Onychomys leucogaster - (Wied-Neuwied, 1841)
Northern Grasshopper Mouse
Other English Common Names: northern grasshopper mouse
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Onychomys leucogaster (Wied-Neuwied, 1841) (TSN 180382)
French Common Names: souris sauterelles
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104168
Element Code: AMAFF06010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Cricetidae Onychomys
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal Species of the World: a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second Edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Onychomys leucogaster
Taxonomic Comments: Onychomys mtDNA-haplotypes define at least five discrete geographical subsets (Wyoming Basin/Interior Plains/Colorado Plateau, Columbia Basin/Great Basin, Gulf Coastal Plain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Western Deserts), corresponding with five inferred areas of endemism for biota restricted to arid and semiarid habitats in North America (Riddle and Honeycutt 1990). See Riddle and Choate (1986) for subspecific revisions.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 12Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (31Dec2011)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (S5), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Idaho (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S4), Navajo Nation (S5), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (S5), New Mexico (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Oklahoma (S3), Oregon (S4?), South Dakota (S5), Texas (S5), Utah (S4S5), Washington (S3), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (S4), Manitoba (S3), Saskatchewan (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: South-central Canada (southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba) south through the Great Plains to northern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Extends west through the Great Basin and southwestern deserts of Arizona and New Mexico, and also occurs in the Rocky Mountains. See Riddle and Choate (1986) and Riddle (1995) for information on biogeography.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: South-central Canada (southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba) south through the Great Plains to northern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Extends west through the Great Basin and southwestern deserts of Arizona and New Mexico, and also occurs in the Rocky Mountains. See Riddle and Choate (1986) and Riddle (1995) for information on biogeography.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, IA, ID, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, NN, NV, OK, OR, SD, TX, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, MB, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Adair (19001), Buena Vista (19021), Clay (19041), Dickinson (19059), Fremont (19071), Harrison (19085), Monona (19133), Palo Alto (19147), Plymouth (19149), Webster (19187), Woodbury (19193)
ID Ada (16001), Bear Lake (16007)*, Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013)*, Butte (16023), Canyon (16027)*, Cassia (16031)*, Custer (16037)*, Elmore (16039)*, Fremont (16043), Minidoka (16067)*, Owyhee (16073), Power (16077)*, Twin Falls (16083)*
MN Big Stone (27011)*, Chippewa (27023), Clay (27027), Cottonwood (27033), Grant (27051)*, Jackson (27063), Kandiyohi (27067)*, Kittson (27069)*, Lac Qui Parle (27073), Lincoln (27081), Lyon (27083), Murray (27101)*, Nobles (27105)*, Norman (27107), Otter Tail (27111)*, Pipestone (27117), Rock (27133), Stevens (27149), Swift (27151), Traverse (27155)*, Watonwan (27165), Wilkin (27167)
WA Benton (53005)+, Franklin (53021)+, Grant (53025)+, Kittitas (53037)+*, Walla Walla (53071)+*, Yakima (53077)+*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Redeye (07010107)+*, Long Prairie (07010108)+*, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Pomme De Terre (07020002)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Redwood (07020006)+*, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Watonwan (07020010)+, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001)+, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)+*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+, North Raccoon (07100006)+, Lake Red Rock (07100008)+
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101)+*, Mustinka (09020102)+*, Buffalo (09020106)+, Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Lower Red (09020311)+*
10 Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+, Rock (10170204)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Floyd (10230002)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+, Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004)+, West Nishnabotna (10240002)+, East Nishnabotna (10240003)+, West Nodaway (10240009)+
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+*
17 Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010)*, Moses Coulee (17020012)*, Lower Crab (17020015), Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016)*, Upper Yakima (17030001)*, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, American Falls (17040206)+*, Blackfoot (17040207)+*, Portneuf (17040208)+*, Lake Walcott (17040209)+*, Raft (17040210)+*, Salmon Falls (17040213)+*, Big Lost (17040218)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+*, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, East Little Owyhee. Nevada, (17050106)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+*, Lower Snake (17060110), Pahsimeroi (17060202)+*, Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101)*, Walla Walla (17070102)*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Sexual activity begins at 3 or 4 months of age. Gestation lasts about 32-38 days. Most litters are born February-October, with a peak in June, July, and August. Litter size is 1-6. In the laboratory, up to six litters per year may be produced.
Ecology Comments: Usually occurs at relatively low densities, but may become a controlling factor for its prey items. Shrill whistles given on spring and summer nights, perhaps as territorial defense. Unusually large home range (estimated average 2.3 ha) for a small mammal.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Shrubland/chaparral
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Occurs in grasslands, prairies, sagebrush deserts, overgrazed pastures, weedy roadside ditches, and semi- stabilized sand dunes; areas with sandy, diggable soil and sparse vegetation. Occupies underground burrows when inactive. Young are born in U-shaped nest burrow at a mean depth of 14 cm below the surface.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats primarily animal material (70-90%), mostly arthropods (grasshoppers, beetles, spiders, larval Lepidoptera), also occasionally small rodents in winter. Plant matter is eaten, especially in winter, when insects unavailable; at that time may store seeds.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Active throughout the year, although activity is greatly reduced during a full moon or heavy, prolonged rainfall.
Length: 19 centimeters
Weight: 52 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Murid Rodents

