Salvelinus fontinalis - (Mitchill, 1814)
Brook Trout
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814) (TSN 162003)
French Common Names: omble de fontaine
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103972
Element Code: AFCHA05030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Salmon and Trouts
Image 3

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Salmoniformes Salmonidae Salvelinus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Salvelinus fontinalis
Taxonomic Comments: Analyses of mtDNA variation indicate that diversity is highest in the southern part of the range and lowest in the north; mid-Atlantic populations are transitional between these regions of high and low haplotypic diversity (Perkins et al. 1993, Hayes et al. 1996, Hall et al. 2002).

Genetic data from 30 populations representing six major river drainages in Maine "provided evidence for the role of contemporary landscape features in shaping the observed pattern of genetic diversity at smaller geographic scales (within and among populations within river drainage). On a broader geographic scale, contemporary landscape structure appeared to be only a minor factor determining the observed pattern of genetic structuring among drainages" (Castric et al. 2001).

Hybrids between this species and Salmo trutta and Salvelinus namaycush are known. Extinct subspecies agassizi (silver trout) sometimes has been regarded as a distinct species. The aurora trout, maintained only as hatchery stocks in lakes in the Temiskaming District of Ontario, may be a distinct subspecies, S. f. timagamiensis (Page and Burr 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 12Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (28Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (SNA), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (SNA), Georgia (S3), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (S2?), Iowa (S3), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (S5), Maryland (S3S4), Massachusetts (S4), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S3), New Mexico (SNA), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (S2), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S4), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (S2), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S3), Utah (SNA), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S4), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Labrador (S5), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S4), Newfoundland Island (S5), Northwest Territories (SNA), Nova Scotia (S3), Nunavut (SUB,SNRN,SNRM), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S4), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species is native to most of eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, from Newfoundland to the southwestern side of Hudson Bay, and south in the Atlantic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins to Minnesota, northeastern Iowa, Wisconsin, Lake Michigan (but not Illinois streams), Chagrin River (Lake Erie drainage) in northeastern Ohio, northern New Jersey, New England, and southward in the Atlantic and Mississippi basins of the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia (Smith 1979, Trautman 1981, Becker 1983, Cooper 1983, Smith 1985, Etnier and Starnes 1993, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Menhinick 2001, Behnke 2002, Hartel et al. 2002, Moyle 2002, Bailey et al. 2004). Sea-run populations at least formerly extended from the Atlantic provinces of Canada to Long Island, New York (Scott and Crossman 1973), including Hudson Bay (Behnke 2002). Brook trout have been introduced in most of the lower peninsula of Michigan, western North America, and temperate regions in many other parts of the world.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Poor land management associated with agriculture and urbanization ranks as the most widely distributed negative impact on stream populations of brook trout across the range in the eastern United States (Hudy et al. 2005, Trout Unlimited 2006). Non-native fishes rank as the largest biological threat to lake populations (Hudy et al. 2005, Trout Unlimited 2006).

Range has contracted in southern Appalachian region due to impacts of logging, fires, river impoundment, road and railroad construction, land clearance for agriculture and human habitation, and encroachment of introduced rainbow trout and brown trout (Larson and Moore 1985, Galbreath et al. 2001). Introduction of hatchery-reared brook trout from the northeastern United States has also affected native populations, but genetic sampling of populations in the Pigeon River system in North Carolina indicates that a high proportion of sampled populations consist of unaltered native fish (Galbreath et al. 2001).

Sea-run populations in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States were decimated over the past 200 years by overharvest, habitat degradation, and stocking of hatchery-reared brook trout and other non-native salmonids (Ryther 1997).

Historically, most of Lake Superior's 3,000 miles of shoreline and tributary streams supported coaster brook trout populations. In the mid-1800s, unregulated fishing decimated these stocks, and in-stream habitat loss due to wide-scale logging further reduced numbers and prevented stocks from recovering (USFWS, Region 3). Exploitation of coaster stocks and demands on their habitat accelerated in the twentieth century. The opening of the Lake Superior watershed by road, rail, and water removed protection by isolation. Fishing pressure increased, and habitat damage from hydroelectric dams, road and railway construction, and mining probably also contributed to the decline. In some areas, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, which peaked in the late 1950s (Curtis 1990), and the introduction of Pacific salmon and rainbow trout (Onchoryhychus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were additional stressors that probably reduced coaster abundance and distribution (Newman and DuBois 1996). By the mid-1900s only a handful of tiny remnant stocks still existed (USFWS, Region 3).

