Ardenna grisea - (Gmelin, 1789)
Sooty Shearwater
Other Common Names: Pardela-Preta, Bobo
Synonym(s): Puffinus griseus (Gmelin, 1789)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Puffinus griseus (Gmelin, 1789) (TSN 174553)
French Common Names: Puffin fuligineux
Spanish Common Names: Pardela Oscuro, Fardela Negra
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103124
Element Code: ABNDB07060
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Procellariiformes Procellariidae Ardenna
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Puffinus griseus
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) Ardenna was considered part of Puffinus, but now treated as separate on the basis of genetic data (Penhallurick and Wink 2004, Austin et al. 2004, Pyle et al. 2011), which indicate that species in Ardenna and Puffinus form two deeply divergent clades that may not be sister groups. Analyses of morphology and biogeography (Oberholser 1917, Kuroda 1954) had previously recognized species of Puffinus, Ardenna, and the extralimital Calonectris as distinctive groups. Linear sequence of species follows Pyle et al. (2011) (AOU 2016).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 20Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Still common but a species to re-evaluate after additional research and inventory is conducted on the populations of this bird.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5N (03Oct2003)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5N,N5M (05Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S5N), California (SNRN), Delaware (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNRN), Maine (S3S4N), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S5N), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S4N)
Canada British Columbia (SNRM), New Brunswick (S4N,S4M), Nova Scotia (S5N), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (S4M)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: NT - Near threatened

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: on islands off southeastern Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America (Wollaston and Deceit, probably also Huafo and Mocha, off Chile; off Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands). RANGES: at sea widely in Pacific and Atlantic Oceans; north to southern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands in Pacific and to Labrador and Greenland in Atlantic; fairly common off east coast of North America, abundant off west coast (National Geographic Society 1983).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Occupancy estimate provided by Birdlife International is over 204,000,000 square kilometers (Birdlife International, 2014).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are more than 80 colonies listed for this species on the Birdlife International (2014) website and the world population of this bird is said to be over 20 million birds. However, there are persistent signs of a decline (Birdlife International, 2014).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Population estimate for this species from NatureServe is more than one million individuals (NatureServe, 2014). National Audubon's is for more than 20,000,000 globally and almost 3 million within the North American continent (National Audubon Society, 2014).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Given the estimated number of individuals for this species, which is around 20,000,000, at least a least to very many of the existing locations must represent good EO sites despite any problem those sites may have.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Many are killed in the Japanese gill-net fishery in the North Pacific (Lensink 1984, King 1984, DeGange and Day 1991) and in the halibut fishery off central California (protective legislation enacted, King 1984). Some have speculated the decline may be climate related (Birdlife International, 2014). Research is needed on the exact cause of the population decline.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-70%
Short-term Trend Comments: There are persistent signs of current decline in the global population and the trend is decreasing in North America as well based on Breeding Bird Survey data (Birdlife International, 2014).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: The decline has been termed "moderately rapid" by Birdlife International (2014).

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Unknown
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Vulnerability is difficult to assess since the exact cause of population declines is still uncertain

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: General specificity but freedom from human interactions may be a key requirement for long-term successful breeding due to taking of young.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: An accurate population estimate at the global scale is needed in order to assess the seriousness of the perceived decline in population of this species.

Protection Needs: Do not allow any additional pressures on this species population through increased harvesting of young or new human colonizations on islands where this bird may currently nest.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: on islands off southeastern Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America (Wollaston and Deceit, probably also Huafo and Mocha, off Chile; off Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands). RANGES: at sea widely in Pacific and Atlantic Oceans; north to southern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands in Pacific and to Labrador and Greenland in Atlantic; fairly common off east coast of North America, abundant off west coast (National Geographic Society 1983).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CA, DE, FL, GA, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OR, RI, VA, WA
Canada BC, NB, NS, PE, QC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeds mostly during October-May in southern South America (Hilty and Brown 1986). Eggs are laid usually in late November. Clutch size is 1. Incubation lasts about 56 days. Chick remains in burrow for about 3 months; begins to fly at 100+ days after hatching (Terres 1980). Nests in colonies.
Ecology Comments: May form huge flocks in nonbreeding season. Often in loose flocks of a few to 50 or more birds (Costa Rica, Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Makes long transequatorial migrations between breeding and nonbreeding ranges, though some birds may spend the nonbreeding period south of the equator. Migrates along Atlantic coast of U.S. May-June; to Canada Labrador, and southern Greenland July-late September. Moves eastward out to sea in late northern summer. Millions of migrants occur off U.S. Pacific coast in northern spring and summer (Briggs and Chu 1986). Sporatically common to abundant off Pacific coast of Costa Rica mainly May-October (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Marine Habitat(s): Pelagic
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Pelagic. In spring and summer off California, concentrates in relatively shallow, cool waters, especially where strong thermal gradients mark the edge of upwellings (Briggs and Chu 1986). Nests in burrows on islands.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Feeds on small fishes, squids, and crustaceans. Also eats offal thrown overboard from ships. Feeds on food items made available by feeding of small tuna in eastern Tropical Pacific (Au and Pitman 1986).
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 4 centimeters
Weight: 787 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: The exact cause of the suspected decline in population numbers of this abundant species is necessary in order to stop this decline and have the population become stable or recover to former numbers.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Colonial Seabirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Breeding Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Map foraging areas as separate polygons if they are separated from the breeding colony by areas simply flown over on commuting routes.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Where colonies are closer than 5 kilometers, separate occurrences may be created if research shows little genetic mixing between colonies.
Separation Justification: Occurrences include nesting and foraging areas, but occurrence separations are based on nesting areas (i.e., distance between nesting areas, regardless of foraging locations). Hence, different occurrences may overlap.

Occurrences are not based on discrete populations or metapopulations. Instead, the separation distance is arbitrarily small such that occurrences are of of practical size for data management purposes.

Evidence from a number of species of seabirds indicates that even though the 'home ranges' of individual nesting seabirds may be immense when foraging trips are taken into account, little movement or feeding overlap may occur between nearby colonies. For example, Thick-billed Murres may commute up to 170 kilometers one way on a feeding trip from the colony, but birds from a colony only 8 kilometers away may forage in a completely different direction; even birds from different sub-colonies only 1.5 kilometers apart mostly fed in completely separate areas (Gaston and Hipfner 2000).

Most seabirds have strong breeding site fidelity; e.g., Thick-billed Murres (Gaston and Hipfner 2000, Gaston et al. 1994), Gray-backed Tern (Mostello et al. 2000), Red-footed Booby (Schreiber et al. 1996).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Somewhat arbitrary, but generally very conservative for this group, many members of which travel long distances to foraging grounds.
Date: 20Oct2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Feeding area, Loafing site, Roosting site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds (including historical), including nonbreeding birds within the breeding season and breeding individuals outside the breeding season; and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 25 birds regularly occur for more than 20 days per year would be deemed EOs; the number of individuals may be reduced for very rare species. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary; defined this small to aid in conservation planning. Sites more than 10 kilometers apart may be joined as one occurrence if research shows that predominantly the same individuals are using both sites.
Date: 07Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Feb2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jue, Dean K.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 05Sep1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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