ringelman et al. 1982); Mallards, mean 283 hectares (Dzubin 1955), 210 hectares (females) and 240 hectares (males) (Gilmer et al. 1975).
Breeding site fidelity: female Black Ducks in New England, 25% returned to nest in the following year, most within 91 meters of previous nest (Coulter and Miller 1968).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.6 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Diameter of average home range of Mallards (Gilmer et al. 1975).
Date: 08Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Staging area, Foraging area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/0.5 square kilometer in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 11Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Molting area, Wintering area, Non-breeding feeding concentration area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of molting or wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/0.5 square kilometer in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Mapping Guidance: Map roosting and feeding areas with separate polygons in same EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Wintering flocks of American Black Ducks fly an average of 10 kilometres from roost to foraging area, but have been recorded flying up to 43 kilometres (Frazer et al. 1990). However, occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 29May2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 04Mar1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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