In general, brook trout populations respond most negatively to factors that decrease survival of large juveniles and small adults and that decrease growth rates of small juveniles (Marschall and Crowder 1996).

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: In the eastern United States, intact stream populations of brook trout (where wild brook trout occupy 90-100% of their historical habitat) exist in only 5% of subwatersheds; wild stream populations of brook trout have vanished or are greatly reduced in nearly half of subwatersheds; the vast majority of historically occupied large rivers no longer support self-reproducing populations of brook trout; brook trout survive almost exclusively as fragmented populations relegated to the extreme headwaters of streams; even with no further habitat loss or increase in exotic fishes, existing habitat fragmentation could lead to continuing extirpations at the subwatershed scale (Hudy et al. 2005, Trout Unlimited 2006).

This species has been replaced by introduced non-native brown trout and rainbow trout in many part of the native range (Behnke 2002).

Sea-run populations apparently were common in coastal portions of their range prior to the 1700s (Ryther 1997). Sea-run populations that historically were found in one or two tributaries to Massachusetts Bay have been extirpated (Hartel et al. 2002). Reduced populations of anadromous brook trout still occur in a few tributaries to Nantucket Sound, Buzzards Bay, and Narragansett Bay (Hartel et al. 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species is native to most of eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, from Newfoundland to the southwestern side of Hudson Bay, and south in the Atlantic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins to Minnesota, northeastern Iowa, Wisconsin, Lake Michigan (but not Illinois streams), Chagrin River (Lake Erie drainage) in northeastern Ohio, northern New Jersey, New England, and southward in the Atlantic and Mississippi basins of the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia (Smith 1979, Trautman 1981, Becker 1983, Cooper 1983, Smith 1985, Etnier and Starnes 1993, Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, Menhinick 2001, Behnke 2002, Hartel et al. 2002, Moyle 2002, Bailey et al. 2004). Sea-run populations at least formerly extended from the Atlantic provinces of Canada to Long Island, New York (Scott and Crossman 1973), including Hudson Bay (Behnke 2002). Brook trout have been introduced in most of the lower peninsula of Michigan, western North America, and temperate regions in many other parts of the world.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AKexotic, ARexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CT, DEexotic, GA, IA, IDexotic, ILexotic, IN, KYexotic, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MTexotic, NC, NDexotic, NEexotic, NH, NJ, NMexotic, NNexotic, NVexotic, NY, OH, ORexotic, PA, RI, SC, SDexotic, TN, UTexotic, VA, VT, WAexotic, WI, WV, WYexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NTexotic, NU, ON, PE, QC, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
OH Geauga (39055)
TN Sevier (47155)
WV Greenbrier (54025), Nicholas (54067), Webster (54101)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001), Allagash (01010002), Fish (01010003), Aroostook (01010004), Meduxnekeag (01010005), West Branch Penobscot (01020001), East Branch Penobscot (01020002), Mattawamkeag (01020003), Piscataquis (01020004), Lower Penobscot (01020005), Upper Kennebec (01030001), Dead (01030002), Lower Kennebec (01030003), Upper Androscoggin (01040001), Lower Androscoggin (01040002), St. Croix (01050001), Maine Coastal (01050002), St. George-Sheepscot (01050003), Presumpscot (01060001), Saco (01060002), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003), Pemigewasset (01070001), Merrimack (01070002), Contoocook (01070003), Nashua (01070004), Concord (01070005), Upper Connecticut (01080101), Passumpsic (01080102), Waits (01080103), Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104), White (01080105), Black-Ottauquechee (01080106), West (01080107), Middle Connecticut (01080201), Miller (01080202), Deerfield (01080203), Chicopee (01080204), Lower Connecticut (01080205), Westfield (01080206), Farmington (01080207), Charles (01090001), Cape Cod (01090002), Blackstone (01090003), Narragansett (01090004), Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005), Quinebaug (01100001), Shetucket (01100002), Thames (01100003), Quinnipiac (01100004), Housatonic (01100005), Saugatuck (01100006), St. Francois (01110000)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Missisquoi (02010007), Upper Hudson (02020001), Sacandaga (02020002), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003), Mohawk (02020004), Schoharie (02020005), Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Bronx (02030102), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104), Raritan (02030105), Northern Long Island (02030201), Southern Long Island (02030202), Upper Delaware (02040101), East Branch Delaware (02040102), Lackawaxen (02040103), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Lehigh (02040106), Schuylkill (02040203), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chenango (02050102), Owego-Wappasening (02050103), Tioga (02050104), Chemung (02050105), Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201), Sinnemahoning (02050202), Middle West Branch Susquehanna (02050203), Bald Eagle (02050204), Pine (02050205), Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206), Lower Susquehanna-Penns (02050301), Upper Juniata (02050302), Raystown (02050303), Lower Juniata (02050304), Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), South Branch Potomac (02070001), North Branch Potomac (02070002), Cacapon-Town (02070003), Conococheague-Opequon (02070004), South Fork Shenandoah (02070005), North Fork Shenandoah (02070006), Shenandoah (02070007), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Monocacy (02070009), Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock (02080103), Upper James (02080201), Maury (02080202), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Rivanna (02080204)