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: Separate sites separated by less than 1000 meters should be mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: Barriers include: wide highways with heavy traffic (subjective determination) and highways with continuous solid barriers that prevent rodent passage; major water bodies, arbitrarily set at those greater than 50 meters across in ice-free areas and those greater than 200 meters wide if frozen regularly.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Home ranges may be quite small, but at least some species exhibit good dispersal ability that may take them several kilometers from their natal area (Maier 2002). Peromyscus that have been displaced up to 3 km may return home within a few days (see Maier 2002). Displaced Neotoma fuscipes dispersed up to at least 1.6 km from their release point in five nights (Smith 1965). A male Dicrostonyx richardsoni moved more than 3 kilometers per day several times (Engstrom, in Wilson and Ruff 1999). Some species can traverse significant distances of unsuitable habitat. For example, Peromyscus leucopus may move between wooded areas separated by a deforested agricultural gap of up to at least 2 km (Krohne and Hoch 1999). In New Brunswick, a tagged subadult male Peromyscus maniculatus was captured at locations 1.77 km apart after a period of 2 weeks in September, suggesting that dispersal may extend at least this far (Bowman et al. 1999). In Kansas, individual Peromyscus maniculatus were captured at trap sites up to 1.32 km apart (Rehmeier et al. 2004). Dispersal can play a key role in the population dynamics of murid rodents.

Patterns of genetic (DNA) variation indicate that gene flow can be low among subpopulations of Neotoma magister and that effective dispersal is limited among subpopulations separated by as little as 3 km (Castleberry et al. 2002).

Separation distance for suitable habitat is a compromise between the typical small home range sizes of these mammals and their sometimes considerable dispersal ability and the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent populations.

Roads, especially divided highways, are major barriers to dispersal in small mammals (Oxley et al. 1974, Wilkins 1982, Garland and Bradley 1984).

Date: 08Mar2005
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Notes: Group contains most members of the family Muridae: mice, voles, lemmings, woodrats, etc.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Apr1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Banks, E. M., R. J. Brooks, and J. Schnell. 1975. A radiotracking study of home range and activity of the brown lemming (Lemmus trimucronatus). Journal of Mammalogy 56:888-901.

  • Beck, W.H. 1958. A guide to Saskatchewan mammals. Special Publication No. 1. Saskatchewan Natural History Society, Regina, Saskatchewan.

  • Birney, E. C. 1983. Status of small mammal species reaching distributional limits in southern and western Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Unpaged.

  • Bowman, J. C., M. Edwards, L. S. Sheppard, and G. J. Forbes. 1999. Record distance for a non-homing movement by a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. Canadian Field-Naturalist 113:292-293.

  • Brooks, R. J., and E. M. Banks. 1971. Radio-tracking study of lemming home range. Communications in Behavioral Biology 6:1-5.

  • Caire, W., J. D. Tyler, B. P. Glass, and M. A. Mares. 1989. Mammals of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Oklahoma. 567 pp.

  • Castleberry, S., B., T. L. King, P. B. Wood, and W. M. Ford. 2002. Microsatellite DNA analysis of population structure in Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister). Journal of Mammalogy 83:1058-1070.

  • Douglass, R. J. 1977. Population dynamics, home ranges, and habitat associations of the yellow-cheeked vole, Microtus xanthognathus, in the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 91:237-47.

  • Garland, T., Jr. and W. G. Bradley. 1984. Effects of a highway on Mojave Desert rodent populations. American Midland Naturalist 111:47-56.

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  • Heaney, L. R., and E. C. Birney. 1975. Comments on the distribution and natural history of some mammals in Minnesota. Canadian Field-Naturalist 89(1):29-34.

  • Hoffmeister, D. F. 1986. Mammals of Arizona. University of Arizona Press and Arizona Game and Fish Department. 602 pp.

  • Jike, L., G. O. Batzli, L. L. Geta. 1988. Home ranges of prairie voles as determined by radiotracking and by powdertracking. Journal of Mammalogy 69:183-186.

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  • Krohne, D. T., and G. A. Hoch. 1999. Demography of Peromyscus leucopus populations on habitat patches: the role of dispersal. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1247-1253.

  • MacMillen, R. E. 1964. Population ecology, water relations and social behavior of a southern California semidesert rodent fauna. University of California Publications in Zoology 71:1-59.

  • Maier, T. J. 2002. Long-distance movements by female white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, in extensive mixed-wood forest. Canadian Field-Naturalist 116:108-111.

  • Mammalian Species, nos. 1-604. Published by the American Society of Mammalogists.

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  • Riddle, B. R., and J. R. Choate. 1986. Systematics and biogeography of ONYCHOMYS LEUCOGASTER in western North America. J. Mamm. 67:233-255.

  • Riddle, B. R., and R. L. Honeycut. 1990. Historical biogeography in North American arid regions: an approach using mitochondrial-DNA phylogeny in grasshopper mice (genus ONYCHOMYS). Evolution 44:1-15.

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  • Smith, M. H. 1965. Dispersal capacity of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes. American Midland Naturalist 74:457-463.

  • Stockrahm, D. M. B. 1990-1992. Distribution of Small Mammals in Grasslands of Western Minnesota with Special Emphasis on the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster), the Northern Grasshopper Mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), the Plains Pocket Mouse (Perognathus flavescens), and the Western Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). Funded the MN DNR, Section of Wildlife, Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program and Moorhead State University. Results in unpublished report.

  • Stockrahm, D. M. B. 1991. Distribution of small mammals in grasslands of western Minnesota with special emphasis on the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster), the Northern Grasshopper Mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), the Plains Pocket Mouse (Perognathus flavescens), and the Western Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). Final report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 53 pp.

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  • Stockrahm, D. M. B. 1994. Ecology of the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) in western Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 73 pp.

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