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101), Upper Dan (03010103), Upper Yadkin (03040101), Upper Catawba (03050101), Upper Broad (03050105), Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102)
04 St. Louis (04010201), Cloquet (04010202), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102)*, Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Michigamme (04030107), Menominee (04030108), Escanaba (04030110), Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200), St. Marys (04070001), Carp-Pine (04070002), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Lake Huron (04080300), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)*, Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Oswego (04140203), Black (04150101), Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Lake Ontario (04150200), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Oswegatchie (04150302), Indian (04150303), Grass (04150304), Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306), English-Salmon (04150307)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Conemaugh (05010007), Tygart Valley (05020001), Cheat (05020004), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper New (05050001), Middle New (05050002), Greenbrier (05050003), Gauley (05050005)+, Elk (05050007)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101), South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107)+, Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003)
07 Twin Cities (07010206), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Kettle (07030003), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002)*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)*, Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006)*, Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Middle Cedar (07080205)*, Upper Rock (07090001), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Upper Fox (07120006)
09 Rainy Headwaters (09030001)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawning occurs in late summer (in north) or fall (October-November in many areas). Eggs hatch in 47 days at 10 C, in 165 days at 2.8 C. In Ontario, alevin emergence occurred over a 71-day period, coinciding with the spring thaw and an episodic pH depression (Snucins et al. 1992). Sexually mature in 2-3 years (also reported as first year for males, 2nd year for females). Only small percentages of returning migrants actually spawn; post-spawning mortality generally is low (Stearley 1992). In dense, small-stream populations, few live more than 3 years, whereas some live 9-10 years in large rivers and lakes in the northern part of the range (Behnke 2002).
Ecology Comments: Adults in streams may defend small feeding territories that extend several body lengths in diameter (Grant et al. 1989). In experimental stream communities, Resetarits 1991 found that brook trout negatively affected both growth and survival of the salamander GYRINOPHILUS PORPHYRITICUS; the presence of GYRINOPHILUS had no affect on relative condition or fecundity of SALVELINUS. SALVELINUS and GYRINOPHILUS affected the growth of the two-lined salamander EURYCEA and the crayfish CAMBARUS BARTONII. SALVELINUS caused CAMBARUS and EURYCEA to alter their activity levels and habitat; EURYCEA and CAMBARUS were able to avoid predation by SALVELINUS and GYRINOPHILUS but at a significant cost to growth.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Some populations spawn and undergo considerable development in fresh water but also feed and develop to some extent in salt water (Hartel et al. 2002). These "salters" or "sea trout" may coexist with nonmigratory brook trout. The timing of seaward migration is variable but generally occurs in spring in northern latitudes (Naiman et al. 1987). Migrants spend a few days to 4 months in coastal seawater not far (usually less than 45 kilometers) from their natal stream (Mullan 1958, Smith and Saunders 1958, Bergin 1984, Naiman et al. 1987, Montgomery et al. 1990, Ryther 1997). Although sea-run populations often are referred to as being "anadromous," they are most accurately classified as "amphidromous" because they make regular feeding migrations to the sea while still undergoing significant freshwater growth (Collette and Klein-McPhee 2002).

Adults in some populations migrate seasonally between lakes and tributary streams. In the Great Lakes, these brook trout are known as "coasters." Some coasters remain permanently in lakes.

Movement can be extensive even within streams. For example, in the Kennebecasis River, New Brunswick, brook trout moved upstream 65-100 kilometers in spring after ice loss; summer movements were minimal; movements to spawning areas in fall were less than 10 kilometers, then the fish moved back downstream to wintering areas in the lower to middle reaches of the river (Curry et al. 2002).

Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, High gradient, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Most populations occur in clear, cool, well-oxygenated creeks, small to medium rivers, and lakes. Individuals may move from streams into lakes or the sea to avoid high temperatures in summer. Some populations migrate between freshwater and saltwater habitats. Other populations (known as "coasters") live in lakes and migrate to streams to spawn, or they remain in the lake to spawn. Preferred water temperature is around 14-16 C; brook trout do poorly where water temperature exceeds 20 C for extended periods (see Sublette et al. 1990). Spawning occurs in cool water (usually less than 15 C) usually over gravel beds in shallow headwaters but also may occur in gravelly shallows of lakes if spring (groundwater) upwelling and moderate current or nearby surficial inflow (Quinn 1995) are present. Eggs are buried in nests in gravel. In Ontario, eggs were buried at 7-20 cm in bottom substrate (Snucins et al. 1992).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Feeds opportunistically on various invertebrate and vertebrate animals, including primarily terrestrial and aquatic insects and planktonic crustaceans. In estuarine and marine habitats, the diet includes various fishes and crustaceans (see Collette and Klein-McPhee 2002).
Phenology Comments: Most feeding in early morning and evening (Sublette et al. 1990).
Length: 40 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Has been used in carcinogen testing (Metcalfe 1989).
Management Summary
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Species Impacts: Introduced populations of brook trout have contributed to the decline of native fishes (e.g., rare forms of cutthroat trout in the Rocky Mountains, bull trout in Columbia River basin), amphibians, and invertebrates in cold streams and lakes in western North America (see Adams et al. 2002). Prevention of further invasion has become a major concern (Adams et al. 2002).
Management Requirements: See Thompson and Rahel (1996) for information on a depletion-removal electrofishing protocol that significantly reduced populations and recruitment but did not totally eradicate brook trout in streams managed for Colorado River cutthroat trout.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Nonanadromous Salmonids

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Spawning Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Conceptually, the occurrence includes the entire area used by the population, including spawning, rearing, migration, and wintering areas. Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat (see separation justification) to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Separation distance is 10 stream-km for both suitable and unsuitable habitat. However, if it is known that the same population occupies sites separated by more than 10 km (e.g., this may be common for migratory populations), those sites should be included within the same occurrence. In lakes, occurrences include all suitable habitat that is presumed to be occupied (based on expert judgment), even if documented collection/observation points are more than 10 km apart. Separate sub-occurrences or source features may usefully document locations of critical spawning areas within a lake.

Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary; little is known about juvenile dispersal (e.g., how far fishes may move between between their embryonic developmental habitat and eventual spawning site). "Restricted movement is the norm in populations of stream salmonids during nonmigratory periods," but there is considerable variation in movements within and among species (Rodriguez 2002).

Migrations can be extensive. For example, in the Kennebecasis River, New Brunswick, brook trout moved upstream 65-100 km in spring after ice loss; summer movements were minimal; movements to spawning areas in fall were less than 10 km, then the fish moved back downstream to wintering areas in the lower to middle reaches of the river (Curry et al. 2002).

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 11Mar2003
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Feb2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Feb2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Adams, S. B., C. A. Frissell, and B. E. Rieman. 2002. Changes in distribution of nonnative brook trout in an Idaho drainage over two decades. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131:561-568.

  • Anonymous. 1967. Development Plan for Proposed Proulx Lake Wildlife Management Area. Manitoba Department of Mines and Natural Resources. MS Rep.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Bailey, R. M., W. C. Latta, and G. R. Smith. 2004. An atlas of Michigan fishes with keys and illustrations for their identification. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications No. 192. iv + 215 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Behnke, R. J. 2002. Trout and salmon of North America. The Free Press, New York, New York. 359 pp.

  • Bergin, J.D. 1984. Massachusetts coastal trout management. Pages 137-142 in F. Richardson and R.H. Hamre, editors. Wild trout III: Proceedings of the Symposium. Yellowstone National Park, September 25-26, 1984.

  • Brasch, J., J. McFaden, and S. Kmiotek. 1973. Brook trout, life history, ecology, and management. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Publication 226-73.15 pp.

  • Brasch, J.G., J.M. McFadden, and S. Kmiotek. 1958. The eastern brook trout: its life history, ecology, and management. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Publication 226:1-11.

  • Bridges, C.H. and J.W. Mullan (eds.). 1958. A compendium of the life history and ecology of the eastern brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill). Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Game, Fisheries Bulletin 23:1-37.

  • Castonguay, M., G. J. FitzGerald, and Y. Cote. 1982. Life history and movements of anadromous brook char, Salvelinus fontinalis, in the St-Jean River, Gaspe, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:3084-3091.

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